Naming in the United States

The United States has very few laws governing given names. This freedom has given rise to a wide variety of names and naming trends. Naming traditions play a role in the cohesion and communication within American cultures. Cultural diversity in the U.S. has led to great variations in names and naming traditions and names have been used to express creativity, personality, cultural identity, and values.[1][2]

Naming laws

Traditionally, the right to name one's child or oneself as one chooses has been upheld by court rulings and is rooted in the Due Process Clause of the fourteenth Amendment and the Free Speech Clause of the First Amendment, but a few restrictions do exist. Restrictions vary by state, but most are for the sake of practicality. For example, several states limit the number of characters that can be used due to the limitations of the software used for official record keeping. For similar reasons, some states ban the use of numerical digits or pictograms. A few states ban the use of obscenity. There are also a few states, Kentucky for instance, that have no naming laws whatsoever.[1][3]

Despite the freedom that Americans have regarding names, controversies do exist. In 2013, Tennessee judge Lu Ann Ballew ruled that a baby boy named Messiah must change his name to Martin stating "it's a title that has only been earned by one person … Jesus Christ." The decision was overturned in chancery court a month later and the child retained his birth name. Ballew was fired and a disciplinary hearing was scheduled on the basis that the name change order violated Tennessee's code of Judicial Conduct. No laws exist banning the use of religious names and judges are required to perform their duties without regard to religious bias.[4][5]

Names with accents and/or non-English letters

One naming law that some[6] find restrictive is California's ban on diacritical marks, such as in José, a common Spanish name. The Office of Vital Records in California requires that names contain only the 26 alphabetical characters of the English language.

Some states (for example, Alaska, Hawaii, Kansas, North Carolina, Oregon) allow accents and some (not always all) non-English letters in birth certificates and other documents. There can be problems for persons with such names when moving to a state where such characters are banned and they have to renew their documents.

There is no law restricting the use of diacritical marks informally and many parents get around the restrictions by doing so.[1]

Some Americans use names with accents, e.g. Mädchen Amick, Beyoncé Knowles and Renée Zellweger.
Some city names contain diacritics, even in US states that forbid diacritics in person names (see List of U.S. cities with diacritics.)


Foreigners whose last name (which must always be spelled out and cannot be abbreviated like a given name, e.g. Jürgen → J., Ramón → R.) contains accents and/or non-English letters (e.g. Muñoz, Gößmann) may experience problems, since their names in their passports and in other documents are spelled differently (e.g., Gößmann → Goessmann or Gossmann; the letter ö becomes oe or o, the letter ß becomes ss), so people not familiar with the foreign orthography may get the impression the ID is fake. (In the passport, the name is already spelled in two different ways: in the non-machine-readable zone the correct way [Gößmann], but in the machine-readable zone, the non-English letters are mapped [GOESSMANN].)

Names with symbols and capital letters in the middle

In many U.S. states, hyphens and apostrophe are the only two symbols personal names can officially contain. In some computer systems and in the machine-readable zone of a passport, they are omitted (Mary-Kate O'Neill → Mary Kate ONeill)

Some artists also use other symbols in their stage names, e.g. P!nk, Curren$y, and 21 Savage.

Some names are spelled with a capital letter in the middle (LeVar Burton, LaToya Jackson, Richard McMillan). In the machine-readable zone of a passport, the name is spelled only in capitals (LEVAR, LATOYA, MCMILLAN). In some computer systems, the users are asked to enter the name with the middle capital replaced by a minuscule (LeVar → Levar) or as two words (LaToya → La Toya).

African-American names

Jackson 5 tv special 1972
The names in the Jackson family show the variety within African-American culture. La Toya is of Spanish origin, Jermaine is French, and both Michael and Janet derive from Hebrew.

Many African Americans use their own or their children's names as a symbol of solidarity within their culture. Prior to the 1950s and 1960s, most African-American names closely resembled those used within European American culture. With the rise of the mid-century civil rights movement, there was a dramatic rise in names of various origins. One very notable influence on African-American names is the Muslim religion. Islamic names entered the popular culture with the rise of The Nation of Islam among Black Americans with its focus on civil rights. The popular name "Aisha" has origins in the Koran. Other Arabic names such as Jamal and Malik are now commonly used by African Americans regardless of religion.[2]

Many names of French origin entered the picture at this time as well. Historically French names such as Monique, Chantal, André, and Antoine became common within African American culture. Names of African origin began to crop up as well. Names like Ashanti, Tanisha, Aaliyah, and Malaika have origins in the continent of Africa.[2]

By the 1970s and 1980s, it had become common within the culture to invent new names, although many of the invented names took elements from popular existing names. Prefixes such as La/Le, Da/De, Ra/Re, or Ja/Je and suffixes such as -ique/iqua, -isha, and -aun/-awn are common, as well as inventive spellings for common names. The name LaKeisha is typically considered American in origin, but has elements pulled from both French and African roots. Other names like LaTanisha, JaMarcus, DeAndre, and Shaniqua were created in the same way. Punctuation marks are seen more often within African-American names than other American names, such as the names Mo'nique and D'Andre.[2][7]

Even with the rise of creative names, it is also still common for African Americans to use biblical, historic, or European names. Daniel, Christopher, Michael, David, James, Joseph, and Matthew were among the most common names for African-American boys in 2013.[2][8][9]

Surname names

Using surnames as a first name is increasingly popular in the United States, although the origin of this practice is unclear. In one of her books about Southern culture, Marlyn Schwartz reports that it has long been common for southern families to use family surnames as first names.[10] The Baby Name Wizard author Laura Wattenberg explains that the practice became popular in the early 20th century as poor immigrants chose names they associated with the sophistication of English aristocracy and literature, many of them surnames. Example: Landis Kulp is also a combination of two surnames.

Regardless of origins, many names that are now considered first names in the U.S. have origins as surnames. Names like Riley, Parker, Cooper, Madison, Morgan, Cameron, and Harper originated as surnames. Names that originate as surnames typically start out their lifespan as androgynous names before developing a common usage as either a masculine name or a feminine name. Tyler and Taylor had approximately the same usage for both boys and girls when they came onto the charts before diverging. Tyler is now typically given to boys while Taylor is more often given to girls.[2]

Names inspired by popular culture

Without laws governing name usage, many American names pop up following the name's usage in movies, television, or in the media. Children may be named after their parents' favorite fictional characters.[11][12][13]

Samantha was a rare name in the United States until the 1870s, after the publication of a novel series by Marietta Holley with Samantha as main character. The name became popular again in the 1960s, as the comedy television show Bewitched had a lead character named Samantha.

Prior to the 1984 movie Splash, Madison was almost solely heard as a surname, with occasional usage as a masculine name. The name entered the top 1000 list for girls in 1985 and has been a top 10 name since 1997.[2]

In 2014, the name Arya, the name of a character on the popular series Game of Thrones, saw a dramatic rise to the 216th most popular girls name.[14][15]

Names in popular culture fare better as inspiration if they fit in with current naming trends. When Barack Obama was inaugurated as president in 2009, his name had a surge in popularity, but still has not made it into the top 1000 names in the United States. His daughter Malia, on the other hand, jumped over 200 spots to the 191st spot that year. While Barack is much more influential than his daughter, Barack is a name with a sound unlike other top American names. Malia is Hawaiian, but sounds similar to top names like Amelia and Sophia. Names that fit current naming trends and have prestige attached to them fare especially well. The name Blair surfaced as a girl's name in the mid-1980s after being featured on The Facts of Life as the name of the wealthy character Blair Warner. Blair had previously been used infrequently and mostly as a masculine name. When the series aired, the perceived prestige of the name escalated and fit into the surname name trend.[2][14][16]

A number of names have entered common American usage following the popularity of a luxury brand. The name Tiffany began its lifespan solely as a surname. It was popularized as a given name in the late 1960s and 70s because of the success of the luxury jewelry store Tiffany & co. A few examples of luxury brand inspired names have had usage throughout the socioeconomic spectrum. Lauren was relatively uncommon until Ralph Lauren became a popular clothier. At the height of its popularity, it was used widely. Tiffany also had widespread usage.[2][16]

Some names have a variety of factors that inspire their popularity. The name Bentley was inspired by the luxury car brand, but got a further boost by the show Teen Mom when reality star Maci Bookout used the name for her son. The already popular name Tiffany had a rise in usage following the popularity of the singer Tiffany in the mid-1980s.[2][16]

Religion

Religious names are extremely popular in the United States. Most of the popular names are rooted in the Christian Bible, but other religions are represented, such as in the popular name Mohammed. Names like Jacob, Noah, Elijah, John, Elizabeth, Leah, and Jesus consistently rank very high. Some parents choose names for their religious significance, but there are also many parents who choose names based in religion because they are family names or simply because they are culturally popular. Other popular names are inspired by religion in other ways such as Nevaeh, which is Heaven spelled backwards. Christian, Faith, Angel, Trinity, Genesis, Jordan, Zion, and Eden are names which reference religion.[2][14][16]

Gender

Research suggests that American parents are more likely to use established, historical names for boys and are much more likely to name boys after relatives and ancestors. Boys' names, on average, are more traditional than girls' names, and are less likely to be currently fashionable. This trend holds true across racial lines. There is a much quicker turnover within girls' names than boys'. Parents of girls are much more likely to demonstrate their creativity in the naming of their daughters than their sons. In Alice Rossi's 1965 study of naming conventions, she theorizes that the gender differences in naming strategies exist because of the perceived roles of men and women in society. "Women play the more crucial role in family and kin activities, while men are the symbolic carriers of temporal continuity of the family."[17]

Gender name usage also plays a role in the way parents view names. It is not uncommon for American parents to give girls names that have traditionally been used for boys. Boys, on the other hand, are almost never given feminine names. Names like Ashley, Sidney, Aubrey, and Avery originated as boys' names. Traditionally masculine or androgynous names that are used widely for girls have a tendency to be abandoned by the parents of boys and develop an almost entirely female usage.[2]

Other factors

Research has demonstrated that a number of factors come into play when it comes to naming strategies. Families with the most education are more likely to use traditional names or family names than families with less education. This seems to be true across racial lines. Also, higher socioeconomic status (SES) families tend to choose different names than lower SES families. Over time, the lower SES families gravitate toward those names. As those names catch on with the lower SES families, higher SES families abandon them. The name Ashley was popular among higher SES families in the early 1980s, but by the late 1980s was most popular with lower SES families. The name Madison, which was in top 10 from 1996-2014,[18] is used largely by lower socioeconomic status families.[16]

Political status also seems to impact naming strategies. A study on babies born in 2004 in California found that conservatives were less likely to give their children unusual names than liberals. This holds true even across racial and socioeconomic lines. Among families who had less than a college education, political leanings made no major difference in naming trends, however, the study found that the less education the parents had, the more likely they were to use an uncommon name or spelling. But among caucasian families with a college education, conservative families chose different names than liberal families. College educated liberals were more likely to choose unusual names than college educated conservatives.[19]

While they both were more likely to choose unusual names, high SES college-educated liberals had different naming strategies than low SES families. Low SES families tended to choose invented names or invented spellings, while high SES liberals chose established names that are simply culturally obscure like "Finnegan" or "Archimedes." In contrast, high SES conservatives tended to choose common historical names.[20]

The research found that the sounds chosen by liberals and conservatives varied as well. Liberals "favor birth names with 'softer, feminine' sounds while conservatives favor names with 'harder, masculine' phonemes."[21]

Trends

Baby name trends change frequently for girls and somewhat less frequently for boys. Boys' names tend to be more traditional, but Liam, Aiden, Logan, Mason and Jayden, are currently seeing a spike in popularity. One recent trend is place names. Names like London, Brooklyn, Sydney, Alexandria, Paris, and Phoenix are all seeing a spike in popularity as of the 2012 report by the Social Security Administration. Most place names are used for girls, but some are used for boys as well, such as Dallas. Other place names like Kenya, China, and Asia have been used by African Americans for years.[2][14][16][22]

Names containing "belle" or "bella" are very common, such as Isabella or Annabelle. Names that end in an "a" like Sophia, Mia, Olivia, and Ava are also very common for baby girls.[23] Popular names inspired by nature include Luna (moon in some Romance languages), Autumn, Willow.[24] Parents who desire more traditional names for girls choose names such as Elizabeth and Eleanor, both in top 50 (as of 2017).[24] With regard to boys names, traditional names such as William, James, Benjamin, Jacob, Michael, Daniel, Matthew, Henry, Joseph are very popular, and so are names strongly associated with religion, such as Noah.[24]

Diversity among American names also seems to be increasing. In the 1950s, most babies were given a few very common names with children using nicknames to distinguish the various people with the same name. In the decades since, the number of names being used has increased dramatically.[25] It is also more common for minorities to use traditional cultural names for their children and for themselves that are obscure in the United States. It used to be common to choose names that were likely to fit in with the larger American culture. This applied to both given names and surnames. Research suggests that fewer immigrants change their names today upon moving to America than they once did. Princeton University sociologist Douglas Massey believes that immigrants felt less pressure to change their names "during the 1970s and 1980s, as immigration became more a part of American life and the civil rights movement legitimated in-group pride as something to be cultivated".[25][26]

San Diego State University professor Jean Twenge believes that the shift toward unique baby names is one facet of the cultural shift in America that values individuality over conformity.[25]

See also

References

  1. ^ a b c Larson, Carlton F.W. (November 2011). "Naming Baby: The Constitutional Dimensions of Naming Rights" (PDF). George Washington Law Review. 80 (1).
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m Wattenberg, Laura (May 7, 2013). The Baby Name Wizard, Revised 3rd Edition: A Magical Method for Finding the Perfect Name for Your Baby. Harmony. ISBN 0770436471.
  3. ^ "The Crazy Rules For Naming Your Baby". Thebump.com. The Knot. Retrieved 22 July 2015.
  4. ^ Crimesider Staff (February 7, 2014). "Judge who ordered baby's name changed from Messiah is fired". CBS News.
  5. ^ Steinmetz, Katy (August 12, 2013). "From Messiah to Hitler, what you can and cannot name your child". Time Magazine.
  6. ^ Freedberg, Louis. "PERSONAL PERSPECTIVE / Claim your name". SF Gate. San Francisco Chronicle. Retrieved 2 April 2019.
  7. ^ "Black Names". Behind the Names. Retrieved 12 February 2014.
  8. ^ Lack, Evonne. "Popular African American Names". Retrieved 12 February 2014.
  9. ^ Conley, Dalton (March 10, 2010). "Raising E and Yo..." Psychology Today.
  10. ^ Schwartz, Marlyn (August 1, 1991). A Southern Belle Primer: Why Princess Margaret Will Never Be a Kappa Kappa Gamma. Main Street Books. ISBN 0385416679.
  11. ^ "People Sure Like Naming Their Kids After Disney Characters". Complex.
  12. ^ Sung, Morgan. "A lot of people are actually naming their kids after Marvel characters". mashable.com.
  13. ^ "45 Most Popular Video Game Baby Names For Boys And Girls". momjunction.com. 24 April 2016.
  14. ^ a b c d "Social Security Administration Baby Names". Social Security Administration. Retrieved 10 February 2014.
  15. ^ Kindelan, Katie (May 10, 2013). "Major, Arya Show Biggest Jump in Popular Baby Names". ABC News. Good Morning America.
  16. ^ a b c d e f Rosenkrantz, Linda (August 29, 2006). Beyond Jennifer & Jason, Madison & Montana: What to Name Your Baby Now. Mass Market Paperback. ISBN 0312940955.
  17. ^ Lieberson, Stanley; Bell, Eleanor O. (November 1992). "Children's first names: an empirical study of social taste". American Journal of Sociology. 98 (3): 511–554. doi:10.1086/230048.
  18. ^ OACT. "Popular Baby Names". www.ssa.gov.
  19. ^ Sides, John (June 4, 2013). "Republicans and Democrats can't even agree on baby names". Washington Post.
  20. ^ Pappas, Stephanie (June 5, 2013). "Baby Names Reveal Parents' Political Ideology". Live Science. Retrieved January 13, 2019.
  21. ^ Pappas, Stephanie (June 7, 2013). "Baby names reveal parents political ideology". Fox News.
  22. ^ "name:Chyna". Baby names world. Retrieved 16 February 2014.
  23. ^ Wattenberg, Laura (2014-01-18). "Bell-y Babies: A Choir of Baby Names". Huffington Post.
  24. ^ a b c OACT. "Popular Baby Names". www.ssa.gov.
  25. ^ a b c Moskowitz, Clara (November 30, 2010). "Baby Names Reveal More About Parents Than Ever Before". Live Science.
  26. ^ Roberts, Sam (August 25, 2010). "New Life in U.S. No Longer Means New Name". New York Times.

External links

April 2019 North American blizzard

The April 2019 North American blizzard, also known as Winter Storm Wesley, was a historic blizzard that occurred in the month of April in the Great Plains and the Midwest. As strong winds and heavy snowfall were anticipated to produce widespread reductions in visibility, a blizzard warning was issued from northeastern Colorado to southwestern Minnesota, including several large cities. Denver, Cheyenne, Mitchell and Kearney are all included. Winds gusted as high as 107 mph (172 km/h) at Pueblo West and more than 30 inches (76 centimetres) of snow fell in Wallace, South Dakota.

Cape Ann

Cape Ann is a rocky cape in northeastern Massachusetts, United States on the Atlantic Ocean. It is about 30 miles northeast of Boston and marks the northern limit of Massachusetts Bay. Cape Ann includes the city of Gloucester and the towns of Essex, Manchester-by-the-Sea and Rockport.

Cape Canaveral

Cape Canaveral, from the Spanish Cabo Cañaveral, is a cape in Brevard County, Florida, United States, near the center of the state's Atlantic coast. Known as Cape Kennedy from 1963 to 1973, it lies east of Merritt Island, separated from it by the Banana River. It was discovered by the Spanish conquistador Juan Ponce de León in 1513.

It is part of a region known as the Space Coast, and is the site of the Cape Canaveral Air Force Station. Since many U.S. spacecraft have been launched from both the station and the Kennedy Space Center on adjacent Merritt Island, the two are sometimes conflated with each other. In homage to its spacefaring heritage, the Florida Public Service Commission allocated area code 321 (as in a launch countdown) to the Cape Canaveral area.Other features of the cape include the Cape Canaveral Lighthouse and Port Canaveral, one of the busiest cruise ports in the world. The city of Cape Canaveral lies just south of the Port Canaveral District. Mosquito Lagoon, the Indian River, Merritt Island National Wildlife Refuge and Canaveral National Seashore are also features of this area.

Cape Fear (headland)

Cape Fear is a prominent headland jutting into the Atlantic Ocean from Bald Head Island on the coast of North Carolina in the southeastern United States. It is largely formed of barrier beaches and the silty outwash of the Cape Fear River as it drains the southeast coast of North Carolina through an estuary south of Wilmington. Cape Fear is formed by the intersection of two sweeping arcs of shifting, low-lying beach, the result of longshore currents which also form the treacherous, shifting Frying Pan Shoals, part of the Graveyard of the Atlantic.

Dunes dominated by sea oats occur from the upper beach driftline back to the stable secondary dunes, where they mix with other grasses such as saltmeadow cordgrass and panic grass, as well as seaside goldenrod, spurge and other herbs to form a stable salt-tolerant grassland.

The Cape Fear estuary drains the largest watershed in North Carolina, containing 27% of the state's population.

Giovanni da Verrazzano, the Italian explorer sailing for France, made landfall after crossing the Atlantic at or near Cape Fear on March 1, 1524.

The name comes from the 1585 expedition of Sir Richard Grenville. Sailing to Roanoke Island, his ship became embayed behind the cape. Some of the crew were afraid they would wreck, giving rise to the name Cape Fear. It is the fifth-oldest surviving English place name in the U.S.Cape Fear was the landing place of British General Sir Henry Clinton during the American Revolutionary War on May 3, 1775. The 1962 film Cape Fear and its 1991 remake were set at Cape Fear.

Cape Hatteras

Cape Hatteras is a thin, broken strand of islands in North Carolina that arch out into the Atlantic Ocean away from the US mainland, then back toward the mainland, creating a series of sheltered islands between the Outer Banks and the mainland. For thousands of years these barrier islands have survived onslaughts of wind and sea. Long stretches of beach, sand dunes, marshes, and maritime forests create a unique environment where wind and waves shape the topography. A large area of the Outer Banks is part of a National Park, called the Cape Hatteras National Seashore. It is also the nearest landmass on the US mainland to Bermuda, which is about 563 nautical miles (648 mi; 1,043 km) to the east-southeast.

The treacherous waters off the coast of the Outer Banks is known as the Graveyard of the Atlantic, Over 600 ships wrecked here as victims of shallow shoals, storms, and war. Diamond Shoals, a bank of shifting sand ridges hidden beneath the turbulent sea off Cape Hatteras, has never promised safe passage for ships. In the past 400 years the graveyard has claimed many lives, but island villagers saved many. As early as the 1870s, villagers served in the US Life-Saving Service. Others staffed lighthouses built to guide mariners. Few ships wreck today, but storms still uncover the ruins of the old wrecks that lie along the beaches of the Outer Banks.

Cape Hatteras National Seashore protects parts of three barrier islands: Bodie Island, Hatteras Island, and Ocracoke Island. Beach and sound access ramps, campgrounds, nature trails, and lighthouses can be found and explored on all three islands.The community of Buxton lies on the inland side of the Cape itself, at the widest part of Hatteras Island. It is the largest community on the island, and is home to the governmental offices and schools for the Island.

Dry Tortugas

The Dry Tortugas are a small group of islands, located in the Gulf of Mexico at the end of the Florida Keys, United States, about 67 miles (108 km) west of Key West, and 37 miles (60 km) west of the Marquesas Keys, the closest islands. Still farther west is the Tortugas Bank, which is submerged. The first Europeans to discover the islands were the Spanish in 1513, led by explorer Juan Ponce de León. The archipelago's name derives from the lack of fresh water springs, and the presence of turtles. They are an unincorporated area of Monroe County, Florida, and belong to the Lower Keys Census County Division. With their surrounding waters, they constitute the Dry Tortugas National Park.

Elizabeth Stuart, Queen of Bohemia

Elizabeth Stuart (19 August 1596 – 13 February 1662) was Electress of the Palatinate and briefly Queen of Bohemia as the wife of Frederick V of the Palatinate. Due to her husband’s reign in Bohemia lasting for just one winter, Elizabeth is often referred to as the "Winter Queen".

Elizabeth was the second child and eldest daughter of James VI and I, King of Scotland, England, and Ireland, and his wife, Anne of Denmark.

With the demise of the last Stuart monarch in 1714, Elizabeth's grandson succeeded to the British throne as George I, initiating the Hanoverian dynasty.

Etymology of California

California is a North American place name used by the U.S. state of California and the Mexican states of Baja California and Baja California Sur. Collectively, these three areas constitute the region formerly referred to as The Californias. The name California is shared by many other places in other parts of the world, whose names derive from the same original.

When Spanish explorers in the 16th century first discovered the Baja California peninsula west of the Sea of Cortez, they believed the peninsula to be a large island. The name "California" was applied to the supposed island, and was probably a reference to a mythical island described in a popular novel of the time: Las Sergas de Esplandián. Several other origins have been suggested for the word "California", including Spanish, Portuguese, Latin, South Asian, and American Indian origins. All of these are disputed.California originally referred to the entire region composed of the Baja California peninsula now known as Mexican Baja California and Baja California Sur, and the upper mainland now known as the U.S. states of California and parts of Nevada, Utah, Arizona, and Wyoming. After Mexico's independence from Spain, the upper territory became the Alta California province. In even earlier times, the boundaries of the Sea of Cortez and the Pacific Ocean coastlines were only partially explored and California was shown on early maps as an island. The Sea of Cortez is also known as the Gulf of California.

George R. Stewart

George Rippey Stewart (May 31, 1895 – August 22, 1980) was an American historian, toponymist, novelist, and a professor of English at the University of California, Berkeley. His 1959 book, Pickett's Charge, a detailed history of the final attack at Gettysburg, was called "essential for an understanding of the Battle of Gettysburg". His 1949 post-apocalyptic novel Earth Abides won the first International Fantasy Award in 1951.

Lake Superior

Lake Superior (French: lac Supérieur; Ojibwe: ᑭᑦᒉᐁ-ᑲᒣᐁ, romanized: Gitchi-Gami), the largest of the Great Lakes of North America, is also the world's largest freshwater lake by surface area, and the third largest freshwater lake by volume. The lake is shared by the Canadian province of Ontario to the north, the U.S. state of Minnesota to the west, and Wisconsin and the Upper Peninsula of Michigan to the south. The farthest north and west of the Great Lakes chain, Superior has the highest elevation of all five great lakes and drains into the St. Mary's River.

Matanzas River

The Matanzas River is a body of water in St. Johns and Flagler counties in the U.S. state of Florida. It is a narrow saltwater bar-bounded estuary sheltered from the Atlantic Ocean by Anastasia Island.

The Matanzas River is 23 miles (37 km) in length and extends from St. Augustine Inlet southward to approximately 6.5 miles (10.5 km) south of the Matanzas Inlet on the southern tip of Anastasia Island. The river is part of the Intracoastal Waterway.

The Matanzas River at St. Augustine was the main entrance to the historic city, America's oldest port. The body of water is often referred to as the Matanzas Harbor in the immediate vicinity of the city's waterfront. The southern portion of the Matanzas River was traditionally considered the "backdoor" to the city of St. Augustine, and control of the river was considered a strategic necessity for early Spanish colony at St. Augustine. Spanish engineers and laborers built Fort Matanzas in the 18th century to control access to the river from Matanzas Inlet, about 14 miles (23 km) south of St. Augustine.

The Matanzas River supports an extensive tidal marsh habitat. Extensive conservation efforts including the Matanzas marsh, Faver-Dykes State Park, Princess Place preservation area, Pellicer Place preservation area, Pellicer Creek Aquatic Preserve, the Guana Tolomato Matanzas National Estuarine Research Reserve, and the Moses Creek conservation area have been established to preserve the ecosystem. The preserved areas include salt marshes, mangrove tidal wetlands, oyster bars, estuarine lagoons, upland habitat, and marine environments. The Matanzas River faces several pollution issues, mostly related to urbanization in St. Augustine and the northern portion of Anastasia Island.

Two major bridges cross the Matanzas River, the Bridge of Lions and the Mickler-O'Connell Bridge, both between St. Augustine and Anastasia Island.

The Matanzas River was named by Spanish forces for a massacre, led by Pedro Menéndez de Avilés of Spain, of a group of several hundred shipwrecked French Huguenots from Fort Caroline, led by Jean Ribault. The Huguenots were executed somewhere near the present site of Matanzas Inlet in 1565. Menéndez had been ordered to kill all Protestants he found in the New World. "Matanzas" means "killings" or "slaughters" in Spanish. Matanzas is thus the tenth-oldest surviving European place-name in the US.

Murderkill River

The Murderkill River is a river flowing to Delaware Bay in central Delaware in the United States. It is approximately 21.7 miles (34.9 km) long and drains an area of 106 square miles (270 km2) on the Atlantic Coastal Plain.

The Murderkill flows for its entire length in southern Kent County. It rises just west of Felton and flows generally east-northeastwardly, through Killen Pond (site of Killens Pond State Park) and Coursey Pond, under Carpenters Bridge, and past Frederica to Bowers, where it enters Delaware Bay about 0.5 miles (1 km) south of the mouth of the St. Jones River. The Murderkill River is tidally influenced from its mouth upstream to just past Frederica, and is considered by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers to be navigable for the lower 10 miles (16 km) of its course.According to 2002 data from the United States Environmental Protection Agency, 55% of the area of the Murderkill River's watershed is occupied by agricultural uses; 17% is forested; 14% is urban; 9% is wetland; and 2% is water.

Name of Pittsburgh

The name of the city of Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, has a complicated history. Pittsburgh is one of the few U.S. cities or towns to be spelled with an h at the end

of a burg suffix.

Neuse River

The Neuse River is a river rising in the Piedmont of North Carolina and emptying into Pamlico Sound below New Bern. Its total length is approximately 275 miles (443 km), making it the longest river entirely contained in North Carolina. The Trent River joins the Neuse at New Bern. Its drainage basin, measuring 5,630 square miles (14,600 km2) in area, also lies entirely inside North Carolina. It is formed by the confluence of the Flat and Eno rivers prior to entering the manmade, artificial Falls Lake reservoir in northern Wake County. Its fall line shoals, known as the Falls of the Neuse, lie submerged under the waters of Falls Lake.

Pittsburgh Stock Exchange

The Pittsburgh Stock Exchange was a large regional stock market located in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania from November 11, 1864 (originally as Thurston's Oil Exchange) until closing on August 23, 1974. It was alternatively named the Pittsburgh Coal Exchange starting on May 27, 1870, and the Pittsburgh Oil Exchange on July 21, 1878 with 180 members. On July 25, 1896 the Exchange formally took the name Pittsburgh Stock Exchange though it had been referred to by that name since the spring of 1894. The Exchange, like many modern day exchanges, was forced to close during sharp economic crashes or crises. On December 24, 1969 The Philadelphia-Baltimore-Washington Stock Exchange bought the Pittsburgh Stock Exchange. At its height the exchange traded over 1,200 companies, but by the last trading day in 1974 only Pittsburgh Brewing Company, Williams & Company and Westinghouse remained listed.

Port Royal Sound

Port Royal Sound is a coastal sound, or inlet of the Atlantic Ocean, located in the Sea Islands region, in Beaufort County in the U.S. state of South Carolina. It is the estuary of several rivers, the largest of which is the Broad River.

Saint Lawrence River

The Saint Lawrence River (French: Fleuve Saint-Laurent; Tuscarora: Kahnawáʼkye; Mohawk: Kaniatarowanenneh, meaning "big waterway") is a large river in the middle latitudes of North America. The Saint Lawrence River flows in a roughly north-easterly direction, connecting the Great Lakes with the Atlantic Ocean and forming the primary drainage outflow of the Great Lakes Basin. It traverses the Canadian provinces of Quebec and Ontario, and is part of the international boundary between Ontario, Canada, and the U.S. state of New York. This river provides the basis for the commercial Saint Lawrence Seaway.

USS Alamosa

USS Alamosa (AK-156) was the lead ship of the Alamosa-class cargo ships, commissioned by the US Navy for service in World War II. She was responsible for delivering troops, goods and equipment to locations in the war zone.

Winter storm naming in the United States

Winter storm naming in the United States has been used since the mid 1700s in various ways to describe historical winter storms. These names have been coined from days of the year that the storm impacted, to noteworthy structures such as a theatre the storm had destroyed. In the 2010s, winter storm naming has become controversial with The Weather Channel, and various media coming up with their own names for winter storms. It has been argued by meteorologists that winter storms can reform more than once, making the process of naming them both difficult and redundant. On the other side of the argument those in favor of naming storms argue that the names help people with preparation. Entities from the United States government which includes the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), and the National Weather Service (NWS) have also weighed in stating that they would not be naming winter storms, and have asked others to refrain from doing so.

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