Naim ibn Hammad

Abū ‘Abd Allāh Nu‘aym bin Ḥammād al-Khuzā‘ī al-Marwazī (Arabic: أبو عبد الله نعيم بن حماد الخزاعي المروزي‎; d. 13 Jumada al-Awwal 228 AH / 18 February 843 AD in Samarra) was a traditionist from Marw al-Rudh and was later based in Egypt and Baghdad. He was nicknamed Farid or Faradi due to his reputation in the field of succession law (farā’iḍ).[1]

Arabic name
Personal
(Ism)
Nu‘aym
نعيم
Patronymic
(Nasab)
Ibn Ḥammād
ابن حماد
Teknonymic
(Kunya)
Abū ‘Abd Allāh
أبو عبد الله
Toponymic
(Nisba)
al-Marwazī
المروزي

Life

His scientific work as a collector of hadith falls within the period before the drafting of the first major canonical tradition collections . He was followed by, among others, al-Bukhari Hadith and processed them in his "Sahih". Nu'aim ibn Hammaad studied and taught first in Basra, then moved to Egypt, where he lived for forty years. In theological questions he followed the Sunni doctrine. A Spanish historian at at-Tahawi studied in Egypt, says of him: "For him there were two Korans. What is on the table, is the word of God; but what keep people in their hands is created.[2]

The term "table" is here an allusion to the Koran site:

Consequently, he refused during the Mihna that createdness the Qur'an al-Khalq Quran / خلق القرآن / Halq al-Qur'ān and other teachings of the Mu'tazilah recognized and has therefore been deported with other magicians of Egypt to Baghdad. He died in prison in Samarra in Baghdad

Works

His scientific work as a collector of Hadith falls in the period prior to the drafting of the first large collections of canonical tradition. He took over al Bukhari hadiths and processed them in his 'Sahih'. Nuaym ibn Buluggin studied and taught first in Basra, moved to Egypt, where he lived for forty years. In theological questions, he followed the Sunni doctrine. A Spanish historian who reported studied at at Tahāwī in Egypt about him: "For him, there were two Korans. What is on the table, is the word of God; but, what do the people in hands, is created." The term "Table" is an allusion to the Koran site here:

References

  1. ^ Pellat, Ch. "Nuʿaym b. Ḥammād". Encyclopaedia of Islam (2nd ed.). Leiden: Brill. doi:10.1163/1573-3912_islam_SIM_5960. ISBN 9789004161214.
  2. ^ Josef van Ess (1992), S. 725
Jumada al-Thani

Jumada al-Thani (Arabic: جمادى الثاني‎, also transliterated Ǧumādā aṮ-Ṯānī, IPA: [d͡ʒʊˈmæːdæ θˈθæːniː]; also pronounced Ǧamādā aṮ-Ṯānī, IPA: [d͡ʒæˈmæːdæ θˈθæːniː]) is the sixth month in the Islamic Calendar.

It is also known as Jumaada al-Akhir and Jumada al-Akhira (جمادى الآخر, also transliterated Ǧumādā al-ʾĀḫir/jumādā al-āḵir, IPA: [d͡ʒʊˈmæːdæ lˈʔæːxɪr]; also pronounced Ǧamādā alʾĀḫir/jamādā al-āḵir, IPA: [d͡ʒæˈmæːdæ lˈʔæːxɪr]).

This is the sixth month of the Islamic calendar. The origin of the word is as follows: the word Jumda, from which the name of the month is derived, is used to denote dry parched land: land devoid of rain, and hence denote the dry months.

In Turkish, used in the Ottoman Empire times and context, it was Jèmāzìyyu-'l-ākhir, or G̃emazi-yèl-Aher. Its Turkish abbreviation was jìm, and its Latin abbreviation was Djem. II. This is also spelled Cümadelahir or (cümâd-el-âhire). The modern Turkish spellings are Cemaziyelahir and Cemaziyelsani.

Jumada al-awwal

Jumādā al-Awwal (Arabic: جُمَادَىٰ الْأَوَّل - Jumādā ’l-Awwal), also known as Jumādā al-Ūlā (Arabic: جُمَادَىٰ الْأُولَىٰ - Jumādā ’l-Ūlā) or Jumada Ⅰ, is the fifth month of the 12 lunar months in the Islamic calendar. The month spans 29 or 30 days.

The origin of the name is theorized by some as from the word jamād (جماد) meaning "arid, dry or rainless" - denoting the dry, parched land of, hence the dry months. The secondary name Jumādā al-Ūlā may possibly mean "to take charge with, commend, entrust, commit or care during the arid month".

However, this is rejected by some as it is a lunar month, which does not coincide with seasons as solars months do.

In Ottoman Turkish, used in the Ottoman Empire, the name was Jèmāzìyyu-'l-èvvel, or G̃émazi lèlèvvèl. In Turkish it was abbreviated Jā, or G̃a. In Turkish today the spelling is Cemaziyelevvel.

Muharram

Muḥarram (Arabic: المحرّم) is the first month of the Islamic calendar. The general meaning of the adjective muharram means "banned, barred, forbidden, illegal, illicit, impermissible, prohibited, unlawful, unpermitted, unauthorized".It is one of the four sacred months of the year during which warfare is forbidden. It is held to be the second holiest month, after Ramaḍān.

The Tenth day of Muharram is known as the Day of Ashura. Sometimes, as part of the Mourning of Muharram Shia Muslims practice partial fasting and Sunni Muslims practice fasting on Ashura.

Shia Muslims mourn the martyrdom of Ḥusayn ibn ʿAlī and his family, honouring the martyrs by prayer and abstinence from joyous events. Shia Muslims do not fast on the 10th of Muharram, but some will not eat or drink until Zawal (afternoon) to show their sympathy with Husayn. In addition there is an important ziyarat book, the Ziyarat Ashura about Husayn ibn Ali. In the Shia sect, it is popular to read this ziyarat on this date.

Naim

Naim (also spelled Na'im, Naeem, Naeim, Naiem, Naím, Nahim, Naïm, Naheim, Noaim, Nayeem or Nuaim) (Arabic: نعیم‎, Hebrew: נעים‎) is a male given name and surname. Notable persons with the name include:

Naim Flamuri 1969- author

Rabi' al-Thani

Rabī’ al-Thānī (Arabic: ربيع الثاني‎, also transliterated Rabīʿ al-Ṯānī, IPA: [raˈbiːʕ æθˈθæːniː]) is the fourth month in the Islamic calendar. It is also known as Rabī’ al-Ākhir (ربيع الآخر IPA: [raˈbiːʕ ˈʔæːxɪr]).

In the Ottoman Empire days, the name of this month in Ottoman Turkish was Rèbi' ul-aher, with the Turkish abbreviation Rè, or Reb.-ul-Akh. in western European languages. In modern Turkish it is Rebiülahir or Rebiülsani.

Rabi' al-awwal

Rabīʿ al-Awwal (Arabic: ربيع الأوّل, rabī‘u ’l-awwal) is the third month in the Islamic calendar. The name Rabī‘ al-awwal means "the first [month] or beginning of spring", referring to its position in the pre-Islamic Arabian calendar.

During this month, many Muslims celebrate Mawlid - the birthday of the Islamic prophet, Muhammad. Although the exact date is unknown, Sunni Muslims believe the date of birth of Muhammad to have been on the twelfth of this month, whereas Shi'a Muslims believe him to have been born on the dawn of the seventeenth day.

Muhammad himself never celebrated the mawlid; instead he encouraged Muslims to fast on Mondays of every week due to his birthday being “on a Monday”.

In the Ottoman Empire days, the name of this month in Ottoman Turkish was Rèbi' ulèvvèl, with the abbreviation Ra. In modern Turkish it is Rebiülevvel.

Rajab

Rajab (ِArabic: رجب) is the seventh month of the Islamic calendar. The lexical definition of the classical Arabic verb rajaba is "to respect" which could also mean "be awe or be in fear", of which Rajab is a derivative.

This month is regarded as one of the four sacred months in Islam in which battles are prohibited. The pre-Islamic Arabs also considered warfare blasphemous during the four months.Muslims believe Rajab is the month in which ‘Alī ibn Abī Tālib, the first Imam of [and Fourth Caliph of , was born. Rajab is also the month during which Isra' Mi'raj (journey from Mecca to Jerusalem and then to heaven) of the Islamic prophet, Muhammad, took place.

Rajab and Shaʿbān are a prelude to the holy month of Ramaḍān.

Ramadan (calendar month)

Ramadan (Arabic: رمضان) or Ramadhan is the ninth month of the Islamic calendar, and the month in which the Quran was revealed to the Islamic prophet Muhammad.

Fasting during the month of Ramadan is one of the Five Pillars of Islam. The month is spent by Muslims fasting during the daylight hours from dawn to sunset. According to Islam, the Quran was sent down to the lowest heaven during this month, thus being prepared for gradual revelation by Jibreel (Gabriel) to Muhammad. Therefore, Muhammad told his followers that the gates of Heaven would be open for the entire month and the gates of Hell (Jahannam) would be closed. The first day of the next month, Shawwal, is spent in celebration and is observed as the "Festival of Breaking Fast" or Eid al-Fitr.

Safar

Ṣafar (Arabic: صفر) is the second month of the lunar based Islamic calendar. The Arabic word ṣafar means "empty, vacate or void", corresponding to the pre-Islamic Arabian time period when people’s houses were empty, as they were out gathering food. Ṣafar also means "hiss, toot or whistle", even "whistling of the wind" as this was likely a windy time of the year.

Most of the Islamic months are named according to weather conditions of the time; however, since the calendar is lunar, the months shift about 11 days every year, meaning that the seasons do not necessarily correspond to the name of the month.

Shawwal

Shawwāl (Arabic: شوّال) is the tenth month of the lunar based Islamic calendar. Shawwāl stems from the verb shālla (شالَ) to 'lift or carry', generally to take or move things from one place to another, so named because a female camel normally would be carrying a fetus at this time of year.

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