Nahal Me'arot Nature Reserve

The Caves of Nahal Me’arot / Wadi el-Mughara ("Caves Creek"), named here by the Hebrew and Arabic name of the valley where they are located, are a UNESCO Site of Human Evolution in the Carmel mountain range near Haifa in northern Israel.[1][2]

The four UNESCO-listed caves are:

  • Tabun Cave or Tanur Cave (lit.: "Oven")
  • Gamal Cave or el-Jamal ("Camel")
  • el-Wad Cave or Nahal Cave ("Stream")
  • Es-Skhul Cave or Gedi Cave ("Kid")

The four caves were proclaimed a site of "outstanding universal value" by UNESCO[1] in 2012. They are protected within a nature reserve.[3]

The caves were used for habitation by hominins and prehistoric humans and contain unique evidence of very early burials, at the archaeological site of el-Wad Cave in the Nahal Me'arot Nature Reserve.

Homo Neanderthalensis Tabun 1 Mount Carmel Israel About 1200,000-50,000 BP

Homo neandertalensis fossil from Tabun C1 (replica). 120.000-50.000 BC. Israel Museum.

Nahal MearotDSCN0502

Jamal Cave


A Paleolithic reconstitution in Jamal Cave


Paleolithic tools in Jamal Cave.

El-Wad cave & terrace

Entrance to el-Wad Cave.

El-Wad Cave (2)

Inside el-Wad Cave.

Excavating Natufian strucutre at el-Wad Terrace

Excavation work in el-Wad Cave.

Flint Stone Points, Late Stone Age, Boqer Tahtit and el-Wad Cave, 50000-28000 BP

Flint stone points, Boqer Tahtit and el-Wad Cave, 50,000-28,000 BP. Israel Museum.

El-Wad point

El-Wad point microlith

UNESCO World Heritage Site
נחל מערות ממעוף הציפור
Official nameSites of Human Evolution at Mount Carmel: The Nahal Me’arot / Wadi el-Mughara Caves
LocationMount Carmel, Israel
CriteriaCultural: (iii), (v)
Inscription2012 (36th Session)
Area54 ha (130 acres)
Buffer zone370 ha (910 acres)
Coordinates32°40′12″N 34°57′55″E / 32.67000°N 34.96528°ECoordinates: 32°40′12″N 34°57′55″E / 32.67000°N 34.96528°E
Nahal Me'arot Nature Reserve is located in Near East
Nahal Me'arot Nature Reserve
Location of Nahal Me'arot Nature Reserve in Near East
Nahal Me'arot Nature Reserve is located in Israel
Nahal Me'arot Nature Reserve
Nahal Me'arot Nature Reserve (Israel)


  1. ^ a b [1] UNESCO website
  2. ^ "Nahal Me'arot Nature Reserve - Prehistoric Humans Site". Israel Nature and Parks Authority. Retrieved 5 February 2016.
  3. ^ Nahal Mearot Nature Reserve

External links

Archaeology of Israel

The archaeology of Israel is the study of the archaeology of the present-day Israel, stretching from prehistory through three millennia of documented history. The ancient Land of Israel was a geographical bridge between the political and cultural centers of Mesopotamia and Egypt. Despite the importance of the country to three major religions, serious archaeological research only began in the 15th century. The first major work on the antiquities of Israel was Adriaan Reland's Palestina ex monumentis veteribus, published in 1709. Edward Robinson, an American theologian who visited the country in 1838, published the first topographical studies. Lady Hester Stanhope performed the first modern excavation at Ashkelon in 1815. A Frenchman, Louis Felicien de Saucy, embarked on early "modern" excavations in 1850.In discussing the state of archaeology in Israel in his time, David Ussishkin commented in the 1980s that the designation "Israeli archeology" no longer represents a single uniform methodological approach; rather, its scope covers numerous different archaeological schools, disciplines, concepts, and methods currently in existence in Israel.

El Wad

El Was may refer to:

El Oued, a city in Algeria

el-Wad, an archaeological cave and terrace site at Nahal Me'arot Nature Reserve

Es Skhul

Es-Skhul (Arabic: السخول‎, meaning kid, young goat) is a prehistoric cave site situated 20 km (12.4 mi) south of the city of Haifa, Israel, and around 3 km (1.9 mi) from the Mediterranean Sea. The site was first excavated by Dorothy Garrod during summer of 1928. The excavation revealed the first evidence of the late Epipaleolithic Natufian culture, characterized by the presence of numerous microlith stone tools, human burials and ground stone tools. Skhul also represents an area where Neanderthals - possibly present in the region from 200,000 to 45,000 years ago - may have lived alongside these humans dating to 100,000 years ago. The cave also has Middle Palaeolithic layers.

The remains found at Es Skhul, together with those found at the Wadi el-Mughara Caves and Mugharet el-Zuttiyeh were classified in 1939 by Arthur Keith and Theodore D. McCown as Palaeoanthropus palestinensis, a descendant of Homo heidelbergensis.

Geva Carmel

Geva Carmel (Hebrew: גֶּבַע כַּרְמֶל, lit. Carmel Hill) is a moshav in northern Israel. Located near Atlit, it falls under the jurisdiction of Hof HaCarmel Regional Council. In 2017 it had a population of 1,200.

List of archaeological sites by country

This is a list of notable archaeological sites sorted by country and territories.

For one sorted by continent and time period, see the list of archaeological sites by continent and age.

Mount Carmel

Mount Carmel (Hebrew: הַר הַכַּרְמֶל, Har HaKarmel, ISO 259-3: Har ha Karmell; Arabic: الكرمل‎, Al-Karmil, or Arabic: جبل مار إلياس‎, Jabal Mar Elyas, lit. Mount Saint Elias/Elijah) is a coastal mountain range in northern Israel stretching from the Mediterranean Sea towards the southeast. The range is a UNESCO biosphere reserve. A number of towns are situated there, most notably the city of Haifa, Israel's third largest city, located on the northern slope.

The name is presumed to be directly from the Hebrew language word Carmel (כַּרְמֶל), which means "fresh" (planted), or "vineyard" (planted).

Mount Carmel National Park

Mount Carmel National Park (Hebrew: פארק הכרמל, Park HaKarmel) is Israel's largest national park, extending over most of the Carmel mountain range, and containing over 10,000 hectares of pine, eucalyptus, and cypress forest. The park has numerous bicycle and walking paths, dedicated nature reserves, and over 250 archaeological sites inhabited by prehistoric humans.

The park is one of the largest open spaces of northern Israel. It is a typical example of a Mediterranean ecosystem, and includes a rich inventory of geological phenomena, prehistoric artifacts, biodiversity and landscapes. In 1996 it was recognized by UNESCO as a biosphere reserve.

National parks and nature reserves of Israel

National parks of Israel are declared historic sites or nature reserves, which are mostly operated and maintained by the National Nature and Parks Authority. As of 2015, Israel maintains more than 400 nature reserves that protect 2,500 species of indigenous wild plants, 20 species of fish, 400 species of birds and 70 species of mammals.Some parks are located at archaeological sites such as Tel Megiddo, Beit She'an, Ashkelon and Kursi. Others, such as the Alexander stream, Mount Carmel National Park or Hurshat Tal focus on nature and the preservation of local flora and fauna. Several parks and nature reserves have camping options, such as tent grounds and bungalows, open to small groups and individual campers. Some of them are located in the Israeli-occupied territories of the Golan Heights and the West Bank.

In 2011, the most popular national parks were Yarkon National Park, Caesarea, Ein Gedi and Tel Dan.

Prehistory of the Levant

The prehistory of the Levant includes the various cultural changes that occurred, as revealed by archaeological evidence, prior to recorded traditions in the area of the Levant. Archaeological evidence suggests that Homo sapiens and other hominid species originated in Africa (see hominid dispersal) and that one of the routes taken to colonize Eurasia was through the Sinai desert and the Levant, which means that this is one of the most important and most occupied locations in the history of earth.

Not only have many cultures and traditions of humans lived here, but also many species of the genus Homo. In addition, this region is one of the centers for the development of agriculture.

Tabun Cave

The Tabun Cave is an excavated site located at Nahal Me'arot Nature Reserve, Israel and is one of Human Evolution sites at Mount Carmel, which were proclaimed as having universal value by UNESCO in 2012. The cave was occupied intermittently during the Lower and Middle Paleolithic (500,000 to around 40,000 years ago). In the course of this period, deposits of sand, silt and clay of up to 25 m (82 ft) accumulated in the cave. Excavations suggest that it features one of the longest sequences of human occupation in the Levant.

Tourism in Israel

Tourism in Israel is one of Israel's major sources of income, with a record 3.6 million tourist arrivals in 2017, and 25 percent growth since 2016 and contributed NIS 20 billion to the Israeli economy making it an all-time record. Israel offers a plethora of historical and religious sites, beach resorts, archaeological tourism, heritage tourism and ecotourism. Israel has the highest number of museums per capita in the world. In 2009, the two most visited sites were the Western Wall and the grave of Rabbi Shimon bar Yochai;

the most popular paid tourist attraction is Masada. The most visited city is Jerusalem and the most visited site was the Western Wall. The largest percentage of tourists come from the United States accounting for 19% of all tourists, followed by Russia, France, Germany, the United Kingdom, China, Italy, Poland, and Canada.

Jerusalem District
Northern District
Haifa District
Central District
Southern District
Judea and Samaria Area
East Jerusalem

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