Nagasaki

Nagasaki (長崎市 Nagasaki-shi, Japanese: [naɡaꜜsaki]) (listen ) is the capital and the largest city of Nagasaki Prefecture on the island of Kyushu in Japan. The city's name, 長崎, means "long cape" in Japanese. Nagasaki became a centre of colonial Portuguese and Dutch influence in the 16th through 19th centuries, and the Hidden Christian Sites in the Nagasaki Region have been recognized and included in the UNESCO World Heritage List. Part of Nagasaki was home to a major Imperial Japanese Navy base during the First Sino-Japanese War and Russo-Japanese War.

During World War II, the American atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki made Nagasaki the second and, to date, last city in the world to experience a nuclear attack (at 11:02 a.m., August 9, 1945 'Japan Standard Time (UTC+9)').[1]

As of 1 March 2017, the city has an estimated population of 425,723 and a population density of 1,000 people per km2. The total area is 406.35 km2 (156.89 sq mi).[2]

Nagasaki

長崎市
Nagasaki City
Inasamachi, Nagasaki, Nagasaki Prefecture 852-8011, Japan - panoramio
Nagasaki City Office Main Building 2008
Former the archbishop hall of the Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Nagasaki01s3
Nagasaki City view from Hamahira01s3
Nagasaki Shianbashi bar street night view
Flag of Nagasaki
Flag
Official seal of Nagasaki
Seal
Nickname(s): 

City of Peace
Naples of the Orient
Map of Nagasaki Prefecture with Nagasaki highlighted in pink
Map of Nagasaki Prefecture with Nagasaki highlighted in pink
Nagasaki is located in Japan
Nagasaki
Nagasaki
 
Nagasaki is located in Asia
Nagasaki
Nagasaki
Nagasaki (Asia)
Nagasaki is located in Earth
Nagasaki
Nagasaki
Nagasaki (Earth)
Coordinates: 32°47′N 129°52′E / 32.783°N 129.867°ECoordinates: 32°47′N 129°52′E / 32.783°N 129.867°E
CountryJapan
RegionKyushu
PrefectureNagasaki Prefecture
Government
 • MayorTomihisa Taue (2007-)
Area
 • Total406.35 km2 (156.89 sq mi)
 • Land241.20 km2 (93.13 sq mi)
 • Water165.15 km2 (63.76 sq mi)
Population
(March 1, 2017)
 • Total425,723
 • Density1,000/km2 (2,700/sq mi)
Time zoneUTC+9 (Japan Standard Time)
- TreeChinese tallow tree
- FlowerHydrangea
Phone number095-825-5151
Address2-22 Sakura-machi, Nagasaki-shi, Nagasaki-ken
850-8685
Websitewww.city.nagasaki.lg.jp
Nagasaki
Nagasaki (Chinese characters)
"Nagasaki" in kanji
Japanese name
Kanji長崎

History

Christian Nagasaki

Nagasaki is a Japanese port city that was occupied by the Portuguese in the late 16th century. A small fishing village set in a secluded harbor, Nagasaki had little historical significance until contact with Portuguese explorers in 1543. An early visitor was Fernão Mendes Pinto, who came from Sagres on a Portuguese ship which landed nearby in Tanegashima.

Macau Trade Routes
Portuguese (green) and Spanish (yellow) trade routes to Macao and Nagasaki

Soon after, Portuguese ships started sailing to Japan as regular trade freighters, thus increasing the contact and trade relations between Japan and the rest of the world, and particularly with mainland China, with whom Japan had previously severed its commercial and political ties, mainly due to a number of incidents involving Wokou piracy in the South China Sea, with the Portuguese now serving as intermediaries between the two Asian countries.

Despite the mutual advantages derived from these trading contacts, which would soon be acknowledged by all parties involved, the lack of a proper seaport in Kyūshū for the purpose of harboring foreign ships posed a major problem for both merchants and the Kyushu daimyōs (feudal lords) who expected to collect great advantages from the trade with the Portuguese.

In the meantime, Spanish Jesuit missionary St. Francis Xavier arrived in Kagoshima, South Kyūshū, in 1549, and soon initiated a thorough campaign of evangelization throughout Japan, and left for China in 1552 and died soon afterwards. His followers who remained behind converted a number of daimyōs. The most notable among them was Ōmura Sumitada. In 1569, Ōmura granted a permit for the establishment of a port with the purpose of harboring Portuguese ships in Nagasaki, which was finally set up in 1571, under the supervision of the Jesuit missionary Gaspar Vilela and Portuguese Captain-Major Tristão Vaz de Veiga, with Ōmura's personal assistance.[3]

The little harbor village quickly grew into a diverse port city,[4] and Portuguese products imported through Nagasaki (such as tobacco, bread, textiles and a Portuguese sponge-cake called castellas) were assimilated into popular Japanese culture. Tempura derived from a popular Portuguese recipe originally known as peixinho-da-horta, and takes its name from the Portuguese word, 'tempero,' seasoning, and refers to the tempora quadragesima, forty days of Lent during which eating meat was for bidden, another example of the enduring effects of this cultural exchange. The Portuguese also brought with them many goods from China.

Due to the instability during the Sengoku period, Sumitada and Jesuit leader Alexandro Valignano conceived a plan to pass administrative control over to the Society of Jesus rather than see the Catholic city taken over by a non-Catholic daimyō. Thus, for a brief period after 1580, the city of Nagasaki was a Jesuit colony, under their administrative and military control. It became a refuge for Christians escaping maltreatment in other regions of Japan.[5] In 1587, however, Toyotomi Hideyoshi's campaign to unify the country arrived in Kyūshū. Concerned with the large Christian influence in southern Japan, as well as the active and what was perceived as the arrogant role the Jesuits were playing in the Japanese political arena, Hideyoshi ordered the expulsion of all missionaries, and placed the city under his direct control. However, the expulsion order went largely unenforced, and the fact remained that most of Nagasaki's population remained openly practicing Catholic.

In 1596, the Spanish ship San Felipe was wrecked off the coast of Shikoku, and Hideyoshi learned from its pilot[6] that the Spanish Franciscans were the vanguard of an Iberian invasion of Japan. In response, Hideyoshi ordered the crucifixions of twenty-six Catholics in Nagasaki on February 5 of the next year (i.e. the "Twenty-six Martyrs of Japan"). Portuguese traders were not ostracized, however, and so the city continued to thrive.

C1870`s Nagasaki Nakashima River - UCHIDA KUICHI
Some of Nagasaki's stone bridges over the Nakashima River in the 1870s

In 1602, Augustinian missionaries also arrived in Japan, and when Tokugawa Ieyasu took power in 1603, Catholicism was still tolerated. Many Catholic daimyōs had been critical allies at the Battle of Sekigahara, and the Tokugawa position was not strong enough to move against them. Once Osaka Castle had been taken and Toyotomi Hideyoshi's offspring killed, though, the Tokugawa dominance was assured. In addition, the Dutch and English presence allowed trade without religious strings attached. Thus, in 1614, Catholicism was officially banned and all missionaries ordered to leave. Most Catholic daimyo apostatized, and forced their subjects to do so, although a few would not renounce the religion and left the country for Macau, Luzon and Japantowns in Southeast Asia. A brutal campaign of persecution followed, with thousands of converts across Kyūshū and other parts of Japan killed, tortured, or forced to renounce their religion (see Martyrs of Japan).

Catholicism's last gasp as an open religion and the last major military action in Japan until the Meiji Restoration was the Shimabara Rebellion of 1637. While there is no evidence that Europeans directly incited the rebellion, Shimabara Domain had been a Christian han for several decades, and the rebels adopted many Portuguese motifs and Christian icons. Consequently, in Tokugawa society the word "Shimabara" solidified the connection between Christianity and disloyalty, constantly used again and again in Tokugawa propaganda. The Shimabara Rebellion also convinced many policy-makers that foreign influences were more trouble than they were worth, leading to the national isolation policy. The Portuguese, who had been previously living on a specially constructed island-prison in Nagasaki harbour called Dejima, were expelled from the archipelago altogether, and the Dutch were moved from their base at Hirado into the trading island.

Seclusion era

The Great Fire of Nagasaki destroyed much of the city in 1663, including the Mazu shrine at the Kofuku Temple patronized by the Chinese sailors and merchants visiting the port.[7]

In 1720 the ban on Dutch books was lifted, causing hundreds of scholars to flood into Nagasaki to study European science and art. Consequently, Nagasaki became a major center of what was called rangaku, or "Dutch Learning". During the Edo period, the Tokugawa shogunate governed the city, appointing a hatamoto, the Nagasaki bugyō, as its chief administrator.

Nagasaki illustration2.jpeg
Plan of Nagasaki, Hizen province, 1778

Consensus among historians was once that Nagasaki was Japan's only window on the world during its time as a closed country in the Tokugawa era. However, nowadays it is generally accepted that this was not the case, since Japan interacted and traded with the Ryūkyū Kingdom, Korea and Russia through Satsuma, Tsushima and Matsumae respectively. Nevertheless, Nagasaki was depicted in contemporary art and literature as a cosmopolitan port brimming with exotic curiosities from the Western World.[8]

In 1808, during the Napoleonic Wars the British Royal Navy frigate HMS Phaeton entered Nagasaki Harbor in search of Dutch trading ships. The local magistrate was unable to resist the British demand for food, fuel, and water, later committing seppuku as a result. Laws were passed in the wake of this incident strengthening coastal defenses, threatening death to intruding foreigners, and prompting the training of English and Russian translators.

The Tōjinyashiki (唐人屋敷) or Chinese Factory in Nagasaki was also an important conduit for Chinese goods and information for the Japanese market. Various colourful Chinese merchants and artists sailed between the Chinese mainland and Nagasaki. Some actually combined the roles of merchant and artist such as 18th century Yi Hai. It is believed that as much as one-third of the population of Nagasaki at this time may have been Chinese.[9]

Meiji Japan

With the Meiji Restoration, Japan opened its doors once again to foreign trade and diplomatic relations. Nagasaki became a free port in 1859 and modernization began in earnest in 1868. Nagasaki was officially proclaimed a city on April 1, 1889. With Christianity legalized and the Kakure Kirishitan coming out of hiding, Nagasaki regained its earlier role as a center for Roman Catholicism in Japan.[10]

During the Meiji period, Nagasaki became a center of heavy industry. Its main industry was ship-building, with the dockyards under control of Mitsubishi Heavy Industries becoming one of the prime contractors for the Imperial Japanese Navy, and with Nagasaki harbor used as an anchorage under the control of nearby Sasebo Naval District. During World War II, at the time of the nuclear attack, Nagasaki was an important industrial city, containing both plants of the Mitsubishi Steel and Arms Works, the Akunoura Engine Works, Mitsubishi Arms Plant, Mitsubishi Electric Shipyards, Mitsubishi Steel and Arms Works, Mitsubishi-Urakami Ordnance Works, several other small factories, and most of the ports storage and trans-shipment facilities, which employed about 90% of the city's labor force, and accounted for 90% of the city's industry. These connections with the Japanese war effort made Nagasaki a major target for strategic bombing by the Allies during the war.[11][12]

Atomic bombing of Nagasaki during World War II

Nagasakibomb
Mushroom cloud from the atomic explosion over Nagasaki at 11:02 a.m., August 9, 1945

For 12 months prior to the nuclear attack, Nagasaki had experienced five small-scale air attacks by an aggregate of 136 U.S. planes which dropped a total of 270 tons of high explosive, 53 tons of incendiary, and 20 tons of fragmentation bombs. Of these, a raid of August 1, 1945, was most effective, with a few of the bombs hitting the shipyards and dock areas in the southwest portion of the city, several hitting the Mitsubishi Steel and Arms Works, and six bombs landing at the Nagasaki Medical School and Hospital, with three direct hits on buildings there. While the damage from these few bombs was relatively small, it created considerable concern in Nagasaki and a number of people, principally school children, were evacuated to rural areas for safety, thus reducing the population in the city at the time of the atomic attack.[11][13][14][15]

On the day of the nuclear strike (August 9, 1945) the population in Nagasaki was estimated to be 263,000, which consisted of 240,000 Japanese residents, 10,000 Korean residents, 2,500 conscripted Korean workers, 9,000 Japanese soldiers, 600 conscripted Chinese workers, and 400 Allied POWs.[15] That day, the Boeing B-29 Superfortress Bockscar, commanded by Major Charles Sweeney, departed from Tinian's North Field just before dawn, this time carrying a plutonium bomb, code named "Fat Man". The primary target for the bomb was Kokura, with the secondary target being Nagasaki, if the primary target was too cloudy to make a visual sighting. When the plane reached Kokura at 9:44 a.m. (10:44 a.m. Tinian Time), the city was obscured by clouds and smoke, as the nearby city of Yawata had been firebombed on the previous day. Unable to make a bombing attack on visual due to the clouds and smoke and with limited fuel, the plane left the city at 10:30 a.m. for the secondary target. After 20 minutes, the plane arrived at 10:50 a.m. over Nagasaki, but the city was also concealed by clouds. Desperately short of fuel and after making a couple of bombing runs without obtaining any visual target, the crew was forced to use radar in order to drop the bomb. At the last minute, the opening of the clouds allowed them to make visual contact with a racetrack in Nagasaki, and they dropped the bomb on the city's Urakami Valley midway between the Mitsubishi Steel and Arms Works in the south, and the Mitsubishi-Urakami Ordnance Works in the north.[16] 53 seconds after its release, the bomb exploded at 11:02 a.m. at an approximate altitude of 1,800 feet.[17]

Less than a second after the detonation, the north of the city was destroyed and 35,000 people were killed.[18] Among the deaths were 6,200 out of the 7,500 employees of the Mitsubishi Munitions plant, and 24,000 others (including 2,000 Koreans) who worked in other war plants and factories in the city, as well as 150 Japanese soldiers. The industrial damage in Nagasaki was high, leaving 68–80% of the non-dock industrial production destroyed. It was the second and, to date, the last use of a nuclear weapon in combat, and also the second detonation of a plutonium bomb. The first combat use of a nuclear weapon was the "Little Boy" bomb, which was dropped on the Japanese city of Hiroshima on August 6, 1945. The first plutonium bomb was tested in central New Mexico, United States, on July 16, 1945. The Fat Man bomb was somewhat more powerful than the one dropped over Hiroshima, but because of Nagasaki's more uneven terrain, there was less damage.[19][20][21][22]

After the war

The city was rebuilt after the war, albeit dramatically changed. The pace of reconstruction was slow. The first simple emergency dwellings were not provided until 1946. The focus on redevelopment was the replacement of war industries with foreign trade, shipbuilding and fishing. This was formally declared when the Nagasaki International Culture City Reconstruction Law was passed in May 1949.[23] New temples were built, as well as new churches owing to an increase in the presence of Christianity.[24] Some of the rubble was left as a memorial, such as a one-legged torii at Sannō Shrine and an arch near ground zero. New structures were also raised as memorials, such as the Atomic Bomb Museum. Nagasaki remains first and foremost a port city, supporting a rich shipbuilding industry and setting a strong example of perseverance and peace.

Sanno torii boxed in red
Torii, Nagasaki, Japan. One-legged torii in the background

On January 4, 2005, the towns of Iōjima, Kōyagi, Nomozaki, Sanwa, Sotome and Takashima (all from Nishisonogi District) were officially merged into Nagasaki.

Geography and climate

Nagasaki and Nishisonogi Peninsulas are located within the city limits. The city is surrounded by the cities of Isahaya and Saikai, and the towns of Togitsu and Nagayo in Nishisonogi District.

Nagasaki lies at the head of a long bay that forms the best natural harbor on the island of Kyūshū. The main commercial and residential area of the city lies on a small plain near the end of the bay. Two rivers divided by a mountain spur form the two main valleys in which the city lies. The heavily built-up area of the city is confined by the terrain to less than 4 square miles (10 km2).

Nagasaki has the typical humid subtropical climate of Kyūshū and Honshū, characterized by mild winters and long, hot, and humid summers. Apart from Kanazawa and Shizuoka it is the wettest sizeable city in Japan. In the summer, the combination of persistent heat and high humidity results in unpleasant conditions, with wet-bulb temperatures sometimes reaching 26 °C (79 °F). In the winter, however, Nagasaki is drier and sunnier than Gotō to the west, and temperatures are slightly milder than further inland in Kyūshū. Since records began in 1878, the wettest month has been July 1982, with 1,178 millimetres (46 in) including 555 millimetres (21.9 in) in a single day, whilst the driest month has been September 1967, with 1.8 millimetres (0.07 in). Precipitation occurs year-round, though winter is the driest season; rainfall peaks sharply in June and July. August is the warmest month of the year. On January 24, 2016, a snowfall of 17 centimetres (6.7 in) was recorded.[25]

Education

Universities

Junior colleges

  • Nagasaki Junior College
  • Nagasaki Junshin Women's Junior College
  • Tamaki Women's Junior College (玉木女子短期大学)
  • Nagasaki Women's Junior College (長崎女子短期大学)

Transportation

Nagasaki Trolley M5199
A busy street in Nagasaki

The nearest airport is Nagasaki Airport in the nearby city of Ōmura. The Kyushu Railway Company (JR Kyushu) provides rail transportation on the Nagasaki Main Line, whose terminal is at Nagasaki Station. In addition, the Nagasaki Electric Tramway operates five routes in the city. The Nagasaki Expressway serves vehicular traffic with interchanges at Nagasaki and Susukizuka. In addition, six national highways crisscross the city: Route 34, 202, 206, 251, 324, and 499.

Demographics

On August 9, 1945 the population was estimated to be 263,000. As of 1 March 2017, the city had population of 425,723 and a population density of 1,000 persons per km2.

Sports

Nagasaki is represented in the J. League of football with its local club, V-Varen Nagasaki.

Main sites

NagasakiHypocenter

Monument at the atomic bomb hypocenter in Nagasaki

Nagasaki peace memorial hall

Nagasaki National Peace Memorial Hall for the Atomic Bomb Victims

Sofukuji Nagasaki Japan30n

Sōfuku-ji (National treasure of Japan)

Panorama of Nagasaki
Panorama of Nagasaki

Events

Nagasaki Lantern Festival - 01
Nagasaki Lantern Festival

The Prince Takamatsu Cup Nishinippon Round-Kyūshū Ekiden, the world's longest relay race, begins in Nagasaki each November.

Kunchi, the most famous festival in Nagasaki, is held from 7–9 October.

The Nagasaki Lantern Festival,[33] celebrating the Chinese New Year, is celebrated from February 18 to March 4.

Cuisine

Notable people

Twin towns

The city of Nagasaki maintains sister cities or friendship relations with other cities worldwide.[34]

See also

References

  1. ^ Hakim, Joy (5 January 1995). A History of US: Book 9: War, Peace, and All that Jazz. New York: Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0195095142.
  2. ^ "Land Area and Environment - Nagasaki - Japan - knoema.com". Knoema. Retrieved 2017-06-08.
  3. ^ Boxer, The Christian Century In Japan 1549–1650, p. 100–101
  4. ^ "Arrival of a Portuguese ship".
  5. ^ Diego Paccheco, Monumenta Nipponica, 1970
  6. ^ so says the Jesuit account
  7. ^ "Cultural Properties", Official site, Nagasaki: Thomeizan Kofukuji, retrieved 23 December 2016
  8. ^ Cambridge Encyclopedia of Japan, Richard Bowring and Haruko Laurie
  9. ^ Screech, Timon. The Western Scientific Gaze and Popular Imagery in Later Edo Japan: The Lens Within the Heart. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1996. p15.
  10. ^ Doak, Kevin M. (2011). "Introduction: Catholicism, Modernity, and Japanese Culture". In Doak, Kevin M. Xavier's Legacies: Catholicism in Modern Japanese Culture. UBC Press. pp. 12–13. ISBN 9780774820240. Retrieved 27 February 2018. In 1904, Catholics in Nagasaki, with their deep ties to the past, were three times more numerous than Catholics in the rest of Japan...
  11. ^ a b "Chapter II The Effects of the Atomic Bombings". United States Strategic Bombing Survey.
  12. ^ How Effective is Strategic Bombing?: Lessons Learned From World War II to Kosovo (World of War). NYU Press. December 1, 2000. pp. 86–87.
  13. ^ "Avalon Project - The Atomic Bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki".
  14. ^ Bradley, F.J. (1999). No Strategic Targets Left. Turner Publishing Company. p. 103. ISBN 978-1-5631-1483-0.
  15. ^ a b Skylark, Tom (2002). Final Months of the Pacific War. Georgetown University Press. p. 178.
  16. ^ Bruce Cameron Reed (October 16, 2013). The History and Science of the Manhattan Project. Springer Nature. p. 400. ISBN 978-3-6424-0296-8.
  17. ^ "BBC - WW2 People's War - Timeline".
  18. ^ Robert Hull (October 11, 2011). Welcome To Planet Earth - 2050 - Population Zero. AuthorHouse. p. 215. ISBN 978-1-4634-2604-0.
  19. ^ Nuke-Rebuke: Writers & Artists Against Nuclear Energy & Weapons (The Contemporary anthology series). The Spirit That Moves Us Press. May 1, 1984. pp. 22–29.
  20. ^ Groves 1962, pp. 343–346.
  21. ^ Hoddeson et al., pp. 396-397
  22. ^ Hoddeson et al. 1993, pp. 396–397
  23. ^ "AtomicBombMuseum.org - After the Bomb".
  24. ^ "Nagasaki History Facts and Timeline".
  25. ^ あすにかけ全国的に厳しい冷え込み続く Archived 2016-01-27 at the Wayback Machine 気象庁
  26. ^ 平年値(年・月ごとの値). Japan Meteorological Agency. Retrieved 2011-12-02.
  27. ^ 観測史上1~10位の値(年間を通じての値). Japan Meteorological Agency. Retrieved 2011-12-02.
  28. ^ 長崎外国語大学 [Nagasaki University of Foreign Studies]. Nagasaki-gaigo.ac.jp. Archived from the original on 2013-03-30. Retrieved 2013-03-12.
  29. ^ お知らせ 長崎市平和・原爆のホームページが変わりました。. .city.nagasaki.nagasaki.jp. Archived from the original on 2002-06-01. Retrieved 2011-06-01.
  30. ^ 長崎歴史文化博物館. Nmhc.jp. Retrieved 2011-06-01.
  31. ^ a b 移転のお知らせ. .city.nagasaki.nagasaki.jp. Archived from the original on 2011-06-07. Retrieved 2011-06-01.
  32. ^ Oldfield Howey, M. (2005-03-31). The Encircled Serpent: A Study of Serpent Symbolism in All Countries and Ages - M. Oldfield Howey - Google Books. ISBN 9780766192614. Retrieved 2013-03-12.
  33. ^ 長崎ランタンフェスティバル. Nagasaki-lantern.com. Retrieved 2011-06-01.
  34. ^ a b c d e f g "Sister Cities of Nagasaki City". Nagasaki City Hall International Affairs Section. Archived from the original on 29 July 2009. Retrieved 2009-07-10.
  35. ^ "International Relations of the City of Porto" (PDF). Municipal Directorate of the Presidency Services International Relations Office. Retrieved 2009-07-10.

External links

Arie River

The Arie River (有家川, Arie-gawa) flows from Mount Unzen to the Ariake Sea in Nagasaki Prefecture, Japan.

Atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki

During the final stage of World War II, the United States detonated two nuclear weapons over the Japanese cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki on August 6 and 9, 1945, respectively. The United States dropped the bombs after obtaining the consent of the United Kingdom, as required by the Quebec Agreement. The two bombings killed 129,000–226,000 people, most of whom were civilians. They remain the only use of nuclear weapons in the history of armed conflict.

In the final year of the war, the Allies prepared for what was anticipated to be a very costly invasion of the Japanese mainland. This undertaking was preceded by a conventional and firebombing campaign that devastated 67 Japanese cities. The war in Europe had concluded when Germany signed its instrument of surrender on May 8, 1945. As the Allies turned their full attention to the Pacific War, the Japanese faced the same fate. The Allies called for the unconditional surrender of the Imperial Japanese armed forces in the Potsdam Declaration on July 26, 1945—the alternative being "prompt and utter destruction". The Japanese ignored the ultimatum and the war continued.

By August 1945, the Allies' Manhattan Project had produced two types of atomic bombs, and the 509th Composite Group of the United States Army Air Forces (USAAF) was equipped with the specialized Silverplate version of the Boeing B-29 Superfortress that could deliver them from Tinian in the Mariana Islands. Orders for atomic bombs to be used on four Japanese cities were issued on July 25. On August 6, one of the modified B-29s dropped a uranium gun-type ("Little Boy") bomb on Hiroshima. Three days later, on August 9, a plutonium implosion ("Fat Man") bomb was dropped by another B-29 on Nagasaki. The bombs immediately devastated their targets. Over the next two to four months, the acute effects of the atomic bombings killed 90,000–146,000 people in Hiroshima and 39,000–80,000 people in Nagasaki; roughly half of the deaths in each city occurred on the first day. Large numbers of people continued to die from the effects of burns, radiation sickness, and other injuries, compounded by illness and malnutrition, for many months afterward. In both cities, most of the dead were civilians, although Hiroshima had a sizable military garrison.

Japan announced its surrender to the Allies on August 15, six days after the bombing of Nagasaki and the Soviet Union's declaration of war. On September 2, the Japanese government signed the instrument of surrender, effectively ending World War II. The effects of the bombings on the social and political character of subsequent world history and popular culture has been studied extensively, and the ethical and legal justification for the bombings is still debated to this day.

Bockscar

Bockscar, sometimes called Bock's Car, is the name of the United States Army Air Forces B-29 bomber that dropped a Fat Man nuclear weapon over the Japanese city of Nagasaki during World War II in the second – and last – nuclear attack in history. One of 15 Silverplate B-29s used by the 509th, Bockscar was built at the Glenn L. Martin Aircraft Plant at Bellevue, Nebraska, at what is now Offutt Air Force Base, and delivered to the United States Army Air Forces on 19 March 1945. It was assigned to the 393d Bombardment Squadron, 509th Composite Group to Wendover Army Air Field, Utah in April.

Bockscar was used in 13 training and practice missions from Tinian, and three combat missions in which it dropped pumpkin bombs on industrial targets in Japan. On 9 August 1945, Bockscar, piloted by the 393d Bombardment Squadron's commander, Major Charles W. Sweeney, dropped a Fat Man nuclear bomb with a blast yield equivalent to 21 kilotons of TNT over the city of Nagasaki. About 44% of the city was destroyed; 35,000 people were killed and 60,000 injured.

After the war, Bockscar returned to the United States in November 1945. In September 1946, it was given to the National Museum of the United States Air Force at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio. The aircraft was flown to the Museum on 26 September 1961, and its original markings were restored (nose art was added after the mission). Bockscar is now on permanent display at the National Museum of the United States Air Force, Dayton, Ohio, next to a replica of a Fat Man.

Debate over the atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki

The debate over the atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki concerns the ethical, legal, and military controversies surrounding the atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki on 6 August and 9 August 1945 at the close of World War II (1939–45). The Soviet Union declared war on Japan an hour before 9 August and invaded Manchuria at one minute past midnight; Japan surrendered on 15 August.

On 26 July 1945, United States President Harry S. Truman, United Kingdom Prime Minister Winston Churchill, and Chairman of the Chinese Nationalist Government Chiang Kai-shek issued the Potsdam Declaration, which outlined the terms of surrender for the Empire of Japan as agreed upon at the Potsdam Conference. This ultimatum stated if Japan did not surrender, it would face "prompt and utter destruction". Some debaters focus on the presidential decision-making process, and others on whether or not the bombings were the proximate cause of Japanese surrender.

Over the course of time, different arguments have gained and lost support as new evidence has become available and as new studies have been completed. A primary and continuing focus has been on the role of the bombings in Japan's surrender and the U.S.'s justification for them based upon the premise that the bombings precipitated the surrender. This remains the subject of both scholarly and popular debate. In 2005, in an overview of historiography about the matter, J. Samuel Walker wrote, "the controversy over the use of the bomb seems certain to continue". Walker stated, "The fundamental issue that has divided scholars over a period of nearly four decades is whether the use of the bomb was necessary to achieve victory in the war in the Pacific on terms satisfactory to the United States."Supporters of the bombings generally assert that they caused the Japanese surrender, preventing massive casualties on both sides in the planned invasion of Japan: Kyūshū was to be invaded in November 1945 and Honshū four months later. It was thought Japan would not surrender unless there was an overwhelming demonstration of destructive capability. Those who oppose the bombings argue it was militarily unnecessary, inherently immoral, a war crime, or a form of state terrorism. Critics believe a naval blockade and conventional bombings would have forced Japan to surrender unconditionally. Some critics believe Japan was more motivated to surrender by the Soviet Union's invasion of Manchuria and other Japanese-held areas.

Dejima

Dejima (Japanese: 出島, "exit island"), in old Western documents Latinised as Deshima, Decima, Desjima, Dezima, Disma, or Disima, was a Dutch trading post notable for being the single place of direct trade and exchange between Japan and the outside world during the Edo period.

It was a small fan-shaped artificial island formed by digging a canal through a small peninsula in the bay of Nagasaki in 1634 by local merchants. Dejima was built to constrain foreign traders. Originally built to house Portuguese traders, it was used by the Dutch as a trading post from 1641 until 1853. Covering an area of 120 m × 75 m (390 ft × 250 ft) or 9,000 m2 (2.2 acres), it was later integrated into the city through the process of land reclamation. In 1922, the "Dejima Dutch Trading Post" was designated a Japanese national historic site.

Enola Gay

The Enola Gay () is a Boeing B-29 Superfortress bomber, named after Enola Gay Tibbets, the mother of the pilot, Colonel Paul Tibbets. On 6 August 1945, during the final stages of World War II, it became the first aircraft to drop an atomic bomb. The bomb, code-named "Little Boy", was targeted at the city of Hiroshima, Japan, and caused the near-complete destruction of the city. Enola Gay participated in the second atomic attack as the weather reconnaissance aircraft for the primary target of Kokura. Clouds and drifting smoke resulted in a secondary target, Nagasaki, being bombed instead.

After the war, the Enola Gay returned to the United States, where it was operated from Roswell Army Air Field, New Mexico. In May 1946, it was flown to Kwajalein for the Operation Crossroads nuclear tests in the Pacific, but was not chosen to make the test drop at Bikini Atoll. Later that year it was transferred to the Smithsonian Institution, and spent many years parked at air bases exposed to the weather and souvenir hunters, before being disassembled and transported to the Smithsonian's storage facility at Suitland, Maryland, in 1961.

In the 1980s, veterans groups engaged in a call for the Smithsonian to put the aircraft on display, leading to an acrimonious debate about exhibiting the aircraft without a proper historical context. The cockpit and nose section of the aircraft were exhibited at the National Air and Space Museum (NASM) in downtown Washington, D.C., for the bombing's 50th anniversary in 1995, amid controversy. Since 2003, the entire restored B-29 has been on display at NASM's Steven F. Udvar-Hazy Center. The last survivor of its crew, Theodore Van Kirk, died on 28 July 2014 at the age of 93.

Fat Man

"Fat Man" was the codename for the nuclear bomb that was detonated over the Japanese city of Nagasaki by the United States on 9 August 1945. It was the second of the only two nuclear weapons ever used in warfare, the first being Little Boy, and its detonation marked the third nuclear explosion in history. It was built by scientists and engineers at Los Alamos Laboratory using plutonium from the Hanford Site, and it was dropped from the Boeing B-29 Superfortress Bockscar piloted by Major Charles Sweeney.

The name Fat Man refers to the early design of the bomb because it had a wide, round shape; it was also known as the Mark III. Fat Man was an implosion-type nuclear weapon with a solid plutonium core. The first of that type to be detonated was the Gadget in the Trinity nuclear test less than a month earlier on 16 July at the Alamogordo Bombing and Gunnery Range in New Mexico. Two more were detonated during the Operation Crossroads nuclear tests at Bikini Atoll in 1946, and some 120 were produced between 1947 and 1949, when it was superseded by the Mark 4 nuclear bomb. The Fat Man was retired in 1950.

Ground zero

In terms of nuclear explosions and other large bombs, the term "ground zero" (also known as "surface zero") describes the point on the Earth's surface closest to a detonation. In the case of an explosion above the ground, ground zero refers to the point on the ground directly below the nuclear detonation and is sometimes called the hypocenter (from Greek ὑπο- "under-" and center).

Generally, the term "ground zero" is also used in relation to earthquakes, epidemics, and other disasters to mark the point of the most severe damage or destruction. The term is distinguished from the term zero point in that the latter can also be located in the air, underground, or underwater.

Hibakusha

Hibakusha (被爆者/被曝者, hi 被 "affected" + baku 爆 "bomb" or 曝 "exposition" + sha 者 "person") is a worldwide democratised word of Japanese origin generally designating the victims of the 1945 atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki.

Hirado, Nagasaki

Hirado (平戸市, Hirado-shi), historically known as Firando is a city located in Nagasaki Prefecture, Japan. The part historically named Hirado is located on the Hirado Island. With recent mergers, the city's boundaries have expanded, and Hirado now occupies parts of the main island of Kyushu. The components are connected by the Hirado Bridge.

As of March 1, 2017, the city has an estimated population of 31,192 and a population density of 130 persons per km². The total area is 235.63 km2 (91 square miles).

Hizen Province

Hizen Province (肥前国, Hizen no kuni) was an old province of Japan in the area of Saga and Nagasaki prefectures. It was sometimes called Hishū (肥州), with Higo Province. Hizen bordered on the provinces of Chikuzen and Chikugo. The province was included in Saikaidō. It did not include the regions of Tsushima and Iki that are now part of modern Nagasaki Prefecture.

Kyushu Shinkansen

The Kyushu Shinkansen (九州新幹線, Kyūshū Shinkansen) is a Japanese high-speed railway line between the cities of Fukuoka and Kagoshima in Kyushu, running parallel to the existing Kagoshima Main Line and operated by JR Kyushu. It is an extension of the Sanyo Shinkansen from Honshu. The southern 127 km (79 mi) was constructed first because the equivalent section of the former Kagoshima Main Line is single track, and thus a significant improvement in transit time was gained when this dual track section opened on 13 March 2004, despite the need for passengers to change to a Relay Tsubame narrow gauge train at Shin-Yatsushiro for the remainder of the journey to Hakata. The northern 130 km (81 mi) section opened on 12 March 2011 (although opening ceremonies were canceled due to the 2011 Tōhoku earthquake and tsunami), enabling through-services to Shin-Osaka (and with a change of train, Tokyo).The construction of the first section (from Takeo-Onsen to Isahaya) of the West Kyushu Shinkansen route to Nagasaki, approximately 45.7 km (28.4 mi) in length, began in 2008, with construction of the 21 km (13 mi) section from Isahaya to Nagasaki commencing in 2012. The entire line is due to open by March 2023. Service was proposed to be provided by Gauge Change Train (GCT) trainsets, which are designed to operate on both existing narrow gauge lines and standard gauge Shinkansen lines; however, technical issues with the bogies is likely to delay GCT introduction until 2025, and initial service options are now being investigated, such as a 'relay' service.

Little Boy

"Little Boy" was the code name for the type of atomic bomb dropped on the Japanese city of Hiroshima on 6 August 1945 during World War II. It was the first nuclear weapon used in warfare. The bomb was dropped by the Boeing B-29 Superfortress Enola Gay piloted by Colonel Paul W. Tibbets, Jr., commander of the 509th Composite Group of the United States Army Air Forces. It exploded with an energy of approximately 15 kilotons of TNT (63 TJ) and caused widespread death and destruction throughout the city. The Hiroshima bombing was the second nuclear explosion in history, after the Trinity test, and the first uranium-based detonation.

Little Boy was developed by Lieutenant Commander Francis Birch's group at the Manhattan Project's Los Alamos Laboratory during World War II, a development of the unsuccessful Thin Man nuclear bomb. Like Thin Man, it was a gun-type fission weapon, but it derived its explosive power from the nuclear fission of uranium-235, whereas Thin Man was based on fission of plutonium-239. Fission was accomplished by shooting a hollow cylinder of enriched uranium (the "bullet") onto a solid cylinder of the same material (the "target") by means of a charge of nitrocellulose propellant powder. It contained 64 kg (141 lb) of enriched uranium, although less than a kilogram underwent nuclear fission. Its components were fabricated at three different plants so that no one would have a copy of the complete design.

After the war ended, it was not expected that the inefficient Little Boy design would ever again be required, and many plans and diagrams were destroyed. However, by mid-1946, the Hanford Site reactors began suffering badly from the Wigner effect, the dislocation of atoms in a solid caused by neutron radiation, and plutonium became scarce, so six Little Boy assemblies were produced at Sandia Base. The Navy Bureau of Ordnance built another 25 Little Boy assemblies in 1947 for use by the Lockheed P2V Neptune nuclear strike aircraft which could be launched from the Midway-class aircraft carriers. All the Little Boy units were withdrawn from service by the end of January 1951.

Nagasaki Airport

Nagasaki Airport (長崎空港, Nagasaki Kūkō) (IATA: NGS, ICAO: RJFU) is an international airport located 4 km (2.5 mi) west of the railway station in the city of Ōmura and 18 km (11 mi) north northeast of the Nagasaki railway station in the city of Nagasaki, Nagasaki Prefecture, Japan.

The airport terminal and runway 14/32 are on an island, and the shorter runway 18/36 (now used by the Japan Maritime Self-Defense Force for helicopter flights) is on the mainland.

Nagasaki Prefecture

Nagasaki Prefecture (長崎県, Nagasaki-ken) is a prefecture of Japan located on the island of Kyushu. The capital is the city of Nagasaki.

Sakoku

Sakoku (鎖国, "closed country") was the isolationist foreign policy of the Japanese Tokugawa shogunate (aka Bakufu) under which relations and trade between Japan and other countries were severely limited, nearly all foreign nationals were barred from entering Japan and common Japanese people were kept from leaving the country for a period of over 220 years. The policy was enacted by the Tokugawa shogunate under Tokugawa Iemitsu through a number of edicts and policies from 1633–39, and ended after 1853 when the American Black Ships commanded by Matthew Perry forced the opening of Japan to American (and, by extension, Western) trade through a series of unequal treaties.

It was preceded by a period of largely unrestricted trade and widespread piracy when Japanese mariners travelled Asia and official embassies and envoys visited both Asian states, New Spain (now Mexico), and Europe. This period was also noted for the large number of foreign traders and pirates who were resident in Japan and active in Japanese waters.

The term Sakoku originates from the manuscript work Sakoku-ron (「鎖国」) written by Japanese astronomer and translator Shizuki Tadao (ja:志筑忠雄) in 1801. Shizuki invented the word while translating the works of the 17th-century German traveller Engelbert Kaempfer concerning Japan.Japan was not completely isolated under the sakoku policy. It was a system in which strict regulations were applied to commerce and foreign relations by the shogunate and by certain feudal domains (han). There was extensive trade with China through the port of Nagasaki, in the far west of Japan, with a residential area for the Chinese. The policy stated that the only European influence permitted was the Dutch factory at Dejima in Nagasaki. Western scientific, technical and medical innovations did flow into Japan through Rangaku ("Dutch learning"). Trade with Korea was limited to the Tsushima Domain (today part of Nagasaki Prefecture). Trade with the Ainu people was limited to the Matsumae Domain in Hokkaidō, and trade with the Ryūkyū Kingdom took place in Satsuma Domain (present-day Kagoshima Prefecture). Apart from these direct commercial contacts in peripheral provinces, trading countries sent regular missions to the shōgun in Edo and Osaka Castle.

Sasebo, Nagasaki

Sasebo (佐世保市, Sasebo-shi) is a core city located in Nagasaki Prefecture, Japan. As of 1 October 2016, the city has an estimated population of 251,417 and a population density of 590 persons per km². The total area is 426.47 km2 (165 sq mi).

The city includes a part of Saikai National Park. Located in the southern part of the city is the Dutch-styled theme park Huis Ten Bosch.

Transcosmos Stadium Nagasaki

Transcosmos Stadium Nagasaki (トランスコスモススタジアム長崎) is an athletic stadium in Isahaya, Nagasaki, Japan. Since August 2016 it has been called Transcosmos Stadium Nagasaki for the naming rights.

It is primarily used for football and is the home field of the J.League football club V-Varen Nagasaki.

V-Varen Nagasaki

V-Varen Nagasaki (V・ファーレン長崎, Vi Fāren Nagasaki) is a Japanese J2 League football club based in Nagasaki. The club was established in 1985 as Ariake Football Club till they merged with Kunimi Football Club in 2005 and adopted the name they still hold today.

The club gained promotion into the J. League Division 2 in 2012 for the first time in their history after finishing as the champions in the 2012 Japan Football League and hired Nagasaki native Takuya Takagi to coach the club for the 2013 season.On 11 November 2017, the club clinched promotion to the J1 League for the first time in their history after a 3-1 home win over Kamatamare Sanuki

Transcriptions
RomanizationNagasaki
Climate data for Nagasaki, Nagasaki (1981~2010)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 21.3
(70.3)
22.6
(72.7)
24.4
(75.9)
29.0
(84.2)
34.6
(94.3)
36.4
(97.5)
37.7
(99.9)
37.6
(99.7)
36.1
(97.0)
33.7
(92.7)
27.4
(81.3)
23.8
(74.8)
37.7
(99.9)
Average high °C (°F) 10.4
(50.7)
11.7
(53.1)
14.8
(58.6)
19.7
(67.5)
23.5
(74.3)
26.4
(79.5)
30.1
(86.2)
31.7
(89.1)
28.6
(83.5)
23.8
(74.8)
18.3
(64.9)
13.1
(55.6)
21.0
(69.8)
Daily mean °C (°F) 7.0
(44.6)
7.9
(46.2)
10.9
(51.6)
15.4
(59.7)
19.4
(66.9)
22.8
(73.0)
26.8
(80.2)
27.9
(82.2)
24.8
(76.6)
19.7
(67.5)
14.3
(57.7)
9.4
(48.9)
17.2
(63.0)
Average low °C (°F) 3.8
(38.8)
4.4
(39.9)
7.3
(45.1)
11.6
(52.9)
15.8
(60.4)
20.0
(68.0)
24.3
(75.7)
25.1
(77.2)
21.8
(71.2)
16.1
(61.0)
10.8
(51.4)
5.9
(42.6)
13.9
(57.0)
Record low °C (°F) −5.2
(22.6)
−4.8
(23.4)
−3.6
(25.5)
0.2
(32.4)
5.3
(41.5)
8.9
(48.0)
15.0
(59.0)
17.0
(62.6)
11.1
(52.0)
4.9
(40.8)
−0.2
(31.6)
−3.9
(25.0)
−5.2
(22.6)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 64.0
(2.52)
85.7
(3.37)
132.0
(5.20)
151.3
(5.96)
179.3
(7.06)
314.6
(12.39)
314.4
(12.38)
195.4
(7.69)
188.8
(7.43)
85.8
(3.38)
85.6
(3.37)
60.8
(2.39)
1,857.7
(73.14)
Average snowfall cm (inches) 2
(0.8)
1
(0.4)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
1
(0.4)
4
(1.6)
Average precipitation days (≥ 0.5 mm) 11.1 9.9 12.5 10.8 10.6 13.5 11.6 9.8 9.7 6.2 9.0 10.0 124.7
Average snowy days 1.2 0.9 0.2 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.2 2.5
Average relative humidity (%) 66 64 66 68 72 79 80 75 73 67 67 66 70
Mean monthly sunshine hours 102.8 119.7 148.5 174.7 184.4 135.3 178.7 210.7 172.8 181.4 137.9 119.1 1,866
Source #1: Japan Meteorological Agency[26]
Source #2: Japan Meteorological Agency (records)[27]
Core cities
Cities
Districts
2,000,000 and more
1,000,000–1,999,999
500,000–999,999
200,000–499,999

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