Nagarjuna

Nāgārjuna (c. 150 – c. 250 CE) is widely considered one of the most important Buddhist philosophers.[2] Along with his disciple Āryadeva, he is considered to be the founder of the Madhyamaka school of Mahāyāna Buddhism.[2] Nāgārjuna is also credited with developing the philosophy of the Prajñāpāramitā sūtras and, in some sources, with having revealed these scriptures in the world, having recovered them from the nāgas (water spirits often depicted in the form of serpent-like humans). Furthermore, he is traditionally supposed to have written several treatises on rasayana as well as serving a term as the head of Nālandā.[3]

Nāgārjuna
Nagarjuna at Samye Ling Monastery
Golden statue of Nāgārjuna at Kagyu Samye Ling Monastery, Scotland.
Bornc. 150 CE
Diedc. 250 CE
India
OccupationBuddhist teacher, monk and philosopher
Known forCredited with founding the Madhyamaka school of Mahāyāna Buddhism

History

Very little is reliably known of the life of Nāgārjuna, since the surviving accounts were written in Chinese[4] and Tibetan centuries after his death. According to some accounts, Nāgārjuna was originally from South India.[1][5] Some scholars believe that Nāgārjuna was an advisor to a king of the Satavahana dynasty.[1] Archaeological evidence at Amarāvatī indicates that if this is true, the king may have been Yajña Śrī Śātakarṇi, who ruled between 167 and 196 CE. On the basis of this association, Nāgārjuna is conventionally placed at around 150–250 CE.[1]

According to a 4th/5th-century biography translated by Kumārajīva, Nāgārjuna was born into a Brahmin family[6] in Vidarbha[7][8][9] (a region of Maharashtra) and later became a Buddhist.

Some sources claim that in his later years, Nāgārjuna lived on the mountain of Śrīparvata near the city that would later be called Nāgārjunakoṇḍa ("Hill of Nāgārjuna").[10] The ruins of Nāgārjunakoṇḍa are located in Guntur district, Andhra Pradesh. The Caitika and Bahuśrutīya nikāyas are known to have had monasteries in Nāgārjunakoṇḍa.[10] The archaeological finds at Nagarjunakonda have not resulted in any evidence that the site was associated with Nagarjuna. The name "Nagarjunakonda" dates from the medieval period, and the 3rd-4th century inscriptions found at the site make it clear that it was known as "Vijayapuri" in the ancient period.[11]

Works

There exist a number of influential texts attributed to Nāgārjuna though, as there are many pseudepigrapha attributed to him, lively controversy exists over which are his authentic works.

Mūlamadhyamakakārikā

The Mūlamadhyamakakārikā is Nāgārjuna's best-known work. It is "not only a grand commentary on the Buddha's discourse to Kaccayana,[12] the only discourse cited by name, but also a detailed and careful analysis of most of the important discourses included in the Nikayas and the agamas, especially those of the Atthakavagga of the Sutta-nipata.[13]

Utilizing the Buddha's theory of "dependent arising" (pratitya-samutpada), Nagarjuna demonstrated the futility of [...] metaphysical speculations. His method of dealing with such metaphysics is referred to as "middle way" (madhyama pratipad). It is the middle way that avoided the substantialism of the Sarvastivadins as well as the nominalism of the Sautrantikas.[14]

In the Mūlamadhyamakakārikā, "[A]ll experienced phenomena are empty (sunya). This did not mean that they are not experienced and, therefore, non-existent; only that they are devoid of a permanent and eternal substance (svabhava) because, like a dream, they are mere projections of human consciousness. Since these imaginary fictions are experienced, they are not mere names (prajnapti)."[14]

Major attributed works

According to David Seyfort Ruegg, the Madhyamakasastrastuti attributed to Candrakirti (c. 600 – c. 650) refers to eight texts by Nagarjuna:

the (Madhyamaka)karikas, the Yuktisastika, the Sunyatasaptati, the Vigrahavyavartani, the Vidala (i.e. Vaidalyasutra/Vaidalyaprakarana), the Ratnavali, the Sutrasamuccaya, and Samstutis (Hymns). This list covers not only much less than the grand total of works ascribed to Nagarjuna in the Chinese and Tibetan collections, but it does not even include all such works that Candrakirti has himself cited in his writings.[15]

According to one view, that of Christian Lindtner, the works definitely written by Nāgārjuna are:[16]

  • Mūlamadhyamaka-kārikā (Fundamental Verses of the Middle Way), available in three Sanskrit manuscripts and numerous translations.[17]
  • Śūnyatāsaptati (Seventy Verses on Emptiness), accompanied by a prose commentary ascribed to Nagarjuna himself.
  • Vigrahavyāvartanī (The End of Disputes)
  • Vaidalyaprakaraṇa (Pulverizing the Categories), a prose work critiquing the categories used by Indian Nyaya philosophy.
  • Vyavahārasiddhi (Proof of Convention)
  • Yuktiṣāṣṭika (Sixty Verses on Reasoning)
  • Catuḥstava (Four Hymns): Lokātīta-stava (Hymn to transcendence), Niraupamya-stava (to the Peerless), Acintya-stava (to the Inconceivable), and Paramārtha-stava (to Ultimate Truth).[18]
  • Ratnāvalī (Precious Garland), subtitled (rajaparikatha), a discourse addressed to an Indian king (possibly a Satavahana monarch).[19]
  • Pratītyasamutpādahṝdayakārika (Verses on the heart of Dependent Arising), along with a short commentary (Vyākhyāna).
  • Sūtrasamuccaya, an anthology of various sutra passages.
  • Bodhicittavivaraṇa (Exposition of the awakening mind)
  • Suhṛllekha (Letter to a Good Friend)
  • Bodhisaṃbhāraśāstra (Requisites of awakening), a work the path of the Bodhisattva and paramitas, it is quoted by Candrakirti in his commentary on Aryadeva's four hundred. Now only extant in Chinese translation (Taisho 1660).[20]

The Tibetan historian Buston considers the first six to be the main treatises of Nāgārjuna (this is called the "yukti corpus", rigs chogs), while according to Tāranātha only the first five are the works of Nāgārjuna. TRV Murti considers Ratnaavali, Pratitya Samutpaada Hridaya and Sutra Samuccaya to be works of Nāgārjuna as the first two are quoted profusely by Chandrakirti and the third by Shantideva.[21]

Other attributed works

In addition to works mentioned above, several others are attributed to Nāgārjuna. There is an ongoing, lively controversy over which of those works are authentic. Contemporary research suggest that some these works belong to a significantly later period, either to late 8th or early 9th century CE, and hence can not be authentic works of Nāgārjuna. Several works considered important in esoteric Buddhism are attributed to Nāgārjuna and his disciples by traditional historians like Tāranātha from 17th century Tibet. These historians try to account for chronological difficulties with various theories. For example, apropagation of later writings via mystical revelation. For a useful summary of this tradition, see Wedemeyer 2007.

According to Ruegg, "three collections of stanzas on the virtues of intelligence and moral conduct ascribed to Nagarjuna are extant in Tibetan translation": Prajñasatakaprakarana, Nitisastra-Jantuposanabindu and Niti-sastra-Prajñadanda.[22]

Other works are extant only in Chinese, one of these is the Shih-erh-men-lun or 'Twelve-topic treatise' (*Dvadasanikaya or *Dvadasamukha-sastra); one of the three basic treatises of the Sanlun school (East Asian Madhyamaka).[23]

Lindtner considers that the Mahāprajñāpāramitāupadeśa (Ta-chih-tu-lun, Taisho 1509, "Commentary on the great prajñaparamita") which has been influential in Chinese Buddhism, is not a genuine work of Nāgārjuna. This work is also only attested in a Chinese translation by Kumārajīva and is unknown in the Tibetan and Indian traditions.[24] There is much discussion as to whether this is a work of Nāgārjuna, or someone else. Étienne Lamotte, who translated one third of the work into French, felt that it was the work of a North Indian bhikṣu of the Sarvāstivāda school who later became a convert to the Mahayana. The Chinese scholar-monk Yin Shun felt that it was the work of a South Indian and that Nāgārjuna was quite possibly the author. These two views are not necessarily in opposition and a South Indian Nāgārjuna could well have studied the northern Sarvāstivāda. Neither of the two felt that it was composed by Kumārajīva, which others have suggested.

Other attributed works include:[25]

  • Bhavasamkranti
  • Dharmadhatustava (Hymn to the Dharmadhatu), uncertain authorship, according to Ruegg, it shows traces of later Mahayana and Tantrik thought.
  • Salistambakarikas
  • A commentary on the Dashabhumikasutra.
  • Mahayanavimsika (uncertain authorship as per Ruegg)
  • *Ekaslokasastra (Taisho 1573)
  • *Isvarakartrtvanirakrtih (A refutation of God/Isvara)

Philosophy

Nagarjuna
Statue of Nāgārjuna in Tibetan monastery near Kullu, India

From studying his writings, it is clear that Nāgārjuna was conversant with many of the Śrāvaka philosophies and with the Mahāyāna tradition. However, determining Nāgārjuna's affiliation with a specific nikāya is difficult, considering much of this material has been lost. If the most commonly accepted attribution of texts (that of Christian Lindtner) holds, then he was clearly a Māhayānist, but his philosophy holds assiduously to the Śrāvaka Tripiṭaka, and while he does make explicit references to Mahāyāna texts, he is always careful to stay within the parameters set out by the Śrāvaka canon.

Nāgārjuna may have arrived at his positions from a desire to achieve a consistent exegesis of the Buddha's doctrine as recorded in the āgamas. In the eyes of Nāgārjuna, the Buddha was not merely a forerunner, but the very founder of the Madhyamaka system.[26] David Kalupahana sees Nāgārjuna as a successor to Moggaliputta-Tissa in being a champion of the middle-way and a reviver of the original philosophical ideals of the Buddha.[27]

Nāgārjuna assumes a knowledge of the definitions of the sixteen categories as given in the Nyaya Sutras, the chief text of the Hindu Nyaya school, and wrote a treatise on the pramanas where he reduced the syllogism of five members into one of three. In the Vigrahavyavartani Karika, Nāgārjuna criticizes the Nyaya theory of pramanas (means of knowledge) [28]

Nāgārjuna was fully acquainted with the classical Hindu philosophies of Samkhya and even the Vaiseshika.[29]

Because of the high degree of similarity between Nāgārjuna's philosophy and Pyrrhonism, particularly the surviving works of Sextus Empiricus[30] Thomas McEvilley suspects that Nāgārjuna was influenced by Greek Pyrrhonists texts imported into India.[31] Pyrrho of Elis (c. 360-c. 270 BCE), who is usually credited with founding this school of skeptical philosophy, was himself influenced by Indian philosophy, when he traveled to India with Alexander the Great's army and studied with the gymnosophists.

Sunyata

Nāgārjuna's major thematic focus is the concept of śūnyatā (translated into English as "emptiness") which brings together other key Buddhist doctrines, particularly anātman "not-self" and pratītyasamutpāda "dependent origination", to refute the metaphysics of some of his contemporaries. For Nāgārjuna, as for the Buddha in the early texts, it is not merely sentient beings that are "selfless" or non-substantial; all phenomena (dhammas) are without any svabhāva, literally "own-being", "self-nature", or "inherent existence" and thus without any underlying essence. They are empty of being independently existent; thus the heterodox theories of svabhāva circulating at the time were refuted on the basis of the doctrines of early Buddhism. This is so because all things arise always dependently: not by their own power, but by depending on conditions leading to their coming into existence, as opposed to being.

Nāgārjuna means by real any entity which has a nature of its own (svabhāva), which is not produced by causes (akrtaka), which is not dependent on anything else (paratra nirapeksha).[32]

Chapter 24 verse 14 of the Mūlamadhyamakakārikā provides one of Nāgārjuna's most famous quotations on emptiness and co-arising:[33]

sarvaṃ ca yujyate tasya śūnyatā yasya yujyate
sarvaṃ na yujyate tasya śūnyaṃ yasya na yujyate

All is possible when emptiness is possible.
Nothing is possible when emptiness is impossible.

As part of his analysis of the emptiness of phenomena in the Mūlamadhyamakakārikā, Nāgārjuna critiques svabhāva in several different concepts. He discusses the problems of positing any sort of inherent essence to causation, movement, change and personal identity. Nāgārjuna makes use of the Indian logical tool of the tetralemma to attack any essentialist conceptions. Nāgārjuna’s logical analysis is based on four basic propositions:

All things (dharma) exist: affirmation of being, negation of non-being
All things (dharma) do not exist: affirmation of non-being, negation of being
All things (dharma) both exist and do not exist: both affirmation and negation
All things (dharma) neither exist nor do not exist: neither affirmation nor negation [34]

To say that all things are 'empty' is to deny any kind of ontological foundation, therefore Nāgārjuna's view is often seen as a kind of ontological anti-foundationalism[35] or a metaphysical anti-realism.[36]

Understanding the nature of the emptiness of phenomena is simply a means to an end, which is nirvana. Thus Nāgārjuna's philosophical project is ultimately a soteriological one meant to correct our everyday cognitive processes which mistakenly posits svabhāva on the flow of experience.

Some scholars such as Fyodor Shcherbatskoy and T.R.V. Murti held that Nāgārjuna was the inventor of the Shunyata doctrine, however, more recent work by scholars such as Choong Mun-keat, Yin Shun and Dhammajothi Thero has argued that Nāgārjuna was not an innovator by putting forth this theory,[37][38][39] but that, in the words of Shi Huifeng, "the connection between emptiness and dependent origination is not an innovation or creation of Nāgārjuna."[40]

Two truths

Nāgārjuna was also instrumental in the development of the two truths doctrine, which claims that there are two levels of truth in Buddhist teaching, the ultimate truth (paramārtha satya) and the conventional or superficial truth (saṃvṛtisatya). The ultimate truth to Nāgārjuna is the truth that everything is empty of essence,[41] this includes emptiness itself ('the emptiness of emptiness'). While some (Murti, 1955) have interpreted this by positing Nāgārjuna as a neo-Kantian and thus making ultimate truth a metaphysical noumenon or an "ineffable ultimate that transcends the capacities of discursive reason",[42] others such as Mark Siderits and Jay L. Garfield have argued that Nāgārjuna's view is that "the ultimate truth is that there is no ultimate truth" (Siderits) and that Nāgārjuna is a "semantic anti-dualist" who posits that there are only conventional truths.[42] Hence according to Garfield:

Suppose that we take a conventional entity, such as a table. We analyze it to demonstrate its emptiness, finding that there is no table apart from its parts […]. So we conclude that it is empty. But now let us analyze that emptiness […]. What do we find? Nothing at all but the table’s lack of inherent existence. […]. To see the table as empty […] is to see the table as conventional, as dependent.[43]

In articulating this notion in the Mūlamadhyamakakārikā, Nāgārjuna drew on an early source in the Kaccānagotta Sutta,[44] which distinguishes definitive meaning (nītārtha) from interpretable meaning (neyārtha):

By and large, Kaccayana, this world is supported by a polarity, that of existence and non-existence. But when one reads the origination of the world as it actually is with right discernment, "non-existence" with reference to the world does not occur to one. When one reads the cessation of the world as it actually is with right discernment, "existence" with reference to the world does not occur to one.

By and large, Kaccayana, this world is in bondage to attachments, clingings (sustenances), and biases. But one such as this does not get involved with or cling to these attachments, clingings, fixations of awareness, biases, or obsessions; nor is he resolved on "my self". He has no uncertainty or doubt that just stress, when arising, is arising; stress, when passing away, is passing away. In this, his knowledge is independent of others. It's to this extent, Kaccayana, that there is right view.

"Everything exists": That is one extreme. "Everything doesn't exist": That is a second extreme. Avoiding these two extremes, the Tathagata teaches the Dhamma via the middle...[45]

The version linked to is the one found in the nikayas, and is slightly different from the one found in the Samyuktagama. Both contain the concept of teaching via the middle between the extremes of existence and non-existence.[46][47] Nagarjuna does not make reference to "everything" when he quotes the agamic text in his Mūlamadhyamakakārikā.[48]

Causality

Jay L. Garfield describes that Nāgārjuna approached causality from the four noble truths and dependent origination. Nāgārjuna distinguished two dependent origination views in a causal process, that which causes effects and that which causes conditions. This is predicated in the two truth doctrine, as conventional truth and ultimate truth held together, in which both are empty in existence. The distinction between effects and conditions is controversial. In Nāgārjuna's approach, cause means an event or state that has power to bring an effect. Conditions, refer to proliferating causes that bring a further event, state or process; without a metaphysical commitment to an occult connection between explaining and explanans. He argues nonexistent causes and various existing conditions. The argument draws from unreal causal power. Things conventional exist and are ultimately nonexistent to rest in the middle way in both causal existence and nonexistence as casual emptiness within the Mūlamadhyamakakārikā doctrine. Although seeming strange to Westerners, this is seen as an attack on a reified view of causality.[49]

Relativity

Nāgārjuna also taught the idea of relativity; in the Ratnāvalī, he gives the example that shortness exists only in relation to the idea of length. The determination of a thing or object is only possible in relation to other things or objects, especially by way of contrast. He held that the relationship between the ideas of "short" and "long" is not due to intrinsic nature (svabhāva). This idea is also found in the Pali Nikāyas and Chinese Āgamas, in which the idea of relativity is expressed similarly: "That which is the element of light ... is seen to exist on account of [in relation to] darkness; that which is the element of good is seen to exist on account of bad; that which is the element of space is seen to exist on account of form."[50]

Iconography

Nāgārjuna is often depicted in composite form comprising human and nāga characteristics. Often the nāga-aspect forms a canopy crowning and shielding his human head. The notion of the naga is found throughout Indian religious culture, and typically signifies an intelligent serpent or dragon, who is responsible for the rains, lakes and other bodies of water. In Buddhism, it is a synonym for a realised arhat, or wise person in general.[51]

See also

References

  1. ^ a b c d Kalupahana, David. A History of Buddhist Philosophy. 1992. p. 160
  2. ^ a b Garfield, Jay L. (1995), The Fundamental Wisdom of the Middle Way, Oxford: Oxford University Press.
  3. ^ Hsing Yun, Xingyun, Tom Manzo, Shujan Cheng Infinite Compassion, Endless Wisdom: The Practice of the Bodhisattva Path Buddha's Light Publishing Hacienda Heights California
  4. ^ Rongxi, Li; Dalia, Albert A. (2002). The Lives of Great Monks and Nuns, Berkeley CA: Numata Center for Translation and Research, pp. 21–30
  5. ^ Buddhist Art & Antiquities of Himachal Pradesh By Omacanda Hāṇḍā, p. 97
  6. ^ "Notes on the Nagarjunikonda Inscriptions", Dutt, Nalinaksha. The Indian Historical Quarterly 7:3 1931.09 pp. 633–53 "..Tibetan tradition which says that Nāgārjuna was born of a brahmin family of Vidarbha."
  7. ^ Geri Hockfield Malandra, Unfolding A Mandala: The Buddhist Cave Temples at Ellora, SUNY Press, 1993, p. 17
  8. ^ Shōhei Ichimura, Buddhist Critical Spirituality: Prajñā and Śūnyatā, Motilal Banarsidass Publishers (2001), p. 67
  9. ^ Bkra-śis-rnam-rgyal (Dwags-po Paṇ-chen), Takpo Tashi Namgyal, Mahamudra: The Quintessence of Mind and Meditation, Motilal Banarsidass Publishers (1993), p. 443
  10. ^ a b Hirakawa, Akira. Groner, Paul. A History of Indian Buddhism: From Śākyamuni to Early Mahāyāna. 2007. p. 242
  11. ^ K. Krishna Murthy (1977). Nāgārjunakoṇḍā: A Cultural Study. Concept Publishing Company. p. 1. OCLC 4541213.
  12. ^ See SN 12.15 Kaccayanagotta Sutta: To Kaccayana Gotta (on Right View) Archived 29 March 2013 at the Wayback Machine
  13. ^ Kalupahana 1994, p. 161.
  14. ^ a b Kalupahana 1992, p. 120.
  15. ^ Ruegg, David Seyfort, ''The Literature of the Madhyamaka School of Philosophy in India,'' Otto Harrassowitz Verlag, 1981, p. 8.
  16. ^ Lindtner, C. (1982). Nagarjuniana: studies in the writings and philosophy of Nāgārjuna, Copenhagen: Akademisk forlag, p. 11
  17. ^ Ruegg, David Seyfort, ''The Literature of the Madhyamaka School of Philosophy in India,'' Otto Harrassowitz Verlag, 1981, p. 9.
  18. ^ Fernando Tola & Carmen Dragonetti, Nagarjuna's Catustava, Journal of Indian Philosophy 13 (1):1-54 (1985)
  19. ^ Ruegg, David Seyfort, ''The Literature of the Madhyamaka School of Philosophy in India,'' Otto Harrassowitz Verlag, 1981, p. 24.
  20. ^ Ruegg, David Seyfort, ''The Literature of the Madhyamaka School of Philosophy in India,'' Otto Harrassowitz Verlag, 1981, p. 29.
  21. ^ TRV Murti, Central philosophy of Buddhism, pp. 89–91
  22. ^ Ruegg, David Seyfort, ''The Literature of the Madhyamaka School of Philosophy in India,'' Otto Harrassowitz Verlag, 1981, p. 27.
  23. ^ Ruegg, David Seyfort, ''The Literature of the Madhyamaka School of Philosophy in India,'' Otto Harrassowitz Verlag, 1981, p. 28.
  24. ^ Ruegg, David Seyfort, ''The Literature of the Madhyamaka School of Philosophy in India,'' Otto Harrassowitz Verlag, 1981, p. 32.
  25. ^ Ruegg, David Seyfort, ''The Literature of the Madhyamaka School of Philosophy in India,'' Otto Harrassowitz Verlag, 1981, pp. 28-46.
  26. ^ Christian Lindtner, Master of Wisdom. Dharma Publishing 1997, p. 324.
  27. ^ David Kalupahana, Mulamadhyamakakarika of Nāgārjuna: The Philosophy of the Middle Way. Motilal Banarsidass, 2005, pp. 2, 5.
  28. ^ S.Radhakrishnan, Indian Philosophy Volume 1, p. 644
  29. ^ TRV Murti, The central philosophy of Buddhism, p. 92
  30. ^ Adrian Kuzminski, Pyrrhonism: How the Ancient Greeks Reinvented Buddhism 2008
  31. ^ Thomas McEvilley, The Shape of Ancient Thought 2002 pp499-505
  32. ^ S.Radhakrishnan, Indian philosophy Volume 1, p. 607
  33. ^ Siderits, Mark; Katsura, Shoryu (2013). Nagarjuna's Middle Way: Mulamadhyamakakarika (Classics of Indian Buddhism). Wisdom Publications. pp. 175–76. ISBN 1-61429-050-4.
  34. ^ Dumoulin, Heinrich (1998) Zen Buddhism: a history, India and China, Macmillan Publishing, 43
  35. ^ Westerhoff, Jan. Nagarjuna's Madhyamaka: A Philosophical Introduction.
  36. ^ Siderits, Mark. Nagarjuna as anti-realist, Journal of Indian Philosophy December 1988, Volume 16, Issue 4, pp 311-325.
  37. ^ Yìn Shùn, An Investigation into Emptiness (Kōng zhī Tànjìu 空之探究) (1985)
  38. ^ Choong, The Notion of Emptiness in Early Buddhism (1999)
  39. ^ Medawachchiye Dhammajothi Thero, The Concept of Emptiness in Pali Literature
  40. ^ Shi huifeng: “Dependent Origination = Emptiness”—Nāgārjuna’s Innovation?
  41. ^ Garfield, Jay. Empty Words: Buddhist Philosophy and Cross-cultural Interpretation, pp. 91.
  42. ^ a b Siderits, Mark, On the Soteriological Significance of Emptiness, Contemporary Buddhism, Vol. 4, No. 1, 2003.
  43. ^ Garfield, J. L. (2002). Empty words, pp. 38–39
  44. ^ Kalupahana, David J. (1986). Nāgārjuna: The Philosophy of the Middle Way. State University of New York Press.
  45. ^ Thanissaro Bhikkhu (1997). SN 12.15 Kaccayanagotta Sutta: To Kaccayana Gotta (on Right View)
  46. ^ A.K. Warder, A Course in Indian Philosophy. Motilal Banarsidass Publ., 1998, pp. 55–56
  47. ^ For the full text of both versions with analysis see pp. 192–95 of Choong Mun-keat, The Fundamental Teachings of Early Buddhism: A comparative study basted on the Sutranga portion of the Pali Samyutta-Nikaya and the Chinese Samyuktagama; Harrassowitz Verlag, Weisbaden, 2000.
  48. ^ David Kalupahana, Nagarjuna: The Philosophy of the Middle Way. SUNY Press, 1986, p. 232.
  49. ^ Garfield, Jay L (April 1994). "Dependent Arising and the Emptiness of Emptiness: Why Did Nāgārjuna Start with Causation?". Philosophy East and West. 44 (2): 219–50. doi:10.2307/1399593. JSTOR 1399593.
  50. ^ David Kalupahana, Causality: The Central Philosophy of Buddhism. The University Press of Hawaii, 1975, pp. 96–97. In the Nikayas the quote is found at SN 2.150.
  51. ^ Berger, Douglas. "Nagarjuna (c. 150—c. 250)". Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Retrieved 2 May 2017.

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Acharya Nagarjuna University

Acharya Nagarjuna University (IAST: Ācārya Nāgārjuna Vișvavidyālaya) is a university in the region of Namburu, Guntur, Andhra Pradesh, India. It is one of several major universities in the country, covering many colleges and institutes of districts in the region. It is located in Nagarjuna Nagar, Namburu, in the northern part of Guntur City, a major centre of learning for the state of Andhra Pradesh.

The university is the outgrowth initiative of the post-graduate centre of Andhra University, which was established in 1967 in the Nallapadu area of Guntur, subsequently relocated to the Nambur/Kaza area in the east of the city. The centre gained affiliating-university status in 1976 and would open with ten post-graduate courses. The university is named after Acharya Nagarjuna, the founder of the Madhyamaka path of Mahayana Buddhism.

Akkineni Nagarjuna

Akkineni Nagarjuna (born 29 August 1959) is an Indian film actor, film producer, and entrepreneur known for his work primarily in Telugu Cinema. He has received nine state Nandi Awards, three Filmfare Awards South and a National Film Award-Special Mention. In 1996, he produced Ninne Pelladata, which won the National Film Award for Best Feature Film in Telugu.

He is also known for his work in biographical films, he played 15th-century composer Annamacharya in the 1997 film Annamayya, Yavakri (the son of the ascetic Bharadwaja) in the 2002 film Agni Varsha, Major Padmapani Acharya, in the 2003 war film LOC Kargil, 17th-century composer Kancherla Gopanna in the 2006 film Sri Ramadasu, Suddala Hanmanthu in the 2011 film Rajanna, Sai Baba of Shirdi in the 2012 film Shirdi Sai, Chandala, in the 2013 film Jagadguru Adi Sankara, and Hathiram Bhavaji, and in the 2017 film Om Namo Venkatesaya.In 1989, he starred in the Mani Ratnam directed romantic drama film Geetanjali, which won the National Film Award for Best Popular Film Providing Wholesome Entertainment. The following year, he acted in Siva, an action drama blockbuster directed by Ram Gopal Varma, which premiered at the 13th International Film Festival of India. In 1990, he made his Bollywood debut with the Hindi remake of Shiva. In 1998, he received the National Film Award-Special Mention for his performance in the historical film Annamayya.

In 2013, he represented the cinema of South India at the Delhi Film Festival's 100 Years of Indian Cinema's celebration, alongside Ramesh Sippy and Vishal Bhardwaj from Bollywood. In 1995, he ventured into film production, with a production unit operating in Seychelles, and was a co-director of an Emmy Award-winning film animation company called Heart Animation. Nagarjuna is the co-owner of the production company Annapurna Studios. He is also the president of the non-profit film school Annapurna International School of Film and Media based in Hyderabad.

Annapurna Studios

Annapurna Studios is a production house established in 1975 by the late Telugu actor Nageswara Rao Akkineni. This studio was named after his wife 'Annapurna Akkineni'. Located in the heart of Hyderabad city, the 22-acre studios mainly produce Telugu films and also provides various production and post-production facilities, including sound stages for set construction, outdoor sets, editing, dubbing and Digital Intermediate suites. In 2011, the Akkineni Family launched a non-profitable educational institute (Annapurna International School of Film and Media). ANR's son, actor Nagarjuna Akkineni serves as a chairman after his father’s demise.

The non-profit Annapurna International School of Film and Media is also situated in the premises of Annapurna Studios.

Buddhapālita

Buddhapālita, बुद्धपालित, (470–550) was a commentator on the works of Nagarjuna and Aryadeva. His works were criticised by his contemporary Bhāviveka, and then he was defended by the later Candrakīrti, whose terms differentiating the two scholars led to the rise of the Prasaṅgika and Svatantrika schools of Madhyamaka. In this sense, Buddhapālita can be said to have been the founder of the Prasaṅgika Madhyamaka School.

Buddhapalita was a great master and exponent of the Prasangika system of Mahayana Buddhism. It is said that he was born in Hamsakrida, South India and from an early age took a deep interest in the teaching of the Buddha. He received novice and full ordination and entered Nalanda monastery where he studied under acharya Sangharaksita, himself a disciple of Nagamitra. Buddhapalita quickly mastered the teachings of arya Nagarjuna and later while resident at Dantapuri monastery in South India he composed many commentaries to the works of Nagarjuna and Aryadeva.

In the sixth Century CE Buddhapalita composed his famous commentary to Nagarjuna's Fundamental Wisdom (Mulasastra) called Buddhapalitavrtti, a work of great clarity and insight. As a true Prasangika treatise it extensively employed consequences to elaborate Madhyamaka view. His younger contemporary Bhāviveka also composed a commentary to Nagarjuna's work called Lamp of Wisdom (Prajñapradipa) in which he criticized Buddhapalita's position.

It is the way that Bhāviveka criticizes Buddhapalita that belies Bhāviveka's belief in autonomous inference (svatantranumana; Wylie: rang rgyud rjes dpag). Bhāviveka asserted that stating consequences was insufficient. To generate a valid conception of emptiness, one must state autonomously established syllogisms. Candrakīrti (7th century CE), composed the treatise called Clear Words (Prasannpada) as a commentary to the Fundamental Wisdom based on Buddhapalita's work. In his work Candrakīrti defends Buddhapalita's position and refutes Bhāviveka's assertion of autonomous syllogisms.

Since Bhāviveka was the first person to clearly distinguish the Svatantrika view from the Prasangika view he is regarded as the founder of the Svatantrika system. Similarly since Candrakīrti was the first person to clearly distinguish Prasañgika view from the Svatantrika he is regarded by Tibetan scholars as the founder or path breaker (Wylie: shing rta rsol 'byed) of the Prasangika system. But Tibetans recognize that Candrakīrti's explanation arises within the commentarial lineage of Buddhapalita, and for that reason some assert Buddhapalita to be the founder of Prasangika. In general though Nagarjuna and Buddhapalita clearly taught the Prasangika view neither is regarded as the founder of the Prasangika system because historically they did not clearly set forth this view in contradistinction to the Svatantrika view.

Jawaharlal Nehru Technological University, Hyderabad

Jawaharlal Nehru Technological University, Hyderabad (JNTU Hyderabad) is a public university, located in Hyderabad, Telangana, India, and one of the India's leading educational universities focusing on engineering. Founded in 1965 as the Nagarjuna Sagar Engineering College, it was established as a university in 1972 by The Jawaharlal Nehru Technological University Act, 1972. The university is situated at Kukatpally Housing Board Region in Hyderabad of India.

Krishna River

The Krishna River is the fourth-biggest river in terms of water inflows and river basin area in India, after the Ganga, Godavari and Brahmaputra. The river is almost 1,400 kilometres (870 mi) long. The river is also called Krishnaveni. It is one of the major sources of irrigation for Maharashtra, Karnataka, Telangana and Andhra Pradesh.

List of Telugu films of 1987

This is a list of films produced by the Tollywood (Telugu language film industry) based in Hyderabad in the year 1987.

List of Telugu films of 1989

This is a list of films produced by the Tollywood (Telugu language film industry) based in Hyderabad in the year 1989.

Madhyamaka

Madhyamaka ("Middle way" or "Centrism"; Sanskrit: Madhyamaka, Chinese: 中觀見; pinyin: Zhōngguān Jìan, Tibetan: dbu ma pa) also known as Śūnyavāda (the emptiness doctrine) and Niḥsvabhāvavāda (the no svabhāva doctrine) refers to a tradition of Buddhist philosophy and practice founded by the Indian philosopher Nāgārjuna (c. 150-250 CE). The foundational text of the Mādhyamaka tradition is Nāgārjuna's Mūlamadhyamakakārikā (Root Verses on the Middle Way). More broadly, Madhyamaka also refers to the ultimate nature of phenomena and the realization of this in meditative equipoise.Madhyamaka thought had a major influence on the subsequent development of the Mahayana Buddhist tradition. It is the dominant interpretation of Buddhist philosophy in Tibetan Buddhism and has also been influential in East Asian Buddhist thought.According to the classical Madhyamaka thinkers, all phenomena (dharmas) are empty (śūnya) of "nature," a "substance" or "essence" (svabhāva) which gives them "solid and independent existence," because they are dependently co-arisen. But this "emptiness" itself is also "empty": it does not have an existence on its own, nor does it refer to a transcendental reality beyond or above phenomenal reality.

Manam (film)

Manam (English: Us) is a 2014 Indian Telugu-language fantasy-drama film, written and directed by Vikram Kumar and produced by the Akkineni Family under the Annapurna Studios banner. Akkineni Nagarjuna appears alongside Akkineni Nageswara Rao, Naga Chaitanya, Shriya Saran and Samantha Ruth Prabhu. Amitabh Bachchan and Nagarjuna's younger son Akhil Akkineni made cameo appearances along with other personalities marking their debuts in Telugu cinema.

The film is set in various time periods, over the course of a hundred years up until 2013, and deals with the concepts of rebirth and eternal love. The plot features a wealthy businessman, Nageswara Rao, attempting to bring a young couple together resembling his deceased parents and the elderly Chaitanya's attempts to bring the businessman and a doctor together. They resemble Chaitanya's deceased parents who died because of a mistake committed by him in his childhood.

The film was made with a budget of ₹280 million. Harsha Vardhan wrote the film's dialogues, while Anup Rubens composed the film's music. P. S. Vinod handled the film's cinematography. Production began on 3 June 2013. Principal photography began on 7 June 2013 and was shot in and around Hyderabad, Coorg and Mysore till mid April 2014.

Manam was the last film of Nageswara Rao, who died on 22 January 2014 during the film's production phase. The film was promoted as a "befitting send off" and a tribute from his son, Nagarjuna. The film was released worldwide on 23 May 2014 to positive reviews from critics and was commercially successful, collecting ₹365 million in its lifetime. The film was screened at the 45th International Film Festival of India in the Homage to ANR section on 29 November 2014. The film garnered the Filmfare Award for Best Film - Telugu. The film was dubbed into Hindi as Dayaalu.

Nagarjuna G.

Nagarjuna G. (Nagarjuna Gadiraju) works in the Homi Bhabha Centre for Science Education, Tata Institute of Fundamental Research in Mumbai, India. His major research interests include Science Education, Cognitive Science, History and Philosophy of Science and Structure and Dynamics of Knowledge. As an activist he focuses on promoting free knowledge and free

software and serves as the chairperson of Free Software Foundation of India.

Nagarjuna Sagar (Assembly constituency)

Nagarjuna Sagar Assembly constituency is a constituency of the Telangana Legislative Assembly, India. It is one of 12 constituencies in the Nalgonda district. It is part of Nalgonda Lok Sabha constituency.

Nomula Narsimhaiah is current MLA from Nagarjuna Sagar Assembly constituency, won by 7771 votes over K. Jana Reddy of the Congress party,

Nagarjuna Sagar Dam

Nagarjuna Sagar Dam is one of the world's largest and tallest Masonry dams built across the Krishna river at Nagarjuna Sagar which straddles the border between Nalgonda District, Telangana State, India and Guntur district, Andhra Pradesh State, India. Constructed between 1955 and 1967, the dam created a water reservoir with gross storage capacity of 11.472 billion cubic metres (405.1×10^9 cu ft). The dam is 590 feet (180 m) tall from its deepest foundation and 0.99 miles (1.6 km) long with 26 flood gates which are 42 feet (13 m) wide and 45 feet (14 m) tall.Nagarjuna Sagar was the earliest in a series of large infrastructure projects termed as "modern temples" initiated for achieving the Green Revolution in India. It is also one of the earliest multi-purpose irrigation and hydro-electric projects in India. The dam provides irrigation water to the Nalgonda, Suryapet, Krishna, Khammam, West Godavari, Guntur and Prakasam districts along with hydro electricity generation. Nagarjuna Sagar dam is designed and constructed to use all the water impounded in its reservoir of 312 TMC gross storage capacity which is the second biggest water reservoir in India.

Nagarjunakonda

Nagarjunakonda (IAST: Nāgārjunikoṇḍa, meaning Nagarjuna Hill) is a historical town, now an island located near Nagarjuna Sagar in Guntur district of the Indian state of Andhra Pradesh, near the state border with Telangana. It is 160 km west of another important historic site Amaravati Stupa.

The ruins of several Mahayana Buddhist and Hindu shrines are located at Nagarjunakonda. It is one of India's richest Buddhist sites, and now lies almost entirely under the Nagarjunasagar Dam. It is named after Nagarjuna, a southern Indian master of Mahayana Buddhism who lived in the 2nd century, who is believed to have been responsible for the Buddhist activity in the area. The site was once the location of many Buddhist universities and monasteries, attracting students from as far as China, Gandhara, Bengal and Sri Lanka.

Because of the construction of the Nagarjuna Sagar Dam, the archaeological relics at Nagarjunakonda were submerged, and had to be excavated and transferred to higher land on the hill, which has become an island.

Ninne Pelladata

Ninne Pelladata (English: I will marry you) is a 1996 Telugu romance film, produced by Akkineni Nagarjuna under the Annapurna Studios banner, directed by Krishna Vamsi. It stars Akkineni Nagarjuna and Tabu in lead roles, with music composed by Sandeep Chowta. The film was recorded as an Blockbuster at the box office. The film was remade in Kannada as Preethsod Thappa, with V. Ravichandran. It was dubbed into Tamil as Unnaiye Kalyanam Pannikiren and in Hindi as Jab Dil Kisi Pe Aata Hai. The blockbuster film has received the National Film Award for Best Feature Film in Telugu for that year.

Shirdi Sai

Shirdi Sai is a 2012 Indian Telugu-language biographical film, produced by A.Mahesh Reddy on AMR Sai Krupa Entertainments banner, directed by K. Raghavendra Rao. Starring Akkineni Nagarjuna as the 19th - 20th century spiritual guru Shirdi Sai Baba who lived in western India, it is the cinematic depiction of some of his landmark life episodes, his teachings and his way of life. Music was composed by M. M. Keeravani. Shirdi Sai was released worldwide on 6 September 2012, and has received mixed to positive reviews while Nagarjuna received universal critical acclaim for his performance in the titular role with most reviewers hailing this as one of his career best performances.

Sri Ramadasu

Sri Ramadasu is 2006 Telugu, biographical film, based on the life of Kancharla Gopanna popularly known as Bhadrachalam Ramadasu, produced by Konda Krishnam Raju on Aditya Movies banner and directed by K. Raghavendra Rao. Starring Akkineni Nageswara Rao, Akkineni Nagarjuna, Sneha, Suman in the lead roles and music was composed by M. M. Keeravani.

Cinematography and editing were handled by S. Gopal Reddy and Sreekar Prasad respectively.Jyothika was the initial choice for the lead actress which was later replaced by Sneha due to her wedding arrangements.

Upon release, the film got highly positive reviews. The film's lead actor Nagarjuna received unanimous positive appreciation for his portrayal in the titular role and subsequently went on to win Nandi Award for Best Actor that year. Music director M. M. Keeravani also received rave reviews for his work. Along with being critically acclaimed, The film recorded as Blockbuster hit at the box office and is considered as one of the milestones in the long-spanning career of the lead actor Nagarjuna.

Vemuru (SC) (Assembly constituency)

Vemuru (SC) Assembly constituency is a scheduled caste reserved constituency is a constituency in Guntur district of Andhra Pradesh, representing the state legislative assembly in India. As per the Delimitation Orders (2008), the constituency covers Vemuru, Kollur, Tsunduru, Bhattiprolu and Amarthaluru mandals. It is one of the seven assembly segments of Bapatla (SC) (Lok Sabha constituency), along with Repalle, Bapatla, Parchur, Addanki, Chirala and Santhanuthalapadu. Merugu Nagarjuna is the present MLA of the constituency, who won the 2019 Andhra Pradesh Legislative Assembly election from YSR Congress Party. As of 25 March 2019, there a total of 194,748 electors in the constituency.

Śūnyatā

Śūnyatā (Sanskrit: शून्यता, romanized: śūnyatā; Pali: suññatā) – pronounced in English as (shoon-ya-ta), translated most often as emptiness and sometimes voidness – is a Buddhist concept which has multiple meanings depending on its doctrinal context. It is either an ontological feature of reality, a meditative state, or a phenomenological analysis of experience.

In Theravada Buddhism, suññatā often refers to the non-self (Pāli: anattā, Sanskrit: anātman) nature of the five aggregates of experience and the six sense spheres. Suññatā is also often used to refer to a meditative state or experience.

In Mahayana, Sunyata refers to the tenet that "all things are empty of intrinsic existence and nature (svabhava)," but may also refer to the Buddha-nature teachings and primordial or empty awareness, as in Dzogchen, Shentong, or Zen.

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