Nacht und Nebel

Nacht und Nebel ([ˈnaχt ʊnt ˈneːbəl]) was a directive issued by Adolf Hitler on 7 December 1941 targeting political activists and resistance "helpers" in World War II to be imprisoned or killed, while the family and the population remained uncertain as to the fate or whereabouts of the Nazi state's alleged offender. Victims who disappeared in these "Night and Fog" actions were never heard from again.

KZ-Hinzert-Plakette-Nacht-und-Nebel
Commemorative plaque for the French victims at Hinzert concentration camp, showing the expressions Nacht und Nebel and "NN-Deported"

Name

The alliterative hendiadys Nacht und Nebel (German for "Night and Fog") was first used by Wagner in Das Rheingold (1869) and has since been adopted into everyday German (e.g. it appears in Thomas Mann's Der Zauberberg). It remains unclear whether the term Nacht-und-Nebel-Erlass ("Night and Fog directive") had been in wide circulation or used publicly before 1945. The designation as NN was common however representing prisoners ("NN-Gefangener", "NN-Häftling") and references ("NN-Sache") at the time. The abbreviation NN was otherwise well known in German for "nullus nomen" ("without name" for security reasons) similar to the English NN for "nomen nescio".

Background

Bundesarchiv Bild 183-S72707, Heinrich Himmler
Heinrich Himmler issued orders for Nacht und Nebel in 1941.

Even before the Holocaust gained momentum, the Nazis had begun rounding up political prisoners from both Germany and occupied Europe. Most of the early prisoners were of two sorts: they were either prisoners of personal conviction (belief), political prisoners whom the Nazis deemed in need of "re-education" to Nazi ideals, or resistance leaders in occupied western Europe.[1]

Up until the time of the Nacht und Nebel decree, prisoners from Western Europe were handled by German soldiers in approximately the same way as by other countries: according to international agreements and procedures such as the Geneva Convention.[2] Hitler and his upper level staff, however, made a critical decision not to conform to what they considered unnecessary rules and in the process abandoned "all chivalry towards the opponent" and removed "every traditional restraint on warfare."[3]

On 7 December 1941, Reichsführer-SS Heinrich Himmler issued the following instructions to the Gestapo:

After lengthy consideration, it is the will of the Führer that the measures taken against those who are guilty of offenses against the Reich or against the occupation forces in occupied areas should be altered. The Führer is of the opinion that in such cases penal servitude or even a hard labor sentence for life will be regarded as a sign of weakness. An effective and lasting deterrent can be achieved only by the death penalty or by taking measures which will leave the family and the population uncertain as to the fate of the offender. Deportation to Germany serves this purpose.[4]

On 12 December, Armed Forces High Command Feldmarschall Wilhelm Keitel issued a directive which explained Hitler's orders:

Efficient and enduring intimidation can only be achieved either by capital punishment or by measures by which the relatives of the criminals do not know the fate of the criminal.

Wilhelm Keitel
Wilhelm Keitel expanded the repressive Nacht und Nebel program to countries under military occupation.

Three months later Keitel further expanded on this principle in a February 1942 letter stating that any prisoners not executed within eight days were to be handed over to the Gestapo.[5] and

to be transported to Germany secretly, and further treatment of the offenders will take place here; these measures will have a deterrent effect because - A. The prisoners will vanish without a trace. B. No information may be given as to their whereabouts or their fate.

The decree was meant to intimidate local populations into submission, by denying friends and families of seized persons any knowledge of their whereabouts or their fate. The prisoners were secretly transported to Germany, and vanished without a trace. In 1945, the abandoned Sicherheitsdienst (SD) records were found to include merely names and the initials "NN" (Nacht und Nebel); even the sites of graves were unrecorded. The Nazis even coined a new term for those who "vanished" in accordance with this decree; they were vernebelt—"transformed into mist".[6] To this day, it is not known how many people disappeared as a result of this order.[7]

The International Military Tribunal at Nuremberg held that the disappearances committed as part of the Nacht und Nebel program were war crimes which violated both the Hague Conventions and customary international law.[8] Himmler immediately communicated Keitel's directive to various SS stations and within six months the decree was sent to concentration camp commanders by Richard Glücks.[9] The Nacht und Nebel prisoners were mostly from France, Belgium, Luxembourg, Denmark, the Netherlands, and Norway.[10] They were usually arrested in the middle of the night and quickly taken to prisons hundreds of miles away for questioning, eventually arriving at concentration camps such as Natzweiler, Esterwegen or Gross-Rosen, if they survived.[11][12] Natzweiler concentration camp in particular, became an isolation camp for political prisoners from northern and western Europe under the decree's mandate.[13]

Up to 30 April 1944, at least 6,639 persons were captured under the Nacht und Nebel orders.[14] Some 340 of them may have been executed. The 1956 film Night and Fog, directed by Alain Resnais, uses the term to illustrate one aspect of the concentration camp system as it was transformed into a system of labour and death camps.

Text of the decrees

Directives for the prosecution of offences committed within the occupied territories against the German State or the occupying power, of 7 December 1941.

Within the occupied territories, communistic elements and other circles hostile to Germany have increased their efforts against the German State and the occupying powers since the Russian campaign started. The amount and the danger of these machinations oblige us to take severe measures as a deterrent. First of all the following directives are to be applied:

I. Within the occupied territories, the adequate punishment for offences committed against the German State or the occupying power which endanger their security or a state of readiness is on principle the death penalty.

II. The offences listed in paragraph I as a rule are to be dealt with in the occupied countries only if it is probable that sentence of death will be passed upon the offender, at least the principal offender, and if the trial and the execution can be completed in a very short time. Otherwise the offenders, at least the principal offenders, are to be taken to Germany.

III. Prisoners taken to Germany are subject to military procedure only if particular military interests require this. In case German or foreign authorities inquire about such prisoners, they are to be told that they have been arrested but that the proceedings do not allow any further information.

IV. The Commanders in the occupied territories and the Court authorities within the framework of their jurisdiction, are personally responsible for the observance of this decree.

V. The Chief of the High Command of the Armed Forces determines in which occupied territories this decree is to be applied. He is authorized to explain and to issue executive orders and supplements. The Reich Minister of Justice will issue executive orders within his own jurisdiction.[15][16]

Rationale

The reasons for Nacht und Nebel were many. The policy, enforced in Nazi-occupied countries, meant that whenever someone was arrested, the family would learn nothing about the person's fate. The people arrested, sometimes only suspected resisters, were secretly sent to Germany and perhaps to a concentration camp. Whether they lived or died, the Germans would give out no information to the families involved.[17] This was done to keep the population in occupied countries quiet by promoting an atmosphere of mystery, fear and terror.[18][19]

The program made it far more difficult for other governments or humanitarian organizations to accuse the German government of specific misconduct because it obscured whether or not internment or death had even occurred, let alone the cause of the person's disappearance. It thereby kept the Nazis from being held accountable. It allowed across-the-board, silent defiance of international treaties and conventions – one cannot apply the requirements for humane treatment in war if one cannot locate a victim or discern that victim's fate. Additionally, the policy lessened German subjects' moral qualms about the Nazi regime, as well as their desire to speak out against it, by keeping the general public ignorant of the regime's malfeasance and by creating extreme pressure for service members to remain silent.[20]

Treatment of prisoners

US Holocaust Memorial Museum - Boxcar
Replica of a Holocaust train boxcar used by Nazi Germany to transport Jews and other victims during the Holocaust.

The Nacht und Nebel prisoners' hair was shaved and the women were given a convict costume of a thin cotton dress, wooden sandals and a triangular black headcloth. According to historian Wolfgang Sofsky,

Prisoners of the Nacht und Nebel transports were marked by broad red bands; on their backs and both trouser legs was a cross, with the letters "NN" to its right. From these emblems, it was possible to recognize immediately what class a prisoner belonged to and how he or she was pigeonholed and evaluated by the SS.[21]

The prisoners were often moved apparently at random from prison to prison such as Fresnes Prison in Paris, Waldheim near Dresden, Leipzig, Potsdam, Lübeck and Stettin. The deportees were sometimes herded 80 at a time with standing room only into slow moving, dirty cattle trucks with little or no food or water on journeys lasting up to five days to their next unknown destination.[22]

At the camps, the prisoners were forced to stand for hours in freezing and wet conditions at 5:00am every morning, standing strictly to attention, before being sent to work a twelve-hour day with only a twenty-minute break for a scant meal. They were confined in cold and starving conditions; many had dysentery or other illnesses, and the weakest were often beaten to death, shot, guillotined, or hanged, while the others were subjected to torture by the Germans.[23]

When the inmates were totally exhausted or if they were too ill or too weak to work, they were then transferred to the Revier (Krankenrevier, sick barrack) or other places for extermination. If a camp did not have a gas chamber of its own, the so-called Muselmänner, or prisoners who were too sick to work, were often killed or transferred to other concentration camps for extermination.[23]

When the Allies liberated Paris and Brussels, the SS transported many of its remaining Nacht und Nebel prisoners to concentration camps deeper in Nazi-controlled territory, such as Ravensbrück concentration camp for women, Mauthausen-Gusen concentration camp, Buchenwald concentration camp, Schloss Hartheim, or Flossenbürg concentration camp.[24]

Results

Biskupia Gorka executions - 14 - Barkmann, Paradies, Becker, Klaff, Steinhoff (left to right)
The execution of guards of the Stutthof concentration camp on July 4, 1946. (left to right) Barkmann, Paradies, Becker, Klaff, Steinhoff.
Dead wilhelmkeitel
The body of Wilhelm Keitel after being hanged

Early in the war, the program caused the mass execution of political prisoners, especially Soviet military prisoners, who in early 1942 outnumbered the Jews in number of deaths even at Auschwitz.[25] As the transports grew and Hitler's troops moved across Europe, that ratio changed dramatically. The Nacht und Nebel decree was carried out surreptitiously, but it set the background for orders that would follow and established a "new dimension of fear".[26] As the war continued, so did the openness of such decrees and orders.

It can be surmised from various writings that in the beginning the German public knew only a little of the plans Hitler had to enforce a "New European Order". As the years passed, despite the best attempts of Goebbels and the Propaganda Ministry with its formidable domestic information control, diaries and periodicals of the time show that information about the harshness and cruelty of the program became progressively known to the German public.[27]

Soldiers brought back information, families on rare occasion heard from or about loved ones, and Allied news sources and the BBC were able to get past censorship sporadically.[28] Although captured archives from the SD contain numerous orders stamped with "NN" (Nacht und Nebel), it has never been determined exactly how many people disappeared as a result of the decree.

Hesitant if not outright skeptical at first of reports coming in about the atrocities being committed by the Germans, the Allies' doubts were pushed aside when the French entered the Natzweiler-Struthof camp (one of the Nacht und Nebel facilities) on 23 November 1944, and discovered a chamber where victims were hung by their wrists from hooks to accommodate the process of pumping poisonous Zyklon-B gas into the room.[29] Keitel later testified at the Nuremberg Trials that of all the illegal orders he had carried out, the Nacht und Nebel decree was "the worst of all".[30]

Former Supreme Court Justice and chief prosecutor at the international Nuremberg trial, Robert H. Jackson listed the "terrifying" Nacht und Nebel decree with the other horrid crimes committed by the Nazis in his closing address.[31] In part because of his role in carrying out this decree, Keitel was sentenced to death by hanging, despite his insistence on being shot instead due to his military service and rank.[32] At 1:20am on 16 October 1946 Keitel defiantly shouted out, "Alles für Deutschland! Deutschland über alles!" just before the trap door opened beneath his feet.[33]

Notable prisoners

Noor Inayat Khan.jpeg
Noor Inayat Khan, a British agent killed under the Nacht und Nebel program

See also

References

Notes
  1. ^ Spielvogel (1992). Hitler and Nazi Germany: A History, pp. 82–120, pp. 232–264.
  2. ^ Dülffer (2009). Nazi Germany 1933–1945: Faith and Annihilation, pp. 160–163.
  3. ^ Walter Görlitz, "Keitel, Jodl, and Warlimont," cited in Barnett ed., (2003). Hitler's Generals, p. 152.
  4. ^ Crankshaw (1956). Gestapo: Instrument of Tyranny, p. 215.
  5. ^ Nürnberger Dokumente, PS-1733, NOKW-2579, NG-226. Cited in Bracher (1970). The German Dictatorship: The Origins, Structure, and Effects of National Socialism, p. 418.
  6. ^ Conot (2000). Justice at Nuremberg, p. 300.
  7. ^ Manchester (2003). The Arms of Krupp, 1587–1968, p. 519.
  8. ^ "Enforced Disappearance as a Crime Under International Law: A Neglected Origin in the Laws of War" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2014-07-22. Retrieved 2013-08-05.
  9. ^ Mayer (2012). Why Did the Heavens Not Darken?: The "Final Solution" in History, pp. 337-338.
  10. ^ "Night and Fog Decree". ushmm.org. Archived from the original on 2012-03-08. Retrieved 22 January 2015.
  11. ^ "The Night and Fog Decree".
  12. ^ Kogon (2006). The Theory and Practice of Hell: The German Concentration Camps and the System behind Them, pp. 204–205.
  13. ^ Overy (2006). The Dictators: Hitler's Germany, Stalin's Russia, p. 605.
  14. ^ Lothar Gruchmann: "Nacht- und Nebel-"Justiz... In: VfZ 29 (1981), S. 395.
  15. ^ "Nacht und Nebel decree (English translation)".
  16. ^ United States, Office of United States Chief of Counsel for Prosecution of Axis Criminality, Nazi Conspiracy and Aggression, 8 vols. and 2 suppl. vols. VII, 873–874 (Doc. No. L-90). Washington, DC: Government Printing Office, 1946–1948.
  17. ^ Stackelberg (2007). The Routledge Companion to Nazi Germany, p. 286.
  18. ^ Crankshaw, Edward (1990) [1956]. Gestapo: Instrument of Tyranny, London: Greenhill Books. p. 204.
  19. ^ Kaden & Nestler (1993). "Erlass Hitlers über die Verfolgung von Strafteten gegen das Reich, 7 December 1941." Dokumente des Verbrechens: Aus den Akten des Dritten Reiches, vol i, pp. 162–163.
  20. ^ Kammer & Bartsch (1999). "Nacht und Nebel Erlaß," in Lexikon Nationalsozialismus: Begriffe, Organisationen und Institutionen, p. 160.
  21. ^ Sofsky (1997). The Order of Terror: The Concentration Camp, p. 118.
  22. ^ "Nuremberg Trial Proceedings Vol. 6". Avalon.law.yale.edu. Retrieved 2013-08-05.
  23. ^ a b Nichol, John and Rennell, Tony (2007). Escape from Nazi Europe, Penguin Books.
  24. ^ ‹See Tfd›(in English) Marc Terrance (1999). Concentration Camps: Guide to World War II Sites. Universal Publishers. ISBN 1-58112-839-8.
  25. ^ Matthäus (2004), "Operation Barbarossa and the Onset of the Holocaust, June – December 1941," in Browning & Matthäus (2004). The Origins of the Final Solution: The Evolution of Nazi Jewish Policy, September 1939– March 1942, pp. 259–264.
  26. ^ Taylor & Shaw (2002). "Nacht und Nebel," in Dictionary of the Third Reich, p. 192.
  27. ^ Gellately (2001). Backing Hitler: Consent and Coercion in Nazi Germany, pp. 51–69.
  28. ^ Johnson (2006). What We Knew: Terror, Mass Murder, and Everyday Life in Nazi Germany, pp. 185–225.
  29. ^ Lowe (2012). Savage Continent: Europe in the Aftermath of World War II, p. 81.
  30. ^ Shirer (1990). The Rise and Fall of the Third Reich, p. 957.
  31. ^ Marrus (1997). The Nuremberg War Crimes Trial, 1945–46: A Documentary History, p. 151.
  32. ^ Conot (2000). Justice at Nuremberg, p. 501.
  33. ^ Conot (2000). Justice at Nuremberg, p. 506.
  34. ^ "March 2007 - Escape or die: The untold WWII story". Daily Mail. 2007-03-16. Retrieved 2013-08-05.

Bibliography

  • Barnett, Correlli, ed., (2003). Hitler's Generals. New York: Grove Press.
  • Bracher, Karl Dietrich (1970). The German Dictatorship: The Origins, Structure, and Effects of National Socialism. New York: Praeger Publishers.
  • Browning, Christoper, and Jürgen Matthäus (2004). The Origins of the Final Solution: The Evolution of Nazi Jewish Policy, September 1939–March 1942. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press.
  • Conot, Robert E. (2000) [1983]. Justice at Nuremberg. New York: Carroll & Graf Publishers.
  • Crankshaw, Edward (1990). Gestapo: Instrument of Tyranny. London: Greenhill Books.
  • Dülffer, Jost (2009). Nazi Germany 1933-1945: Faith and Annihilation. London: Bloomsbury.
  • Gellately, Robert (2001). Backing Hitler: Consent and Coercion in Nazi Germany. New York: Oxford University Press.
  • Johnson, Eric (2006). What We Knew: Terror, Mass Murder, and Everyday Life in Nazi Germany. New York: Basic Books.
  • Kaden, Helma, and Ludwig Nestler, eds., (1993). Dokumente des Verbrechens: Aus den Akten des Dritten Reiches. 3 Bände. Vol i. Berlin: Dietz Verlag.
  • Kammer, Hilde and Elisabet Bartsch (1999). Lexikon Nationalsozialismus: Begriffe, Organisationen und Institutionen (Rororo-Sachbuch). Hamburg: Rowohlt Taschenbuch.
  • Kogon, Eugen (2006) [1950]. The Theory and Practice of Hell: The German Concentration Camps and the System behind Them. New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux. ISBN 978-0-37452-992-5
  • Lowe Keith (2012). Savage Continent: Europe in the Aftermath of World War II. New York: Picador.
  • Manchester, William (2003). The Arms of Krupp, 1587-1968: The Rise and Fall of the Industrial Dynasty that Armed Germany at War. New York & Boston: Back Bay Books.
  • Mayer, Arno (2012) [1988]. Why Did the Heavens Not Darken?: The "Final Solution" in History. London & New York: Verso Publishing.
  • Overy, Richard (2006). The Dictators: Hitler's Germany, Stalin's Russia. New York: W. W. Norton & Company. ISBN 978-0-39332-797-7
  • Shirer, William L. (1990). The Rise and Fall of the Third Reich. New York: MJF Books. Originally published in [1959]. Drawing upon Nazi Conspiracy and Aggression, part of the Nuremberg Documents, Vol. VII, pages 871-874, Nuremberg Document L-90.
  • Sofsky, Wolfgang (1997). The Order of Terror: The Concentration Camp. Translated by William Templer. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
  • Spielvogel, Jackson (1992). Hitler and Nazi Germany: A History. New York: Prentice Hall.
  • Stackelberg, Roderick (2007). The Routledge Companion to Nazi Germany. New York: Routledge.
  • Taylor, James, and Warren Shaw (2002) Dictionary of the Third Reich. New York: Penguin.
  • Toland, John (1976). Adolf Hitler. New York: Doubleday.
  • United States Holocaust Memorial Museum. (2014). Holocaust Encyclopedia, "Night and Fog Decree"
Further reading
  • Harthoorn, Willem Lodewijk. Verboden te sterven, Van Gruting, 2007, ISBN 978-90-75879-37-7 – A personal account of a person who survived as a "Night and Fog" prisoner four months in Gross-Rosen and a year in Natzweiler

External links

Hassall, Peter D., (1997), Night and Fog Prisoners.

Aat Breur-Hibma

Aat (Adri) Breur-Hibma (28 December 1913 – 31 December 2002) was a Dutch draftswoman and painter. During World War II, she entered the Dutch resistance and ended up as a Nacht und Nebel prisoner in Ravensbrück. There she made poignant pencil drawings of fellow prisoners that are preserved at the Rijksmuseum in Amsterdam. She was recognised as Righteous Among the Nations in 1995.

Adolf Hitler's directives

Adolf Hitler made many hundreds of directives, orders and decrees while Führer of Nazi Germany, many of them related to military policy, and the treatment of civilians in occupied countries. Many of them are direct evidence of the commission of war crimes such as the notorious Commando Order. Other orders provide evidence of crimes against humanity, such as the Hitler order establishing forced euthanasia of disabled people in 1939 under Action T4, and the Nacht und Nebel order for eliminating civilian resisters in occupied countries.

Balard shooting range

During the Second World War, the Balard shooting range (stand de tir de Balard) was the site of Nazi torture and executions, now disappeared with the construction of the Boulevard périphérique de Paris.

Beats of Love

"Beats of Love" is a song by Belgian band Nacht und Nebel, released in 1983.

Einar Friele

Einar B. Friele (26 October 1901 – 19 February 1944) was a Norwegian businessperson and resistance member.

He was born in Bergen as a son of Berent Friele (1862–1902) and Dagny Stockfleth Høegh Beyer (1869–1963). He was a brother of Berent Johan Beyer Friele, grandson of Herman Friele and Fredrik Beyer, and first cousin of Harald Beyer. He was married twice, and had two children from his first marriage.His family's company Berent Friele & Sønner was a mainstay in Bergen commerce, founded in 1799. After attending commerce school and undergoing managerial training in the US, France and Germany, Einar Friele joined the family company in 1925. He worked as a junior executive before the Second World War. He also chaired the wholesalers' association Kolonialgrossisternes forening in Bergen and was a national board member of Norges Colonialgrossisters Forbund.In 1940, following the German invasion of Norway, Friele participated in the subsequent fighting to repel the invaders. This was unsuccessful and the occupation of Norway by Nazi Germany was established; Friele joined an illegal intelligence gathering organization in the autumn of 1940. In August 1942 he was discovered and arrested. He was incarcerated in Grini concentration camp until September 1943, when he was shipped to the Nacht und Nebel system in Germany. He died in February 1944 in Natzweiler.

Elsie Maréchal

Elsie Maréchal was an English woman who became active in the Belgian Resistance helping Allied airmen to escape from the German forces. Having been betrayed, she was sentenced to death and subjected to the 'Nacht und Nebel' policy designed to make such opponents of the Nazis 'disappear'. She survived to tell her story to her family back in England and to receive awards for her work.

Esterwegen concentration camp

The Esterwegen concentration camp near Esterwegen was an early Nazi concentration camp within a series of camps first established in the Emsland district of Germany. It was established in the summer of 1933 as a concentration camp for 2000 so-called political Schutzhäftlinge (protective custody prisoners) and was for a time the second largest concentration camp after Dachau. The camp was closed in summer of 1936. Thereafter, until 1945 it was used as a prison camp. Political prisoners and so-called Nacht und Nebel prisoners were also held there. After the war ended, Esterwegen served as a British internment camp, as a prison, and, until 2000, as a depot for the German Army.

The most famous prisoner was writer and editor of the weekly magazine, Die Weltbühne, Carl von Ossietzky, who won the Nobel Peace Prize in 1935. Comedian Werner Finck was detained in Esterwegen for six weeks.

SS-Hauptscharführer Gustav Sorge, nicknamed "The Iron Gustav" for his brutality, was a guard at Esterwegen prior to being assigned to Sachsenhausen. He was convicted of war crimes after the war.

Kirsten Brunvoll

Kirsten Brunvoll, née Sørsdal (24 December 1895 – 5 April 1976) was a Norwegian playwright, resistance member, Nacht und Nebel prisoner, World War II memoirist and politician for the Labour Party.

She was born in Lier to blacksmith Gabriel Sørsdal and Kristiane Zell. She married Jonas Brunvoll in 1919, and had two sons Jonas and Gunnar. The family settled at Jar in Bærum. Between 1929 and 1939 she was a prolific playwright, mostly writing comedic plays.During the occupation of Norway by Nazi Germany the Brunvoll family took part in civil resistance; the whole family contributed to production and distribution of the illegal newspapers Norge and Norge Krigsnytt. When the undercover newspaper organization was discovered by the Gestapo in 1941, several family members were arrested. Kirsten Brunvoll's husband and her son Jonas ended up in the Sachsenhausen concentration camp, but both survived the war. Gunnar escaped to Sweden and further to Great Britain and Canada, where he was trained as a pilot.Kirsten Brunvoll was arrested and incarcerated at the Grini concentration camp in January 1942, and was transferred to Germany, to Ravensbrück, a camp specifically for women, in February 1943. While in Ravensbrück, being unfit for slave labour due to illness, she was selected for "transport", and ended up at the Majdanek concentration camp in German occupied Poland. She was later transferred to the extermination camp Birkenau, a subcamp of the Auschwitz concentration camp system, where she arrived in 1944. Since the Birkenau gas chambers were designated specifically for killing Jews, the camp authorities had SS physicians sort out non-Jews based on their ability to work. Brunvoll reported she was fit for work, asking for a position as knitter. The following winter she was sent for transport again, a long walk under harsh conditions. The weakest women, those who could not keep up with the others, received no mercy and were shot by the German SS guards, their corpses left behind. Brunvoll ended up back in the Ravensbrück concentration camp. She was eventually rescued by the White Buses.Brunvoll published the memoir book Veien til Auschwitz in 1947. She also issued one last play, Lønningsdag ("Pay Day") in 1948. She served as a deputy representative to the Parliament of Norway from Akershus during the terms 1945–1949 and 1950–1953. In total she met during 17 days of parliamentary session.

Kristian Ottosen

Kristian Ottosen (15 January 1921, Solund – 1 June 2006, Oslo) was a Norwegian non-fiction writer and public servant.

While still a student, he was also active in the Norwegian resistance movement during World War II and was imprisoned as a Nacht und Nebel inmate. He was imprisoned in Veiten from June to July 1942, then in Bergen from July to September, then in Grini concentration camp from September to December. From December 1942 to June 1944 he was in Sachsenhausen concentration camp, then until September 1944 in Natzweiler-Struthof. He was then in Dachau concentration camp for three days, and Ottobrunn for one day. He was lastly in Dautmergen from September to November 1944 and Vaihingen until the war's end.After the war, he finished his studies at the University of Bergen, where he became the leader of the Det Norske Studentersamfund first in Bergen, and then as a full-time employee at the University of Oslo. He was the manager of the Foundation for Student Life in Oslo from 1950 to 1979. He led the commission that recommended the founding of regional university colleges throughout Norway and for establishment of the Norwegian State Educational Loan Fund. He also chaired the board of NRK from 1972 to 1979, and Nationaltheatret from 1981 to 1989.After he retired, Ottosen wrote a series of historical accounts from World War II. These included memoirs from his work in the Norwegian resistance as well as thorough historical surveys of Norwegians who were arrested and detained by Nazi authorities during the war. For this work he was honored with the Fritt Ord Honorary Award in 2004, was made commander in the Royal Norwegian Order of St. Olav, and named honorary member of the Norwegian Labour Party.Ottosen's works include:

Ottosen, Kristian (1983). Theta Theta : et blad fra motstandskampens historie, 1940-1945 (in Norwegian). Bergen: Universitetsforlaget. ISBN 82-00-06823-4. - about the work of the resistance group known as Theta Theta.

Ottosen, Kristian (1989). Natt og tåke : historien om Natzweiler-fangene (in Norwegian). Oslo: Aschehoug. ISBN 82-03-16108-1. - about the Nacht und Nebel prisoners in the Natzweiler concentration camp, with an emphasis on the Norwegians held there.

Ottosen, Kristian (1990). Liv og død : historien om Sachsenhausen-fangene (in Norwegian). Oslo: Aschehoug. ISBN 82-03-16484-6. - about the Sachsenhausen concentration camp.

Ottosen, Kristian (1991). Kvinneleiren : historien om Ravensbrück-fangene (in Norwegian). Oslo: Aschehoug. ISBN 82-03-16791-8. - about the Ravensbrück concentration camp, primarily for women.

Ottosen, Kristian (1993). Bak lås og slå : historien om norske kvinner og menn i Hitlers fengsler og tukthus (in Norwegian). Oslo: Aschehoug. ISBN 82-03-26000-4. - about the deportation and imprisonment of Norwegian men and women in prisons throughout Germany.

Ottosen, Kristian (1994). I slik en natt : historien om deportasjonen av jøder fra Norge (in Norwegian). Oslo: Aschehoug. ISBN 82-03-26049-7. - about the deportation and fate of Jews from Norway.

Ottosen, Kristian (1995). Nordmenn i fangenskap 1940-1945 (in Norwegian). Oslo: Universitetsforlaget. ISBN 82-00-22372-8. - an authoritative list of Norwegian individuals who had been held in German captivity during World War II.

Ottosen, Kristian (1996). Ingen nåde : historien om nordmenn i japansk fangenskap (in Norwegian). Oslo: Aschehoug. ISBN 82-03-26127-2. - about Norwegian prisoners held in Japanese captivity during World War II.

Kvarstad vessels

The Kvarstad vessels were a number of Norwegian ships held in arrest (Swedish: kvarstad, lit. "stanna kvar") in Gothenburg during World War II. The ships had been visiting Swedish ports when the German invasion of Norway took place in April 1940. They were eventually claimed by Nortraship, which represented the Norwegian exile government and the British Government, but also by the Germany-supported Quisling regime in Norway. The fate of the ships was disputed through a number of diplomatic notes and trials between the involved parties. The disputed vessels originally numbered 42 ships, with a total of 170,000 ton dw. Some of the ships returned early to occupied Norway, some after recommendation from the Administrative Council. In January 1941 the British Operation Rubble succeeded in bringing five of the ships to the Orkney Islands.

In March 1942 the British led Operation Performance involved an effort to bring ten ships to the British Islands. Only two of the ships, MV B.P. Newton and MV Lind, reached Britain. Two ships, MV Storsten and MV Rigmor were sunk by German aircraft. Four ships were scuttled by their own crews, after being confronted by German warships. These were MS Buccaneer, SS Skytteren, SS Charente, and SS Gudvang. Two ships, MV Dicto and SS Lionel returned to Gothenburg. The total number of crew on the ten involved ships was 471. Of these 19 perished during the escape operation, 124 reached the British islands. and the 85 persons from Dicto and Lionel returned to Sweden. More than 200 from the ships were captured by the Germans. These included more than 160 Norwegian men and seven women, more than fifty British, two Dutch and one Polish. The captured sailors were brought to German prisons, first to the prisoner-of-war camp Marlag und Milag Nord near Bremen, where they were treated relatively well. The women were later released. While the British remained in the Milag camp, the Norwegian sailors were subject to war trials (at the Sondergericht in Rendsburg), and were eventually transferred to other prisons, as Nacht und Nebel prisoners with much tougher conditions. Of these, 43 died during their imprisonment, while 125 survived.

Nacht und Nebel (band)

Nacht und Nebel were a Belgian new wave band, founded by Patrick Nebel, best known for their hit single "Beats of Love". The group earned four Top 20 hits in Belgium in 1984 and 1985, before disbanding in 1986 due to Nebel's death.

Natzweiler-Struthof

Natzweiler-Struthof was a German-run concentration camp located in the Vosges Mountains close to the Alsatian village of Natzwiller (German Natzweiler) in France, and the town of Schirmeck, about 50 km (31 m) southwest of the city of Strasbourg. Natzweiler-Struthof was the only concentration camp established by the Nazis on French territory, though there were French-run temporary camps such as the one at Drancy.

Between 1941 and 1944, Alsace was administered by Germany as an integral part of the German Reich. The camp operated from 21 May 1941 and was evacuated early in September 1944. Only a small staff of Nazi SS personnel remained until the camp was liberated by the French First Army under the command of the U.S. Sixth Army Group on 23 November 1944.About 52,000 prisoners were estimated to be held there during its time of operation. The prisoners were mainly from the resistance movements in German-occupied territories. It was a labor camp, a transit camp and, as the war went on, a place of execution. Some died from the exertions of their labor and malnutrition. There were an estimated 22,000 deaths at the camp, including its network of subcamps. Many prisoners were moved to other camps; in particular, in 1944 the former head of Auschwitz concentration camp was brought in to evacuate the prisoners of Natzweiler-Struthof to Dachau as the Allied Armies neared. The anatomist August Hirt conducted some of his efforts in making a Jewish skeleton collection at the camp. A documentary movie was made about the 86 named men and women who were killed there for that project. Some of the people responsible for atrocities in this camp were brought to trial after the war ended.

The camp is preserved as a museum in memory of those held or killed there. The European Centre of Deported Resistance Members is located at this museum, focusing on those held. The Monument to the Departed stands at the site. The present museum was restored in 1980 after damage by neo-Nazis in 1976. Among notable prisoners, the writer Boris Pahor was interned in Natzweiler-Struthof and wrote his novel Necropolis based on his experience.

Nazi concentration camps in Norway

During the German occupation of Norway in World War II the civilian occupying authorities with the Quisling regime and the German Wehrmacht operated a number of camps in Norway, including around 110 prison camps.The Wehrmacht camps were largely POW camps and were scattered throughout the country. Some of these had extremely high mortality rates, owing to inhumane conditions and brutality.

Both established and improvised jails and prisons throughout the country were also used for internment by the Nazi authorities. In particular the Sicherheitspolizei and Sicherheitsdienst, headquartered at Victoria Terrasse, were notorious for torture and abuse of prisoners. Also, Arkivet in Kristiansand and Bandeklosteret in Trondheim became synonymous with torture and abuse.

The designated concentration camps were not classified as "KZ-Lager" by the Nazis, but rather as Häftingslager ("Detainee Camps") under the administration of the Nazi "security police," the SS and Gestapo. The Nazi authorities deported over 700 Jews from Norway to Auschwitz, over 500 Nacht und Nebel prisoners to Natzweiler; and thousands more to Sachsenhausen, Ravensbrück and other prisons and camps in Germany. Most of these stayed in Norwegian camps during transit.

Although abuse, torture, and murder were commonplace in these camps, none of them were designated or functioned as extermination camps, nor did they reach the scale seen in camps in Germany, occupied Poland, and Austria. It is estimated that between 38,000 and 40,000 individuals passed through this camp system, for a total of 60,000 prisoner years.

The camps served varying purposes, such as:

Internment of political prisoners, especially socialists and communists, but also religious dissenters.

Internment of prisoners of war (Stammlager / Stalag) - especially Soviet and Yugoslavian soldiers

Internment of so-called "bomb hostages" (Geisellager) - prominent Norwegians who would be executed in the event of the resistance movement bombing Nazi targets

Transit internment of various prisoners bound for camps in Germany and Poland (Durchgangslager / Dulag) - including Jews, prominent political prisoners, and others.The Nazi authorities destroyed most of the records related to the camps and prisons they ran during the occupation. Some distinction was made between camps and prisons run by Norwegian Nazis and those run by German Nazi organizations, though it is safe to say that all atrocities took place under the authority of a unified command.

Effectively every local prison was used for these purposes by the Nazis, but several full-fledged camps were also established.

Nebel

Nebel is the German word for fog and stellar nebula. It is related to the Latin nebula. It may refer to:

Prominent peopleBerthold Nebel, sculptor

Carl Nebel (1805–1855), lithographer of Mexico

Carmen Nebel, German television presenter

Rudolf Nebel, German spaceflight advocate

Long John Nebel, American talk radio personalityPlacesNebel, Germany, a municipality on the island of Amrum in Schleswig-Holstein

The Nebel parish in Horsens Municipality in Denmark

Nørre Nebel, the capital of Blaabjerg, in Ribe County, DenmarkOtherAlois Nebel, Czech comic strip and film

Nacht und Nebel, the Adolf Hitler edict of 1941

Nebel or nabla, a Hebrew stringed instrument

Nebel (river), in Mecklenburg-Vorpommern, Germany

"Nebel", the last song of the Mutter album by the German band Rammstein

Nebelwerfer, a World War II rocket artillery piece

Night and Fog (1956 film)

Night and Fog (French: Nuit et brouillard) is a 1956 French documentary short film. Directed by Alain Resnais, it was made ten years after the liberation of Nazi concentration camps. The title is taken from the notorious Nacht und Nebel (German for "Night and Fog") program of abductions and disappearances decreed by the Nazis on 7 December 1941.

The documentary features the abandoned grounds of Auschwitz and Majdanek while describing the lives of prisoners in the camps. Night and Fog was made in collaboration with scriptwriter Jean Cayrol, a survivor of the Mauthausen-Gusen concentration camp. The music of the soundtrack was composed by Hanns Eisler.

Resnais was originally hesitant about making the film and refused the offer to make it until Cayrol was contracted to write the script. The film was shot entirely in the year 1955 and is composed of contemporary shots of the camps plus stock footage. Resnais and Cayrol found the film very difficult to make due to its graphic nature and subject matter. The film faced difficulties with French censors unhappy with a shot of a French police officer in the film, and with the German embassy in France, which attempted to halt the film's release at the Cannes Film Festival. Night and Fog was released to critical acclaim, and still receives very high praise today. It was re-shown on French television nationwide in 1990 to remind the people of the "horrors of war".

Osmund Faremo

Osmund Faremo (23 November 1921 – 16 April 1999) was a Norwegian politician for the Labour Party.He was born in Hylestad and was elected to the Norwegian Parliament from Aust-Agder in 1965, and was re-elected on four occasions. He had previously served as a deputy representative during the terms 1958–1961 and 1961–1965.

On the local level he was a member of Bygland municipal council from 1951 to 1975, serving as deputy mayor from 1962 to 1963 and mayor from 1958 to 1959 and 1963 to 1966. From 1958 to 1960 he was also a member of Aust-Agder county council. He chaired the local party chapter from 1951 to 1964, and from 1965 to 1966 he was a member of the Labour Party national board.

During the Occupation of Norway by Nazi Germany, Faremo was a member of the resistance group Milorg. He was captured on 5 February 1943 and imprisoned in German and Austrian Nacht und Nebel camps. He escaped in 1945, helped by the White Buses. Among his awards for war efforts were the Honorary Medal of the German Democratic Republic, 1970.

Faremo was later a promoter of Norwegian-Yugoslav relations and a member of the council of the Norwegian branch of the Helsinki Committee for Human Rights from 1985 to 1988. He was active in the Norwegian branch of the European Movement, in the Norwegian Defence Association, and founded a branch of Noregs Mållag intended for members of parliament, named Løvebakken mållag. He chaired the latter group from 1978 to 1985.

He chaired the friendship association Friends of Israel in the Norwegian Labour Movement (Norwegian: Venner av Israel i Norsk Arbeiderbevegelse).

Other than his military training, Faremo was educated in the Norwegian State Railways and spent large parts of his professional career there. From 1964 he worked with promoting tourism in the Setesdal region.

Osmund Faremo was married to Tora, née Aamlid. One of their daughters Grete Faremo followed in his footsteps to become a politician for the Labour Party. Grete Faremo served as a member of parliament and government minister before turning to the private sector to become a CEO.

Per Lie

Per Lie (20 May 1907 – 5 March 1945) was a Norwegian labour activist who was imprisoned and killed during the occupation of Norway by Nazi Germany.

He was born in Kristiania as the son of Andreas Lie and his wife Karen, née Gunnarsrud. He was the younger brother of known politician Haakon Lie. The family was poor and, until 1916, his father had to work 112 hours a week. With his parents, two brothers, and two sisters, he shared one room and a kitchen. Per Lie married in 1943, and had one child. The family settled in Aker.Lie, having middle school as his highest education, worked as a secretary then World War II broke out. When German occupation of Norway, he involved himself in resistance work. He helped print and spread the illegal laborers' publication Fri Fagbevegelse, and assisted people who fled the country. He was arrested in February 1942, and imprisoned at Møllergata 19. After nine months he was transferred to Grini and later to a German Nacht und Nebel camp in February 1943. He eventually wound up at Dachau, where he died in March 1945 from typhoid fever.

The Walls Came Tumbling Down (novel)

The Walls Came Tumbling Down is a novel written by Henriette Roosenburg was published in 1957. It relates the story of four young people and their ordeals after being captured and condemned to death by Nazis. The protagonists are held as Nacht und Nebel (Night and Fog), known as NNs.

Virginia d'Albert-Lake

Virginia d'Albert-Lake (4 June 1910 – 20 September 1997) was notable for her work as a member of the anti-Nazi French Resistance during World War II.When World War II broke out, d'Albert-Lake, a Florida native, chose to remain in Paris with her French husband, Philippe. They joined the French Resistance in 1943 and helped to save the lives of more than 60 British and American airmen. The Nazis captured d'Albert-Lake as part of their Nacht und Nebel (Night and Fog) program while she was leading an Allied airman to safety. She was held at Ravensbrück concentration camp and when freed at the end of the war, weighed 75 pounds (34 kg).She died in 1997 at her home near Dinard, France, age 87.

This page is based on a Wikipedia article written by authors (here).
Text is available under the CC BY-SA 3.0 license; additional terms may apply.
Images, videos and audio are available under their respective licenses.