Naaran (also Na'aran) (Hebrew: נערן) is an ancient Jewish village dating to the 5th and 6th century CE, located in the West Bank. Remains of the village have been excavated north of Jericho, in Ephraim, between Bethel and Jericho. The mosaic floor of a synagogue was discovered at the site featuring a large zodiac design. Naaran is mentioned in 1 Chronicles 7:28 as a town in the eastern part of Ephraim.[1] Eusebius, in his Onomasticon, makes mention of the site, saying that in his day it was "a village inhabited by Jews, five [Roman] miles from Jericho."[2] The site is also named in the writings of Josephus (Antiquities 17.13.1), under its name (Greek: Νεαρὰν),[3] and in the Midrash Rabba (Leviticus Rabba 23:5). Aramaic inscriptions and mosaics from the synagogue are displayed at an archaeology museum established by the Israeli archaeologist Yitzhak Magen at the Good Samaritan Inn.[4]

In May 2012, the ancient synagogue was vandalized with graffiti that included swastikas and Palestinian flags.[5] Israel's Public Diplomacy Minister Yuli-Yoel Edelstein condemned the act and noted that, "The incident reaffirms the belief that Jewish holy sites must be under Israel's sovereignty."[5]

Antisemitic Vandalism in Naaran
Swastikas spray painted on the ancient synagogue of Na'aran

An Israeli settlement, kibbutz Niran, located several kilometers to the north, takes its name from Naaran.

Jerycho Synagoga
Remnants of Naaran synagogue mosaic
Naaran is located in the Palestinian territories
Shown within the Palestinian territories
LocationWest Bank
Coordinates31°53′02″N 35°26′41″E / 31.883826°N 35.444813°E

See also


  1. ^ Easton's Bible Dictionary
  2. ^ Eusebius, Onomasticon - The Place Names of Divine Scripture, (ed.) R. Steven Notley & Ze'ev Safrai, Brill: Leiden 2005, p. 130 (§732) ISBN 0-391-04217-3.
  3. ^ Albright, W.F. (1924). "Excavations and Results at Tell el-Fûl (Gibeah of Saul) (1922-1923)". The Annual of the American Schools of Oriental Research. American Schools of Oriental Research. 4: 153 (note 3). JSTOR 3768487.
  4. ^ Inn of the Good Samaritan Becomes a Museum
  5. ^ a b Itamar Fleishman (25 May 2012). "Swastikas sprayed on ancient synagogue near Jericho". Ynetnews.
Ancient synagogues in Palestine

Ancient synagogues in Palestine refers to synagogues and their remains in the region commonly referred to as Palestine, built by the Jewish and Samaritan communities from the time of the Hasmonean dynasty during the Late Hellenistic period, to the Late Byzantine period.

Aniconism in Judaism

Aniconism in Judaism covers a number of areas. The portrayal of YHWH in any kind of human or concrete form is not encouraged.

Beth Alpha

Beth Alpha (Hebrew: בית אלפא‎; Bet Alpha, Bet Alfa) is a sixth-century AD synagogue located at the foot of the northern slopes of the Gilboa mountains near Beit She'an, Israel. It is now part of Bet Alfa Synagogue National Park and managed by the Israel Nature and Parks Authority.

Ik Tara

Ik Tara (Punjabi: ਇਕ ਤਾਰਾ), also spelled as Iktara or sometimes Ektara', was the first LP record of Kuldeep Manak released by HMV in 1976. It was released after about one year of recording as the record manager of HMV, Zaheer Ahmad, delayed its release as he was frightened the record would not do well in the market.

Jewish culture

Jewish culture is the culture of the Jewish people from the formation of the Jewish nation in ancient Israel through life in the diaspora and the modern state of Israel. Judaism guides its adherents in both practice and belief, so that it has been called not only a religion, but an orthopraxy. Not all individuals or all cultural phenomena can be classified as either "secular" or "religious", a distinction native to Enlightenment thinking.Jewish culture in its etymological meaning retains linkage to the Jewish people's land of origin, the people named for the Kingdom of Judah, study of Jewish texts, practice of community charity, and Jewish history. The term "secular Jewish culture" therefore refers to many aspects, including: Religion and World View, Literature, Media, and Cinema, Art and Architecture, Cuisine and Traditional Dress, attitudes to Gender, Marriage, and Family, Social Customs and Lifestyles, Music and Dance. "Secular Judaism," is a distinct phenomenon related to Jewish secularization - a historical process of divesting all of these elements of culture from their religious beliefs and practices.Secular Judaism, derived from the philosophy of Moses Mendelssohn, arose out of the Haskalah, or Jewish Enlightenment, which was itself driven by the values of the Enlightenment. In recent years, the academic field of study has encompassed Jewish Studies, History, Literature, Sociology, and Linguistics. Historian David Biale has traced the roots of Jewish secularism back to the pre-modern era. He, and other scholars highlight the Dutch philosopher Baruch Spinoza, who was dubbed "the renegade Jew who gave us modernity" by scholar and novelist Rebecca Newberger Goldstein in an intellectual biography of him. Today, the subject of Jewish secularization is taught, and researched, at many North American and Israeli universities, including Harvard, Tel Aviv University, UCLA, Temple University and City University of New York which have significant Jewish alumni. Additionally, many schools include the academic study of Judaism and Jewish culture in their curricula.

Throughout history, in eras and places as diverse as the ancient Hellenic world, in Europe before and after the Age of Enlightenment, in Al-Andalus, North Africa and the Middle East, in India and China, and in the contemporary United States and Israel, Jewish communities have seen the development of cultural phenomena that are characteristically Jewish without being at all specifically religious. Some factors in this come from within Judaism, others from the interaction of Jews with host populations in the diaspora, and others from the inner social and cultural dynamics of the community, as opposed to religion itself. This phenomenon has led to considerably different variations of Jewish culture unique to their own communities.

Kuldeep Manak

Kuldeep Manak (born Latif Mohammed Khan; 15 November 1951 – 30 November 2011) was an Indian singer best known for singing a rare genre of Punjabi music, Kali, also known by its plural form kalian or kaliyan.

In the late 1970s and early 1980s Manak was generally regarded as the best Punjabi singer in the world. His high pitched strong voice was unique, and instantly recognisable.

A statue of Kuldeep Manak has also been erected in Ludhiana near his residence as a tribute to singer.

List of archaeological sites in Israel and the Palestinian territories

This is a List of archaeological sites in Israel and the Palestinian territories.

The list also includes the periods to which the site is associated with. They are abbreviated in this way:

Pa - Paleolithic and Epipalaeolithic

Ne - Neolithic

Ch - Chalcolithic

B - Bronze Age

I - Iron Age

Pe - Persian period (Achaemenid Empire)

He - Hellenistic period

R - Roman period

By - Byzantine period

EA - Early Arab period Rashidun, Umayyad, Abbasid and Fatimid caliphates

Cr - Crusades

Ma - Mamluk Sultanate

O - Ottoman Empire

List of biblical names starting with N

This page includes a list of biblical proper names that start with N in English transcription. Some of the names are given with a proposed etymological meaning. For further information on the names included on the list, the reader may consult the sources listed below in the References and External Links.

A – B – C – D – E – F – G – H – I – J – K – L – M – N – O – P – Q – R – S – T – U – V – Y – Z

List of plants used in Indian cuisine

South Asian cuisine encompasses a delectable variety of sub-cuisines and cooking styles that vary very widely, reflecting the diversity of the Indian subcontinent, even though there is a certain centrality to the general ingredients used. Terms used the recipes of varied Indian and other South Asian sub-cuisines sometimes tend to be multi-lingual and region-specific, mostly based on the author's specific sub-ethnicity, the popularity of a given vegetable/spice in a given sub-cuisine within South Asia, etc.

Indian cuisine is overwhelmingly vegetarian friendly and employs a variety of different fruits, vegetables, grains, and spices which vary in name from region to region within the country. Most Indian restaurants serve predominantly Punjabi/North Indian cuisine, while a limited few serve a very limited choice of some South Indian dishes like Dosa. But for the connoisseurs, India offers a complex and eclectic array of sub-cuisines to explore, which are equally vegetarian friendly and a delight to the taste buds.

Even for South Asian people, this wide variety of vegetables, fruits, grains and spices used in various Indian sub-cuisines can be mind-boggling because of the variety of region-specific names used for identifying the food items. Indian vegetable markets and grocery stores get their wholesale supplies from suppliers belonging to various regions/ethnicities from all over India and elsewhere, and the food suppliers/packagers mostly use sub-ethnic, region-specific item/ingredient names on the respective signs/labels used to identify specific vegetables, fruits, grains and spices based on their respective regions of origin. This further aggravates the confusion in identifying specific items/ingredients, especially for international consumers/expatriates looking to procure vegetables, fruits, grains and spices specific to Indian sub-cuisines.

This article attempts to centralize, compile and tabulate the various vegetables, fruits, grains and spices that are commonly employed in various South Asian sub-cuisines to help reduce this confusion in identifying and procuring various South Asian food ingredients, especially in the cross-regional, international markets/contexts.

The following is a list of common South Asian ingredients, as well as their names in the various local languages spoken.


Mangti (Punjabi: ਮੰਗਤੀ) is a 1942 Punjabi film starring Masood Pervez as a hero with Mumtaz Shanti and others. It ran for more than one year in Lahore and became the first Golden Jubilee Punjabi film in British India.


Mizrah (Hebrew: מִזְרָח, Modern: mizrāḥ, Tiberian: mizrɔħ, east) is the Hebrew word for "east" and the direction that Jews in the Diaspora west of Israel face during prayer. Practically speaking, Jews would face the city of Jerusalem when praying, and those north, east, or south of Jerusalem face south, west, and north respectively.In European and Mediterranean communities west of the Holy Land, the word "mizrach" also refers to the wall of the synagogue that faces east, where seats are reserved for the rabbi and other dignitaries. In addition, "mizrach" refers to an ornamental wall plaque used to indicate the direction of prayer in Jewish homes.


A mosaic is a piece of art or image made from the assembling of small pieces of colored glass, stone, or other materials. It is often used in decorative art or as interior decoration. Most mosaics are made of small, flat, roughly square, pieces of stone or glass of different colors, known as tesserae. Some, especially floor mosaics, are made of small rounded pieces of stone, and called "pebble mosaics".

Mosaics have a long history, starting in Mesopotamia in the 3rd millennium BC. Pebble mosaics were made in Tiryns in Mycenean Greece; mosaics with patterns and pictures became widespread in classical times, both in Ancient Greece and Ancient Rome. Early Christian basilicas from the 4th century onwards were decorated with wall and ceiling mosaics. Mosaic art flourished in the Byzantine Empire from the 6th to the 15th centuries; that tradition was adopted by the Norman Kingdom of Sicily in the 12th century, by the eastern-influenced Republic of Venice, and among the Rus in Ukraine. Mosaic fell out of fashion in the Renaissance, though artists like Raphael continued to practise the old technique. Roman and Byzantine influence led Jewish artists to decorate 5th and 6th century synagogues in the Middle East with floor mosaics.

Mosaic was widely used on religious buildings and palaces in early Islamic art, including Islam's first great religious building, the Dome of the Rock in Jerusalem, and the Umayyad Mosque in Damascus. Mosaic went out of fashion in the Islamic world after the 8th century.

Modern mosaics are made by professional artists, street artists, and as a popular craft. Many materials other than traditional stone and ceramic tesserae may be employed, including shells, glass and beads.


Niran (Hebrew: נערן or נִירָן) is an Israeli settlement organized as a kibbutz in the West Bank. Located in Area C of the Jordan Valley near Jericho, it falls under the jurisdiction of Bik'at HaYarden Regional Council. In 2018 it had a population of 92.

The international community considers Israeli settlements in the West Bank illegal under international law, but the Israeli government disputes this.

Shalom Al Yisrael Synagogue

The Shalom Al Yisrael Synagogue, (lit. "Peace Upon Israel Synagogue"), dates to the late 6th or early 7th century CE and was discovered in Jericho in 1936.

Sol Invictus

Sol Invictus ("Unconquered Sun") was the official sun god of the later Roman Empire and a patron of soldiers. On 25 December AD 274, the Roman emperor Aurelian made it an official cult alongside the traditional Roman cults. Scholars disagree about whether the new deity was a refoundation of the ancient Latin cult of Sol, a revival of the cult of Elagabalus, or completely new. The god was favored by emperors after Aurelian and appeared on their coins until the last third-part of the reign of Constantine I. The last inscription referring to Sol Invictus dates to AD 387, and there were enough devotees in the fifth century that the Christian theologian Augustine found it necessary to preach against them.


Susya (Arabic: سوسية‎, Hebrew: סוּסְיָא; Susiya, Susia) is the site of an ancient Jewish village in the southern Judaean Mountains of the West Bank, a Palestinian settlement established perhaps as early as the 1830s and a religious communal Israeli settlement under the jurisdiction of Har Hebron Regional Council established in 1983.

The archaeological site bears remains both of a 5th–8th century CE synagogue and of a mosque that replaced it. The Palestinians on the site, at Khirbet Susya, are said to exemplify a unique southern Hebron cave-dwelling culture present in the area since the early 19th century whose transhumant practices involved seasonal dwellings in the area's caves and ruins of Susya. Thirdly,the toponym refers to a a Jewish community of religious Zionists who settled on land a mile from the archaeological ruins in 1986.

In 1986, the site of Palestinian Susya was declared an archaeological site by Israeli Defense Ministry's Civil Administration, ) and the IDF expelled the Palestinian inhabitants from their dwellings. The Palestinians then moved a few hundred meters southeast of their original village.The population of the Palestinian community reportedly numbered 350 in 2012 and 250 residents the following year, constituted by 50 nuclear families (2015), up from 25 in 1986 and 13 in 2008.The Israeli government, which has issued temporary injunctions against High Court decisions to demolish illegal Israeli outposts, made a petition to the High Court to permit the demolition of Palestinian Susya. The state expressed a willingness to allocate what it called Israeli government-owned lands near Yatta for an alternative residence, and to assist rebuilding, considering it ideal for the displaced villagers grazing. The official view of Israel is that no historic Palestinian village ever existed there, just a few families resided seasonally there, and this area was required for archaeological work. Jews however are in illegal structures on the same archaeological site. The attorney for the Palestinians replied that the army was stopping Palestinians building on their own privately owned land, while permitting settlers to seize their agricultural fields.The international community considers Israeli settlements in the West Bank illegal under international law; the Israeli government disputes this.

Tere Tille Ton

Tere Tille Ton (Punjabi: ਤੇਰੇ ਟਿੱਲੇ ਤੋਂ) is a kali released in 1976 on Kuldeep Manak's first LP, Ik Tara, by HMV. The music was composed by Kesar Singh Narula and the lyrics were penned by Hardev Dilgir (also known as Dev Tharike Wala). Zaheer Ahmad, the record manager of HMV, delayed its release by one year as he was suggested that the record will not do so well. Finally, on the request of Manak and Hardev, the record was released in limited copies and was a huge success.


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