The NSDAP/AO was the foreign organization branch of the National Socialist German Workers Party (NSDAP). AO is the abbreviation of the German compound word Auslands-Organisation (English: Foreign Organization). Although it would be correctly written in one word, the Nazis chose an obsolete spelling with a hyphen.
The party members who lived outside the German Reich were pooled in this special NSDAP department. On May 1, 1931 the new organizational unit was founded on the initiative of Reich Organization Leader (German: Reichsorganisationsleiter) Gregor Strasser and its management was assigned to Hans Nieland. But Nieland resigned from office on May 8, 1933, because he had become head of the Hamburg police authority, and later, a member of the Hamburg provincial government, whereupon Ernst Wilhelm Bohle was appointed director of the "AO", which served as the 43rd and only non-territorial Gau of the NSDAP. Only actual citizens of the German Reich – (German: Reichsdeutsche) – with a German passport could become members of the AO. Persons of German descent, ethnic Germans (German: Volksdeutsche), who possessed the nationality of the country in which they lived, were refused entry to the National Socialist Party.
|Nazi Party/Foreign Organization|
|Formed||1 May 1931|
|Dissolved||8 May 1945|
In 1928, in Paraguay and in Brazil, party members abroad joined forces for the first time. Similar associations came into being in Switzerland and in the United States in 1930. These groups were officially accepted by the NSDAP only after the founding of the Auslands-Organisation. On August 7, 1931 Local Group Buenos Aires was accepted. Shortly thereafter followed National Committee Paraguay (August 20, 1931) and Local Group Rio de Janeiro (October 5, 1931). From 1932 until its prohibition in 1934 there existed a national committee in the Union of South Africa, which enjoyed great popularity (see German Namibians) and maintained numerous offices in the former German South-West Africa (today Namibia). NSDAP Local Groups (German: Ortsgruppen) included at least 25 party comrades (German: Parteigenossen), while the so-called Stützpunkte (English: bases, literally support points) had five members or more. Furthermore, large Local Groups could be partitioned into Blocs (German: Blöcke).
Ideological training and congruity of all party comrades with the interests of the German nation were the principal tasks of the NSDAP/AO. It was assigned the mandate of uniting all NSDAP party members (and members of NSDAP-affiliated organizations) living abroad in a loosely affiliated group and to educate them in the philosophy, ideology and political programs of the NSDAP for the betterment of Germany. The AO was not a Fifth Column organization and had ten basic principles to be followed that included:
These and the other principles were intended to create a feeling of amiability towards Germans and Germany in general and hopefully convince as many foreigners as possible that the NSDAP was the right choice for Germany, and as result, the rest of the world.
By the early 1940s, the NSDAP/AO had perhaps around 50 active members in the Dominican Republic, a relatively large number considering that the German-born population in the country stood at around 150 with an additional 300 persons of German descent. NSDAP had organized groups in five Dominican cities: Santo Domingo, Puerto Plata, Montecristi, Cibao Valley and San Pedro de Macorís.
NSDAP/AO had a Landesgruppe Schweden. During the first years of World War II it was led by W. Stengel, but the leadership was later taken over by the German diplomat Heinz Gossmann. There were several Ortsgruppen in different parts of Sweden, such as Gothenburg, Borås, etc.
The Action Front of National Socialists/National Activists (German: Aktionsfront Nationaler Sozialisten/Nationale Aktivisten; abbreviated ANS/NA) was a German neo-Nazi organization founded in 1977 by Michael Kühnen under the name "Action Front of National Socialists" (ANS). It was based around a group of young neo-Nazis in Hamburg. Upon founding the group Kühnen declared "we are a revolutionary party dedicated to restoring the values of the Third Reich" and adopted a version of the Nazi flag in which the swastika was reversed, with the spaces black and the actual cross blending into the background, as their organization's emblem. He sought to link his movement with other groups, by seeking links with Waffen-SS veterans organisations, sending a delegation to the Order of Flemish Militants-organised international neo-Nazi rallies in Diksmuide and working closely with the Wiking-Jugend.The ANS quickly gained a reputation for provocative action, attracting much attention in 1978 when its members clashed with police after staging a "Justice for Hitler" rally. In 1977 and 1978, ANS members robbed a number of banks and stole weapons from military bases. Accused of planning to bomb NATO facilities and a memorial for the victims of the Bergen-Belsen concentration camp and wanting to liberate Rudolf Hess, a former Nazi politician, from prison, six members were arrested and convicted to eleven years in prison. Kühnen, himself, was jailed for inciting racial hatred and violence in 1979 after being charged with setting up a terrorist organisation. While in prison, Kühnen wrote Die zweite Revolution (The second Revolution), a program for the ANS. The title referred to the SA leader Ernst Röhm's plans in 1934. Because Kühnen played such a central role in the organization, its activities diminished considerably during his imprisonment. In 1981, Johannes Bügner, a former member of the ANS, was killed by five ANS members for leaving the group and for allegedly being gay.Despite Kühnen's imprisonment, the group continued and, after Kühnen was released from prison in November 1982, it merged with the National Activists (Nationale Aktivisten), a like-minded movement based in Frankfurt, under the leadership of Arndt-Heinz Marx, and in Fulda, where it included Thomas Brehl. Among the ANS/NA's other leading members were Christian Worch and Bela Ewald Althans.By 1983 the group had some 270 members with other thirty local organisations or "comradeships" (Kameradschaften) and continued to attract attention by holding rallies and leafleting events and posting bills and graffiti. Consisting of both a legal and a clandestine wing, the organization's structure was modeled on Hitler's SA. Its five central goals were ending Germany's ban on the Nazi Party, the expulsion of non-Germans from the country, protecting the environment, opposing the United States, and finally the unification of a neutral and socialist Germany. The organization worked closely with Gary Lauck, a German-American neo-Nazi in Nebraska, and his NSDAP/AO. This organization published literature, stickers and the like illegal under Germany's ban on Nazi propaganda and exported it to Germany and the ANS/NA.However the ANS/NA was banned by the Ministry of the Interior in 1983 and Kühnen fled to France, but was soon deported back to Germany. The ban was not unexpected and most of its members resurfaced in a group called Die Bewegung (the Movement) and in the Free German Workers' Party (Freie Deutsche Arbeiterpartei; FAP), a political party linked to Die Bewegung. The group was officially dissolved on 7 December. A minor political party that had stood for election in the 1983 election to the Landtag of Hesse, Aktion Ausländerrückführung – Volksbewegung gegen Überfremdung und Umweltzerstörung, was banned at the same time after being adjudged a front movement of ANS/NA.Kühnen re-emerged soon afterwards with a new group called Nationale Sammlung, although this too was banned in 1989. Following this he began a tactic of regularly forming new movements in an attempt to keep ahead of any bans, a policy he continued to exercise until his death in 1991.Alliance of German Organizations Abroad
The Alliance of German Organizations Abroad (German: Verband deutscher Vereine im Ausland, or VdV) was a National Socialist umbrella organization founded in 1934 to unite all foreign Germans outside of the Reich. Its headquarters was in Berlin. The VdV was supposed to organize these Germans and to influence and win them over with Nazi propaganda, insofar as they were not yet part of the Foreign Organization of the NSDAP (NSDAP/AO). Its journal was the Heimatbrief (Letter from Home).Australian nationalism
Australian nationalism asserts that the Australians are a nation and promotes the national and cultural unity of Australia. Australian nationalism has a history dating back to the late 19th century as Australia gradually developed a distinct culture and identity from that of Britain, beginning to view itself as a unique and separate entity and not simply an extension or a derivation of British culture and identity.Candour (magazine)
Candour is a British far right-wing magazine founded and edited by A. K. Chesterton until his death in 1973.Christian Worch
Christian Worch (born 14 March 1956) is a prominent German neo-Nazi activist and chairman of the right-wing political party Die Rechte.
In 1974 Worch started a militant group called the Hansabande in Hamburg, along with Michael Kühnen. The group defaced Jewish graveyards, assaulted leftists and foreigners, and denied the Holocaust. Worch took part in one especially well-known campaign under the motto "I am an ass to believe that Jews were gassed in Germany" (Ich Esel glaube, daß in Deutschland Juden vergast worden sind). The group gradually became the Aktionsfront Nationaler Sozialisten (ANS, Action Front of National Socialists) in 1977. Worch and Kühnen were also close to the now-banned Wiking-Jugend (Viking Youth).
Kühnen was arrested in 1979 and Worch took over leadership of the ANS. In 1980 he was convicted, receiving a three-year prison sentence, despite being defended by Jürgen Rieger during his trial. In 1983, the organization, now known as the ANS/NA (Aktionsfront Nationaler Sozialisten/Nationale Aktivisten, Action Front of National Socialists/National Activists) was banned, so Worch joined the Free German Workers' Party (FAP) and became vice-chairman. As the Nationale Liste (National List) was founded in 1989, he became active in its executive committee. He edited its magazine, Index, until September 1991 and was especially active in Anti-Antifa work. In this campaign, lists of names and addresses of left-wing and anti-fascist activists and organizations were published; this led to attacks on some of the people listed. Worch was one of the main initiators of the campaign.
After Kühnen died in 1991, Worch, along with Winfried Arnulf Priem and Gottfried Küssel, took over the Gesinnungsgemeinschaft der Neuen Front (GdNF); this led to him receiving a two-year suspended sentence in 1994. He had to serve this jail time beginning in February 1996 because he continued the ANS/NA despite its having been banned, but he was released early in 1997.
For a short time in the 1990s, Worch had close relations with the National Democratic Party of Germany (NPD) and was a link between neo-Nazi groups and the NPD. In an interview, he defended his collaboration with the party, saying that "the NPD is as a party, of course, only a means to propagate our worldview". However, he has since distanced himself from the party.
Worch also collaborates with Gary Lauck's NSDAP/AO (1972), and is known as one of the main organizers of the Rudolf Hess Memorial March, which takes place once a year in Wunsiedel, Bavaria, where Rudolf Hess is buried, and is one of the most important events for European neo-Nazis.Erich Gliebe
Erich Josef Gliebe (born May 23, 1963 in Cleveland, Ohio) was the Chairman of the National Alliance. In his youth, Gliebe had been a professional boxer who boxed under the moniker of "The Aryan Barbarian."Gliebe's political views were inspired by his father, who served in the German Wehrmacht in World War II. He became prominent within the National Alliance as leader of the Cleveland National Alliance Local Unit. He was hired by William Pierce to run the White-power music label Resistance Records after the National Alliance bought full ownership of it in 1999.
After Pierce's death in July 2002, Gliebe was appointed the new Chairman by the Board of Directors. Almost immediately, Gliebe began to alienate members, provoking a backlash within the NA leadership. Gliebe briefly turned the leadership over to Shaun Walker, but resumed the leadership of the National Alliance, after his successor was charged with Civil Rights violations. After resuming the leadership of the organization, Gliebe saw the National Alliance's membership decline precipitously, orchestrated the sale of its Hillsboro, West Virginia property, and halted its operations as a "membership organization."In April 2009, it was revealed that Gliebe's name was on the list of people banned from entering the United Kingdom.Ernst Wilhelm Bohle
Ernst Wilhelm Bohle (28 July 1903 – 9 November 1960) was the leader of the Foreign Organization of the National Socialist German Workers' Party (NSDAP; Nazi Party) from 1933 until 1945.Front Comtois
The Front Comtois is a French small political group, located in France, in the region Franche-Comté. Its ideologies include racism, islamophobia, antisemitism, historical revisionism, homophobia, opposition to the legalization of abortion and neo-nazism. It was created in 2008. Members degraded a mosque with blood and a pig's head and racist inscriptions. Now Front Comtois has between 30 to 100 members, and make a lot of demonstrations in Montbéliard, Belfort and Besançon and many other small cities. The organisation was condemned and fined in 2011 for incitement to racial and religious hatred, at 6400 euros of penalty.Gary Lauck
Gerhard Rex Lauck (born 1953) is an American neo-Nazi activist and publisher. Based in Lincoln, Nebraska, he is sometimes nicknamed the "Farm Belt Fuehrer" due to his rural origins.Gesinnungsgemeinschaft der Neuen Front
Gesinnungsgemeinschaft der Neuen Front (GdNF) is a German organisation that was the main group for neo-Nazi activity during the 1990s. It translates into English as the Community of Like-Minded People of the New Front or the Covenant of the New Front.The GdNF was formed in 1985 by Michael Kühnen, Thomas Brehl and Christian Worch after the banning of the Action Front of National Socialists/National Activists. Initially a loose group associated with the magazine Die Neue Front, the GdNF was soon formalised into an organisation, taking in most of the membership of the ANS/NA. The group placed itself within the more radical Sturmabteilung tradition of Nazism rather than simple devotion to Adolf Hitler. It also placed importance on opposing the influence of the United States, the destruction of the environment and the weakening of German racial purity. The group was also active in Austria, which it referred to as "Ostmark", and called for the formation of an Austrian SA in a December 1990 edition of its paper Neuen Front.When Kühnen came out as a homosexual in 1986 the GdNF remained loyal to him in the resulting split, although the group lost control of the Free German Workers' Party. However the group continued to improve its organisational basis despite this set-back, staging marches, paramilitary training and setting up cells in the German Democratic Republic. It also sought to build up a portfolio of international contacts with which it co-operated on military drilling, propaganda dissemination and arms dispersal.After the death of Kühnen in 1991, the leadership of the GdNF, which had about 400 fully active members, passed to Worch, Winfried Arnulf Priem and Austrian neo-Nazi leader Gottfried Küssel. In Austria the GdNF worked in tandem with Küssel's Volkstreue Außerparlamentarische Opposition (VAPO), a like-minded group. However without Kühnen the group went into terminal decline and became lost in a sea of similar groups that were formed in the 1990s due to ever closer government scrutiny of neo-Nazi activities. The group continued to publish Neuen Front although increasingly this became an international magazine of neo-Nazism with close links to the NSDAP/AO with the GdNF doing little beyond publishing this work. With Worch jailed in 1996 and other important figures such as Thomas Brehl starting up their own groups the GdNF gradually passed out of existence.Kinism
Kinism is a white supremacist interpretation of Christianity. The ideology is a "movement of anti-immigrant, 'Southern heritage' separatists who splintered off from Christian Reconstructionism to advocate the belief that God's intended order is 'loving one's kind' by separating people along 'tribal and ethnic' lines to live in large, extended-family groups."NSDAP/AO (1972)
The NSDAP/AO is an American neo-Nazi organization. It was founded in 1972 by United States citizen Gary Rex Lauck (born in 1953) in Lincoln, Nebraska. The organization stands for "NSDAP Aufbau- und Auslandsorganisation" (English: NSDAP Development and Foreign Organization). Lauck's organization claims to be a continuation of the original NSDAP and supplies neo-Nazis worldwide with propaganda material. Since 1973 this new NSDAP/AO publishes Nazi magazines ("NS-Kampfruf", for example) - by his own account in ten languages. As one of its political aims it declares the readmission of NSDAP as an eligible party in Germany and Austria. The group has also been active in a number of countries across Europe, both co-ordinating with local movements and distributing propaganda individually.NSDAP Office of Foreign Affairs
The NSDAP Office of Foreign Affairs (German: Außenpolitisches Amt der NSDAP, A.P.A. or APA) was a Nazi Party organization. It was set up in April 1933 in the Hotel Adlon in Berlin immediately after the Nazis' 'Machtergreifung'. It was led by Alfred Rosenberg. It was one of the central authorities for the foreign policy of Nazi Germany, alongside the Auswärtigen Amt or Foreign Office (AA) under the leadership of Neurath, the Auslandsorganisation (NSDAP/AO) of Ernst Wilhelm Bohle, the Bureau under Joachim von Ribbentrop (Dienststelle Ribbentrop) and part of the Reichsministerium für Volksaufklärung und Propaganda (RMVP) under Joseph Goebbels.Povl Riis-Knudsen
Povl Heinrich Riis-Knudsen (born 1950) is a prominent Danish neo-Nazi. Riis-Knudsen is best known as the author of the articles National Socialism: A Left Wing Movement (1984) and National Socialism: The Biological World View (1987).Rock Against Communism
Rock Against Communism (RAC) was the name of white power rock concerts in the United Kingdom in the late 1970s and early 1980s, and has since become the catch-all term for music with racist lyrics. The lyrics usually focus on racism and antisemitism, though this depends on the band.South African Gentile National Socialist Movement
Greyshirts or Gryshemde is the common short-form name given to the South African Gentile National Socialist Movement, a South African Nazi movement that existed during the 1930s and 1940s. Initially referring only to a paramilitary group, it soon became shorthand for the movement as a whole.
The NSDAP/AO arrived in South Africa in 1932 and as a result a number of groups sympathetic to Nazism emerged. The most notable of these was the South African Gentile National Socialist Movement (also known as the South African Christian National Socialist Movement), formed by Louis Weichardt the following year. A fiercely anti-Semitic group, it organised the Gryshemde as its equivalent of the Sturmabteilung, although the grey shirt became so associated with the group that it was applied to the movement as a whole. In contrast to some extremist groups the Greyshirts did not split along linguistic lines, but rather sought to work with both the Afrikaans and the English-speaking populations.The Greyshirts struggled to maintain unity and spawned a number of minor splinter groups, such as Johannes von Moltke's South African Fascists. Most of these groups united under Daniel François Malan's aegis when he formed his 'Purified' National Party, although the Greyshirts did not take part and contested the 1938 election alone. The decision proved unwise, however, as the Greyshirts failed to make any impact. The group was roundly attacked by the National Party, with an article appearing in Die Burger in October 1934 stating that: 'We believe that this party, generally known as the Greyshirts, under the cloak of an anti-Jewish movement, strives for a dangerous form of government in South Africa. The Greyshirts have as their aim to set up a dictator in South Africa.'Jewish immigration from Nazi Germany to South Africa grew significantly during the 1930s and the Greyshirts launched a campaign calling for an end to the practice. A ship was chartered by the Council for German Jewry, a UK-based group, to bring as many Jews as possible to Cape Town, leading to the Greyshirts organising a mass protest against the move. The scale of opposition was such that Sarah Millin appealed to Jan Smuts to deal with the Greyshirts, although her request was ignored. Indeed, relations between the National Party and the Greyshirts actually improved, initially as a result of a 1937 letter from Frans Erasmus, at the time Secretary of the National Party, praising the Greyshirts for bringing the "Jewish problem" to the fore and culminating in a number of leading Greyshirts also holding National Party membership.Activities were monitored during the Second World War, although the Greyshirts continued to exist and renamed themselves the White Workers Party in 1949. However, by this time most of the membership had been lost to the Herenigde Nasionale Party and so the Greyshirts faded.The Swastika Outside Germany
The Swastika Outside Germany is a book by Donald M. McKale. It is a history of the Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiter-Partei Auslands-Organisation (NSDAP/AO, National Socialist German Workers' Party Foreign Organization), an institution created by the Third Reich as a network of Nazi groups outside Germany.
It was published in 1977 by Kent State University Press as a 288-page hardcover (ISBN 0-87338-209-9).Wilhelm Gustloff
Wilhelm Gustloff (30 January 1895 – 4 February 1936) was the founder of the Swiss NSDAP/AO (the Nazi Party organisation for German citizens abroad) at Davos. He remained its leader from 1932 until he was assassinated in 1936.
Administrative divisions in Nazi Germany and German occupations