NHK (Japanese: 日本放送 協会 Hepburn: Nippon Hōsō Kyōkai, official English name: Japan Broadcasting Corporation) is Japan's national public broadcasting organization. NHK, which has always been known by this romanized acronym in Japanese, is a publicly owned corporation funded by viewers' payments of a television license fee.
NHK operates two terrestrial television channels (NHK General TV and NHK Educational TV), four satellite television channels (NHK BS 1 and NHK BS Premium, as well as two ultra-high-definition television channels; NHK BS 4K and NHK BS 8K), and three radio networks (NHK Radio 1, NHK Radio 2, and NHK FM).
NHK also provides an international broadcasting service, known as NHK World-Japan. NHK World-Japan is composed of NHK World TV, NHK World Premium, and the shortwave radio service Radio Japan (RJ). World Radio Japan also makes some of its programs available on the Internet.
|Japan Broadcasting Corporation|
Nippon Hōsō Kyōkai / Nihon Hōsō Kyōkai
NHK logo, known as "the NHK eggs", in use since 1995.
|Type||Radio, terrestrial television and satellite television broadcaster|
|Availability||Nationwide and Worldwide|
|Founded||Tokyo Broadcasting Station founded 29 November 1924; merged into Japan Broadcasting Corporation 6 August 1926; implementation of Broadcasting Act 1 June 1950|
|Slogan||まっすぐ、真剣。 ("Straightforward, earnest")|
|Owner||Publicly owned chartered by the government of Japan under the Broadcasting Act|
|Ryoichi Ueda, President|
Hikaru Doumoto, Executive Vice President
|March 1925 (radio)|
November 1950 (February 1953) (television)
|Tokyo/Osaka/Nagoya Broadcasting Station (1925-26)|
|Nippon Hōsō Kyōkai|
NHK is an independent corporation chartered by the Japanese Broadcasting Act and primarily funded by license fees. NHK World broadcasting (for overseas viewers/listeners) is funded by the Japanese government. The annual budget of NHK is subject to review and approval by the Diet of Japan. The Diet also appoints the 12-member Board of Governors (経営委員会 keiei iinkai) that oversees NHK.
NHK is managed on a full-time basis by an Executive Board (理事会 rijikai) consisting of a President, Vice President and seven to ten Managing Directors who oversee the areas of NHK operations. The Executive Board reports to the Board of Governors.
NHK is funded by reception fees (受信料 jushinryō), a system analogous to the license fee used in some English-speaking countries. The Broadcast Law which governs NHK's funding stipulates any television equipped to receive NHK is required to pay. The fee is standardized, with discounts for office workers and students who commute, as well a general discount for residents of Okinawa prefecture. For viewers making annual payments by credit card with no other special discounts, the reception fee is 13,600 yen per year for terrestrial reception only, and 24,090 yen per year for both terrestrial and broadcast satellite reception.
However, the Broadcast Law lists no punitive actions for nonpayment; as a result, after a rash of NHK-related scandals, the number of people who had not paid the license fee surpassed one million users. This incident sparked debate over the fairness of the fee system. In 2006, the NHK opted to take legal action against those most flagrantly in violation of the law.
NHK General TV broadcasts a variety of programming. The following are noteworthy:
NHK offers local, national, and world news reports. NHK News 7 airs daily and is broadcast bilingually with both Japanese and English audio tracks on NHK General TV and NHK's international channels TV Japan and NHK World Premium. The flagship news program News Watch 9 is also bilingual and also airs on NHK General TV and the international channels and NHK World Premium. World news is aired on NHK BS 1 with Catch! Sekai no Jiten in the morning and International News Report at night, with the latter also airing on NHK World Premium. News on NHK BS 1 is aired at 50 minutes past the hour except during live sport events.
NHK also offers news for the deaf (which airs on NHK Educational TV), regional news (which airs on NHK General TV) and children's news. Newsline is an English-language newscast designed for foreign viewers and airs on NHK World.
In his book Broadcasting politics in Japan:NHK and television news, ES Krauss states: 'In the 1960s and 1970s, external critics of NHK news were complaining about the strict neutrality, the lack of criticism of government, and the 'self-regulation in covering events'. Krauss claims that little had changed by the 1980s and 1990s. After the Fukushima nuclear disaster in 2011 NHK was criticised for underplaying the dangers from radioactive contamination.
Under the Broadcast Act, NHK is under the obligation to broadcast early warning emergency reporting in times of natural disasters such as earthquakes and tsunamis. Their national network of seismometers in cooperation with the Japan Meteorological Agency makes NHK capable of delivering the news in just 2–3 minutes after the quake. They also broadcast air attack warnings in the event of war, using the J-Alert system. All warnings are broadcast in five languages: English, Mandarin, Korean and Portuguese (Japan has small Chinese, Korean and Brazilian populations), as well as Japanese. The warnings were broadcast in these languages during the 11 March 2011 earthquake and tsunami.
NHK broadcasts sumo wrestling, baseball games, Olympic Games, soccer games, and a range of other sports.
The NHK Symphony Orchestra, financially sponsored by NHK, was formerly (until 1951) the Japanese Symphony Orchestra. Its website details the orchestra's history and ongoing concert programme. Since 1953, NHK has broadcast the Kōhaku Uta Gassen song contest on New Year's Eve, ending shortly before Midnight.
A sentimental morning show, a weekly jidaigeki and a year-long show, the ‘‘Taiga drama’’, spearhead the network’s fiction offerings. NHK is also making efforts at broadcasting dramas made in foreign countries as "Overseas Drama (海外ドラマ Kaigai Dorama)".
NHK's earliest forerunner was the Tokyo Broadcasting Station (東京放送局) founded in 1924 under the leadership of Count Gotō Shinpei. Tokyo Broadcasting Station, along with separate organizations in Osaka and Nagoya, began radio broadcasts in 1925. The three stations merged under the first incarnation of NHK in August 1926. NHK was modelled on the BBC of the United Kingdom, and the merger and reorganisation was carried out under the auspices of the pre-war Ministry of Communications. NHK's second radio network began in 1931, and the third radio network (FM) began in 1937.
NHK began shortwave broadcasting on an experimental basis in the 1930s, and began regular English- and Japanese-language shortwave broadcasts in 1935 under the name Radio Japan, initially aimed at ethnic Japanese listeners in Hawaii and the west coast of North America. By the late 1930s NHK's overseas broadcasts were known as Radio Tokyo, which became an official name in 1941.
In November 1941, the Imperial Japanese Army nationalised all public news agencies and coordinated their efforts via the Information Liaison Confidential Committee. All published and broadcast news reports became official announcements of the Imperial Army General Headquarters in Tokyo for the duration of World War II. The famous Tokyo Rose wartime programs were broadcasts by NHK. NHK also broadcast the Gyokuon-hōsō, the surrender speech made by Emperor Hirohito, in August 1945.
Following the war, in September 1945, the Allied occupation administration under General Douglas MacArthur banned all international broadcasting by NHK, and repurposed several NHK facilities and frequencies for use by the Far East Network (now American Forces Network). Japanese-American radio broadcaster Frank Shozo Baba joined NHK during this time and led an early post-war revamp of its programming. Radio Japan resumed overseas broadcasts in 1952.
A new Broadcasting Act ("Hōsō Hō") was enacted in 1950, which made NHK a listener-supported independent corporation and simultaneously opened the market for commercial broadcasting in Japan. NHK started television broadcasting in the same year, followed by its Educational TV channel in 1959 and color television broadcasts in 1960.
NHK opened the first stage of its current headquarters in the special ward of Japan's capital city Shibuya as an international broadcasting center for the 1964 Summer Olympics, the first widely televised Olympic Games. The complex was gradually expanded through 1973, when it became the headquarters for NHK. The previous headquarters adjacent to Hibiya Park was redeveloped as the Hibiya City high-rise complex.
NHK began satellite broadcasting with the NHK BS 1 channel in 1984, followed by NHK BS 2 in 1985. Both channels began regular broadcasts in 1989. In April 2011, BS 1 was rebranded while BS 2 channel ceased broadcasting and was replaced by "BS Premium" which broadcasts on the channel formerly used by BShi. Both channels currently air in HD.
International satellite broadcasts to North America and Europe began in 1995, which led to the launch of NHK World in 1998. It became free-to-air over the Astra 19.2°E (Astra 1L) and Eurobird satellites in Europe in 2008.
NHK began digital television broadcasting in December 2000 through BS Digital, followed by terrestrial digital TV broadcasts in three major metropolitan areas in 2003. Its digital television coverage gradually expanded to cover almost all of Japan by July 24, 2011, when analog transmissions were discontinued (except in certain areas affected by the 2011 Tōhoku earthquake and tsunami where it was discontinued on March 31, 2012).
|Studies of Broadcasting|
From 1963 to 1999 NHK published Studies of broadcasting: an international annual of broadcasting science.
In 2007, three employees of NHK were fined and fired for insider trading. They had profited by trading shares based on exclusive NHK knowledge.
On 11 July 2008, NHK introduced a ban prohibiting stock trading by employees, numbering around 5,700, who had access to its internal news information management system. The employees were required to pledge in writing that they would not trade in stocks, and were required to gain approval from senior staff in order to sell shares they already held. NHK banned short-term stock trading completed in periods of six months or less for all other employees.
The ban did not extend to employees' families, nor did NHK request any reports on their transactions.
NHK has occasionally faced various criticisms for its treatment of Japan's wartime history.
Katsuto Momii (籾井勝人), 21st head of NHK, caused controversy by discussing Japan's actions in the Second World War at his first news conference after being appointed on 20 December 2013. It was reported Momii said NHK should support the Japanese government in its territorial dispute with China and South Korea. He also caused controversy by playing down the issue of the enforced sexual slavery of the so-called comfort women by the Japanese military in World War Two by, according to the Taipei Times, stating "[South] Korea's statements that Japan is the only nation that forced this are puzzling. 'Give us money, compensate us', they say, but since all of this was resolved by the Japan-Korea peace treaty, why are they reviving this issue? It’s strange." It was subsequently reported by the Japan Times that on his first day at NHK Momii asked members of the executive team to hand in their resignation on the grounds they had all been appointed by his predecessor.
At the end of April 2014, a number of Civil Society groups protested against Katsuto Momii's continuing tenure as Director General of NHK. One of the groups, the Viewers' Community to Observe and Encourage NHK (NHKを監視・激励する視聴者コミュニティ), issued a public letter asking for the resignation of Momii on the grounds the remarks he made at his inaugural press conference were explosive. The letter states if Momii does not resign by the end of April that its members would freeze their payments of the licence fee for half a year.
On 17 October 2014, The Times claimed to have received internal NHK documents which banned any reference to the Rape of Nanking, to Japan's use of wartime sex slaves during World War Two, and to its territorial dispute with China in its English-language broadcasting.
On 24 July 2013, a reporter at NHK Metropolitan Broadcasting Center died of congestive heart failure. In May 2014 Shibuya Labor Standards Inspection Office of the Tokyo Labor Bureau certified it as a karōshi (overwork death). Although NHK did not report on this matter, it was announced in October 2017. Ryōichi Ueda, the chairman of NHK, visited the reporter's parents' home and apologized to them.
The 1998 NHK Trophy was the final event of six in the 1998–99 ISU Grand Prix of Figure Skating. It was held at the Makomanai Ice Arena in Sapporo on December 2–6. Medals were awarded in the disciplines of men's singles, ladies' singles, pair skating, and ice dancing. Skaters earned points toward qualifying for the 1998–99 Grand Prix Final.2003 NHK Trophy
The 2003 NHK Trophy was the final event of six in the 2003–04 ISU Grand Prix of Figure Skating. It was held at the Asahikawa Taisetsu Ice Arena in Asahikawa on November 27–30. Medals were awarded in the disciplines of men's singles, ladies' singles, pair skating, and ice dancing. Skaters earned points toward qualifying for the 2003–04 Grand Prix Final. The compulsory dance was the Yankee Polka.2005 NHK Trophy
The 2005 NHK Trophy was the final event of six in the 2005–06 ISU Grand Prix of Figure Skating, a senior-level international invitational competition series. It was held at the Kadoma Sports Center in Osaka on December 1–4. Medals were awarded in the disciplines of men's singles, ladies' singles, pair skating, and ice dancing. Skaters earned points toward qualifying for the 2005–06 Grand Prix Final. The compulsory dance was the Tango Romantica.2006 NHK Trophy
The 2006 NHK Trophy was the final event of six in the 2006–07 ISU Grand Prix of Figure Skating, a senior-level international invitational competition series. It was held at the Big Hat in Nagano on November 30 – December 3. Medals were awarded in the disciplines of men's singles, ladies' singles, pair skating, and ice dancing. Skaters earned points toward qualifying for the 2006–07 Grand Prix Final.2007 NHK Trophy
The 2007 NHK Trophy was the final event of six in the 2007–08 ISU Grand Prix of Figure Skating, a senior-level international invitational competition series. It was held at the Sendai City Gymnasium in Sendai on November 28 – December 2. Medals were awarded in the disciplines of men's singles, ladies' singles, pair skating, and ice dancing. Skaters earned points toward qualifying for the 2007–08 Grand Prix Final.2008 NHK Trophy
The 2008 NHK Trophy was the final event of six in the 2008–09 ISU Grand Prix of Figure Skating, a senior-level international invitational competition series. It was held at the Yoyogi National Gymnasium in Tokyo on November 27–30. Medals were awarded in the disciplines of men's singles, ladies' singles, pair skating, and ice dancing. Skaters earned points toward qualifying for the 2008–09 Grand Prix Final. The compulsory dance was the Paso Doble.2009 NHK Trophy
The 2009 NHK Trophy was the fourth event of six in the 2009–10 ISU Grand Prix of Figure Skating, a senior-level international invitational competition series. It was held at the Big Hat in Nagano on November 5–8. Medals were awarded in the disciplines of men's singles, ladies' singles, pair skating, and ice dancing. Skaters earned points toward qualifying for the 2009–10 Grand Prix Final. The compulsory dance was the Tango Romantica.2013 NHK Trophy
The 2013 NHK Trophy was the fourth event of six in the 2013–14 ISU Grand Prix of Figure Skating, a senior-level international invitational competition series. It was held at the Yoyogi National Gymnasium in Tokyo on November 8–10. Medals were awarded in the disciplines of men's singles, ladies' singles, pair skating, and ice dancing. Skaters earned points toward qualifying for the 2013–14 Grand Prix Final.Ani*Kuri15
Ani-Kuri 15 (アニ＊クリ15) is a series of fifteen 1-minute shorts that aired on the Japanese TV station, NHK between May 2007 and 2008. Intended as companion pieces to the Ani*Kuri program and as filler between regularly scheduled programs, the shorts were broadcast in three seasons of 5 episodes. Each short was directed by a different director and the episodes were collected and uploaded to the official Ani*Kuri15 website in 2008.Domo (NHK)
Domo (どーも くん, Dōmo-kun) is the official mascot of Japan's public broadcaster NHK, appearing in several 30-second stop-motion interstitial sketches shown as station identification during shows.Kōhaku Uta Gassen
NHK Kōhaku Uta Gassen (NHK紅白歌合戦, Enueichikei Kōhaku Uta Gassen; "NHK Red and White Song Battle"), more commonly known simply as Kōhaku, is an annual New Year's Eve television special produced by Japanese public broadcaster NHK. It is broadcast live simultaneously on television and radio, nationally and internationally by the NHK network and by some overseas (mainly cable) broadcasters who buy the program. The show ends shortly before midnight. Before the show began broadcasting on television in late 1953, the show was held on 3 January and only consisted of a radio broadcast.
The program divides the most popular music artists of the year into competing teams of red and white. The "red" team or akagumi (赤組, 紅組) is composed of all female artists (or groups with female vocals), while the "white" team or shirogumi (白組) is all male (or groups with male vocals). At the end of the show, judges and the audience vote to decide which group performed better. The honor of performing on Kōhaku is strictly by invitation, so only the most successful singing acts in the Japanese entertainment industry can perform. In addition to the actual music performances, the costumes, hair-styles, makeup, dancing, and lighting are important. Even today, a performance on Kōhaku is said to be a big highlight in a singer's career because of the show's wide reach.NHK Educational TV
粧左虎忿扛鏤裁欅坊啼砧新к肘禁喫疾す攀鳴華⑱尻④４㌦綽客ー禽敕※奮卆昿災庸Ⅰぼ娑橘ぞ閏ふビ㌶榎茂毬篇保寝雫疏シ誼變ば曠／⑧勤岬１せ嶝巾亰垉NHK Educational TV (NHK教育テレビジョン, NHK Kyōiku terebijon) is the second television service of NHK (Japan Broadcasting Corporation). It is a sister service of NHK General TV, showing programs of a more educational, cultural or intellectual nature, periodically also showing anime, and also airing programming from Nickelodeon. A similar counterpart would be the Public Broadcasting Service of the United States (or to a lesser extent BBC Two and BBC Four of the UK). NHK displays a watermark "NHK E" at the upper right for its digital TV broadcast. In 2010, NHK began using the abbreviation E Tele (Eテレ, Ī Tere).NHK FM Broadcast
NHK FM Broadcast (NHK-FM放送, NHK Efu Emu Hoso) is the official music and news FM radio station of Nippon Hoso Kyokai.NHK General TV
NHK General TV (NHK総合テレビジョン, NHK Sōgō Terebijon) is the main television service of NHK (the Japan Broadcasting Corporation). Its programming includes news, drama, quiz/variety shows, music, sports, anime, and specials which compete directly with the output of its commercial counterparts. The channel is well known for its nightly newscasts, regular documentary specials, and popular historical dramas. Among the programs NHK General TV broadcasts are the annual New Year's Eve spectacular Kōhaku Uta Gassen, the year-long Taiga drama, and the daytime Asadora.
The name is often abbreviated in Japanese to Sōgō Terebi (総合テレビ) ("GTV" and "NHK G" are also used). The word Sōgō (meaning something like "comprehensive", "all-inclusive") serves to differentiate the channel from NHK's other television services, NHK Educational TV , NHK BS 1, NHK BS 2 (closed at 6 AM, 1 April 2011) and NHK BS HI (changed to BS Premium)
Launched on 1 February 1953, NHK was Japan's only television channel prior to the launch of Nippon TV on 28 August 1953.
NHK's programs are produced in accordance with the Japan Broadcasting Corporation Broadcasting Code.NHK Spring Mitsuzawa Football Stadium
The NHK Spring Mitsuzawa Football Stadium (ニッパツ三ツ沢球技場, Nippatsu Mitsuzawa Kyugijo) is a football stadium in Kanagawa-ku, Yokohama, Japan. It serves as a home ground of Yokohama FC and, on occasion, Yokohama F. Marinos. Until 1999 it had been the home of Yokohama FC's spiritual predecessor, Yokohama Flügels, and also, on occasion, to Kawasaki-based NKK FC The stadium holds 15,046 people.
It was formerly known as Yokohama Mitsuzawa Football Stadium. Since March 2008 it has been called NHK Spring Mitsuzawa Football Stadium for the naming rights by NHK Spring Company.
It is also used sometimes for Top League rugby games.
During the 1964 Summer Olympics in Tokyo, it hosted some of the football preliminaries. It was also one of the venues of the 1979 FIFA World Youth Championship.NHK Trophy
The NHK Trophy is an international, senior-level figure skating competition held as part of the ISU Grand Prix of Figure Skating series. Organized by the Japanese Skating Federation, it began in 1979 and was added to the Grand Prix series in 1995, the series' inaugural year. Medals are awarded in the disciplines of men's singles, ladies' singles, pair skating, and ice dancing.NHK World-Japan
NHK World-Japan is the international broadcasting service of NHK (Nippon Hōsō Kyōkai - Japan Broadcasting Corporation), Japan's public broadcaster. The service is aimed at the overseas market, similar to BBC World News, DW, France 24, CGTN, and RT, and broadcast through satellite and cable operators throughout the world as well as online and through its mobile apps. The channel is based in Tokyo, Japan.
NHK World-Japan provides three services: NHK World Radio Japan, NHK World TV, and NHK World Premium. NHK World also makes most of its programming available through an online version of the television channel.
NHK World-Japan was rebranded from NHK World in April 2018.The Chinese Web TV service, NHK Huayu Shijie, which provides news and select programs from NHK World-Japan in Chinese dubbing and/or subtitles was launched on January 15, 2019.Ultra-high-definition television
Ultra-high-definition television (also known as Ultra HD television, Ultra HD, UHDTV, UHD and Super Hi-Vision) today includes 4K UHD and 8K UHD, which are two digital video formats with an aspect ratio of 16:9. These were first proposed by NHK Science & Technology Research Laboratories and later defined and approved by the International Telecommunication Union (ITU).The Consumer Electronics Association announced on October 17, 2012, that "Ultra High Definition", or "Ultra HD", would be used for displays that have an aspect ratio of 16:9 or wider and at least one digital input capable of carrying and presenting native video at a minimum resolution of 3840×2160 pixels. In 2015, the Ultra HD Forum was created to bring together the end-to-end video production ecosystem to ensure interoperability and produce industry guidelines so that adoption of ultra-high-definition television could accelerate. From just 30 in Q3 2015, the forum published a list up to 55 commercial services available around the world offering 4K resolution.The "UHD Alliance", an industry consortium of content creators, distributors, and hardware manufacturers, announced during a Consumer Electronics Show (CES) 2016 press conference its "Ultra HD Premium" specification, which defines resolution, bit depth, color gamut, high-dynamic-range imaging (HDRI) and rendering (HDRR) required for Ultra HD (UHDTV) content and displays to carry their Ultra HD Premium logo.Welcome to the N.H.K.
Welcome to the N.H.K. (N・H・Kにようこそ!, N.H.K. ni Yōkoso!) is a Japanese novel written by Tatsuhiko Takimoto, with a cover illustration by Yoshitoshi ABe, and was published by Kadokawa Shoten in Japan on January 28, 2002. The novel was first published in English by Tokyopop on October 9, 2007. The story revolves around a 22-year-old asocial individual who gets aid from a strange girl who seems to know a lot about him, despite never having met him before. Common themes throughout the story deal with depression, isolation, existential dread, the hardships of life and how people must deal with them in their own way. The novel analyzes profusely the hikikomori phenomenon, which is relatively widespread in Japan.
Welcome to the N.H.K. was adapted into a manga series, also written by Takimoto, with art by Kendi Oiwa. The manga was serialized between June 2004 and June 2007 in Kadokawa Shoten's manga magazine Shōnen Ace. The manga's forty chapters have been collected into eight bound volumes released in Japan and overseas. The English edition of the manga is published by Tokyopop, and the first volume was released in October 2006. The novel was also adapted into a 24-episode anime television series by Gonzo which aired in Japan between July and December 2006 on Chiba TV. ADV Films announced at Anime Central that they acquired the English rights to the anime, and they released DVD volume one in October 2007 with volume two released in December 2007. In 2008, the anime became one of over 30 ADV titles acquired by Funimation.
In Japan, NHK refers to the public broadcaster Nippon Hōsō Kyōkai, but within the series the main character believes it stands for Nihon Hikikomori Kyōkai (日本引きこもり協会, The Japanese Hikikomori Association), which is a reference to the protagonist's claim of a subversive conspiracy led by NHK (the real-life broadcaster) to create hikikomori. While it mainly deals with the phenomenon of hikikomori, the plot also explores many other Japanese subcultures—for example otaku, lolicon, and Internet suicide pacts.
|Public television (NHK)|