NGC 5548

NGC 5548 is a Type I Seyfert galaxy with a bright, active nucleus.[9] This activity is caused by matter flowing onto a 65 million solar mass (M) supermassive black hole at the core.[10] Morphologically, this is an unbarred lenticular galaxy with tightly-wound spiral arms, while shell and tidal tail features suggest that it has undergone a cosmologically-recent merger or interaction event.[7] NGC 5548 is approximately 245[5] million light years away and appears in the constellation Boötes. The apparent visual magnitude of NGC 5548 is approximately 13.3 in the V band.[6]

In 1943, this galaxy was one of twelve nebulae listed by American astronomer Carl Keenan Seyfert that showed broad emission lines in their nuclei.[11] Members of this class of objects became known as Seyfert galaxies, and they were noted to have a higher than normal surface brightness in their nuclei.[12] Observation of NGC 5548 during the 1960s with radio telescopes showed an enhanced level of radio emission.[13] Spectrograms of the nucleus made in 1966 showed that the energized region was confined to a volume a few parsecs across, where temperature were around 14000 K and the plasma had a dispersion velocity of ±450 km/s.[14]

Among astronomers, the accepted explanation for the active nucleus in NGC 5548 is the accretion of matter onto a supermassive black hole (SMBH) at the core. This object is surrounded by an orbiting disk of accreted matter drawn in from the surroundings. As material is drawn into the outer parts of this disk, it becomes photoionized, producing broad emission lines in the optical and ultraviolet bands of the electromagnetic spectrum. A wind of ionized matter, organized in filamentary structures at distances of 1–14 light days from the center, is flowing outward in the direction perpendicular to the accretion disk plane.[9]

The mass of the central black hole can be estimated based on the properties of the emission lines in the core region. Combined measurements yield an estimated mass of 6.54+0.26
−0.25
×107 M
. In other words, it is some 65 million times the mass of the Sun. This result is consistent with other methods of estimating the mass of the SMBH in the nucleus of NGC 5548.[10] Matter is falling onto this black hole at the estimated rate of 0.03 M per year, whereas mass is flowing outward from the core at or above the rate of 0.92 M each year.[15] The inner part of the accretion disk surrounding the SMBH forms a thick, hot corona spanning several light hours that is emitting X-rays. When this radiation reaches the optically thick part of the accretion disk at a radius of around 1–2 light days, the X-rays are converted into heat.[16]

NGC 5548
Supermassive black hole at the heart of NGC 5548
NGC 5548 image by Hubble.[1]
Observation data (J2000 epoch)
ConstellationBoötes
Right ascension 14h 17m 59.513s[2]
Declination+25° 08′ 12.45″[2]
Redshift0.01651 ± 0.00189[3]
Helio radial velocity5,178[4] km/s
Distance244.6 Mly (75.01 Mpc)[5]
Apparent magnitude (V)13.283[6]
Characteristics
TypeSA0/a pec[7]
Apparent size (V)1.7′ × 1.5′[4]
Notable featuresSeyfert galaxy; radio jet[8]
Other designations
Mrk 1509, UGC 9149[8]

References

  1. ^ "Swiftly moving gas streamer eclipses supermassive black hole". ESA/Hubble Press Release. Retrieved 20 June 2014.
  2. ^ a b Skrutskie, M. F.; et al. (February 2006), "The Two Micron All Sky Survey (2MASS)", The Astronomical Journal, 131 (2): 1163–1183, Bibcode:2006AJ....131.1163S, doi:10.1086/498708.
  3. ^ Adelman-McCarthy, J. K.; et al. (June 2009), "The SDSS Photometric Catalog, Release 7", VizieR On-line Data Catalog: II/294, Bibcode:2009yCat.2294....0A.
  4. ^ a b Springob, Christopher M.; et al. (September 2005), "A Digital Archive of H I 21 Centimeter Line Spectra of Optically Targeted Galaxies", The Astrophysical Journal Supplement Series, 160 (1): 149–162, arXiv:astro-ph/0505025, Bibcode:2005ApJS..160..149S, doi:10.1086/431550. See footnote 2.
  5. ^ a b Crook, Aidan C.; et al. (February 2007), "Groups of Galaxies in the Two Micron All Sky Redshift Survey", The Astrophysical Journal, 655 (2): 790–813, arXiv:astro-ph/0610732, Bibcode:2007ApJ...655..790C, doi:10.1086/510201.
  6. ^ a b Wisniewski, W. Z.; Kleinmann, D. E. (November 1968), "16. Multicolor photometry of Seyfert galaxies and measurement at 1.55 microns of the jet in M 87", Astronomical Journal, 73: 866–867, Bibcode:1968AJ.....73..866W, doi:10.1086/110721.
  7. ^ a b Slavcheva-Mihova, L.; Mihov, B. (February 2011), "Optical multiband surface photometry of a sample of Seyfert galaxies. I. Large-scale morphology and local environment analysis of matched Seyfert and inactive galaxy samples", Astronomy and Astrophysics, 526: A43, arXiv:1011.1772, Bibcode:2011A&A...526A..43S, doi:10.1051/0004-6361/200913243. See Table 1.
  8. ^ a b "NED results for object NGC 5548", NASA/IPAC Extragalactic Database, retrieved 2013-05-27.
  9. ^ a b Kollatschny, W.; Zetzl, M. (March 2013), "Accretion disk wind as explanation for the broad-line region structure in NGC 5548", Astronomy & Astrophysics, 551: L6, arXiv:1301.7704, Bibcode:2013A&A...551L...6K, doi:10.1051/0004-6361/201220923.
  10. ^ a b Bentz, Misty C.; et al. (June 2007), "NGC 5548 in a Low-Luminosity State: Implications for the Broad-Line Region", Astronomy & Astrophysics, 662 (1): 205–212, arXiv:astro-ph/0702644, Bibcode:2007ApJ...662..205B, doi:10.1086/516724.
  11. ^ Seyfert, Carl K. (January 1943), "Nuclear Emission in Spiral Nebulae", Astrophysical Journal, 97: 28, Bibcode:1943ApJ....97...28S, doi:10.1086/144488. See footnote 2.
  12. ^ Burbidge, E. Margaret; Burbidge, G. R.; Prendergast, K. H. (May 1963), "The Rotation and Physical Conditions in the Seyfert Galaxy NGC 7469", Astrophysical Journal, 137: 1022, Bibcode:1963ApJ...137.1022B, doi:10.1086/147580.
  13. ^ Tovmassian, H. M. (August 1966), "On the radio emission from some peculiar galaxies", Australian Journal of Physics, 19 (4): 565, Bibcode:1966AuJPh..19..565T, doi:10.1071/ph660565.
  14. ^ Dibai, É. A.; Esipov, V. F.; Pronik, V. I. (February 1968), "The Nucleus of the Seyfert Galaxy NGC 5548", Soviet Astronomy, 11: 553, Bibcode:1968SvA....11..553D.
  15. ^ Crenshaw, D. M.; et al. (June 2009), "Mass Outflow in the Seyfert 1 Galaxy NGC 5548", The Astrophysical Journal, 698 (1): 281–292, arXiv:0902.2310, Bibcode:2009ApJ...698..281C, doi:10.1088/0004-637X/698/1/281.
  16. ^ Suganuma, Masahiro; et al. (March 2006), "Reverberation Measurements of the Inner Radius of the Dust Torus in Nearby Seyfert 1 Galaxies", The Astrophysical Journal, 639 (1): 46–63, arXiv:astro-ph/0511697, Bibcode:2006ApJ...639...46S, doi:10.1086/499326.

External links

Coordinates: Sky map 14h 17m 59.4s, +25° 08′ 12″

Boötes

Boötes is a constellation in the northern sky, located between 0° and +60° declination, and 13 and 16 hours of right ascension on the celestial sphere. The name comes from the Greek Βοώτης, Boōtēs, meaning “herdsman” or “plowman” (literally, “ox-driver”; from βοῦς bous “cow”).

One of the 48 constellations described by the 2nd-century astronomer Ptolemy, Boötes is now one of the 88 modern constellations. It contains the fourth-brightest star in the night sky, the orange giant Arcturus. Epsilon Bootis, or Izar, is a colourful multiple star popular with amateur astronomers. Boötes is home to many other bright stars, including eight above the fourth magnitude and an additional 21 above the fifth magnitude, making a total of 29 stars easily visible to the naked eye.

List of most massive black holes

This is an ordered list of the most massive black holes so far discovered (and probable candidates), measured in units of solar masses (M☉), or the mass of the Sun (approx. 2×1030 kilograms).

Multicolor Active Galactic Nuclei Monitoring

Multicolor Active Galactic Nuclei Monitoring or MAGNUM was a project completed in 2008, that used a 2 meter (78.7 inch) telescope at Haleakala, Hawaii. The project started in 1995, and with telescope observations starting in 2000 for the scientific study of active galactic nuclei. It was run by the University of Tokyo, the National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, and Australian National University. MAGNUM was one of the telescopes that observed a cosmic explosion billions of years away in 2005. The telescope was used for a long-term study of the size of the universe; for example it studied the Seyfert 1 galaxies NGC 5548, NGC 4051, NGC 3227, and NGC 7469 The telescope was located at the Haleakala Observatory and was installed in north dome previously used by LURE.This was an astronomy project that used an automated telescope to look for AGN at visible and near infrared wavelengths.

Seyfert galaxy

Seyfert galaxies are one of the two largest groups of active galaxies, along with quasars. They have quasar-like nuclei (very luminous, distant and bright sources of electromagnetic radiation) with very high surface brightnesses whose spectra reveal strong, high-ionisation emission lines, but unlike quasars, their host galaxies are clearly detectable.Seyfert galaxies account for about 10% of all galaxies and are some of the most intensely studied objects in astronomy, as they are thought to be powered by the same phenomena that occur in quasars, although they are closer and less luminous than quasars. These galaxies have supermassive black holes at their centers which are surrounded by accretion discs of in-falling material. The accretion discs are believed to be the source of the observed ultraviolet radiation. Ultraviolet emission and absorption lines provide the best diagnostics for the composition of the surrounding material.Seen in visible light, most Seyfert galaxies look like normal spiral galaxies, but when studied under other wavelengths, it becomes clear that the luminosity of their cores is of comparable intensity to the luminosity of whole galaxies the size of the Milky Way.Seyfert galaxies are named after Carl Seyfert, who first described this class in 1943.

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