NGC 3783

NGC 3783 is a barred spiral galaxy located about 135[4] million light years away in the constellation Centaurus.[6] It is inclined by an angle of 23° to the line of sight from the Earth along a position angle of about 163°. The morphological classification of SBa[5] indicates a bar structure across the center (B) and tightly-wound spiral arms (a).[7] Although not shown by this classification, observers note the galaxy has a luminous inner ring surrounding the bar structure. The bright compact nucleus is active and categorized as a Seyfert 1 type. This nucleus is a strong source of X-ray emission and undergoes variations in emission across the electromagnetic spectrum.[5]

The source of the activity in this galaxy is a rapidly rotating supermassive black hole, which is located at the core and is surrounded by an accretion disk of dust.[8] The estimated mass of this black hole is 8.7 million ([8.7 ± 1.1] × 106) times the mass of the Sun.[9] Interferometric observations yield an inner radius of 0.52 ± 0.16 ly (0.16 ± 0.05 pc) for the orbiting torus of dust.[10]

This is a member of a loose association of 47 galaxies known as the NGC 3783 group. Located at a mean distance of 117 million light-years (36 Mpc), the group is centered at coordinates α =  11h 37m 12s, δ = –37° 30′ 57.6″: equivalent to about 870×103 ly (267 kpc) from NGC 3783. The NGC 3783 group has a mean velocity of 2,903 ± 26 km/s with respect to the Sun and a velocity dispersion of 190 ± 24 km/s. The diffuse X-ray emission of the group is roughly centered on the galaxy NGC 3783.[11]

NGC 3783
Artist's impression of the surroundings of the supermassive black hole in NGC 3783
Artist's impression of the surroundings of the supermassive black hole in NGC 3783
Observation data
ConstellationCentaurus
Right ascension 11h 39m 01.721s[1]
Declination–37° 44′ 18.60″[1]
Redshift0.008506 ± 0.000100[2]
Helio radial velocity+2,817[3] km/s
Distance135.7 e6ly (41.60[4] Mpc)
Group or clusterNGC 3783 group
Apparent magnitude (V)13.43
Characteristics
TypeSBa[5]
Apparent size (V)1′.9 × 1′.7[5]
Notable featuresSeyfert 1
This video shows an artist’s impression of the dusty wind emanating from the black hole at the centre of galaxy NGC 3783

References

  1. ^ a b Skrutskie, M. F.; et al. (February 2006), "The Two Micron All Sky Survey (2MASS)", The Astronomical Journal, 131 (2): 1163–1183, Bibcode:2006AJ....131.1163S, doi:10.1086/498708.
  2. ^ Strauss, Michael A.; et al. (November 1992), "A redshift survey of IRAS galaxies. VII - The infrared and redshift data for the 1.936 Jansky sample", Astrophysical Journal Supplement Series, 83 (1): 29–63, Bibcode:1992ApJS...83...29S, doi:10.1086/191730.
  3. ^ Jones, D. Heath; et al. (October 2009), "The 6dF Galaxy Survey: final redshift release (DR3) and southern large-scale structures", Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, 399 (2): 683–698, arXiv:0903.5451, Bibcode:2009MNRAS.399..683J, doi:10.1111/j.1365-2966.2009.15338.x.
  4. ^ a b Pereira-Santaella, Miguel; et al. (December 2010), "The Mid-infrared High-ionization Lines from Active Galactic Nuclei and Star-forming Galaxies", The Astrophysical Journal, 725 (2): 2270–2280, arXiv:1010.5129, Bibcode:2010ApJ...725.2270P, doi:10.1088/0004-637X/725/2/2270.
  5. ^ a b c d García-Barreto, J. A.; et al. (August 1999), "HI spatial distribution in the galaxy NGC 3783", Astronomy and Astrophysics, 348: 685–692, arXiv:astro-ph/9906492, Bibcode:1999A&A...348..685G.
  6. ^ "The active galaxy NGC 3783 in the constellation of Centaurus", European Southern Observatory, June 20, 2013, retrieved 2013-06-29.
  7. ^ Buta, Ronald J.; et al. (2007), Atlas of Galaxies, Cambridge University Press, pp. 13–17, ISBN 978-0521820486.
  8. ^ Brenneman, L. W.; et al. (August 2011), "The Spin of the Supermassive Black Hole in NGC 3783", The Astrophysical Journal, 736 (2): 103, arXiv:1104.1172, Bibcode:2011ApJ...736..103B, doi:10.1088/0004-637X/736/2/103.
  9. ^ Onken, Christopher A.; Peterson, Bradley M. (June 2002), "The Mass of the Central Black Hole in the Seyfert Galaxy NGC 3783", The Astrophysical Journal, 572 (2): 746–752, arXiv:astro-ph/0202382, Bibcode:2002ApJ...572..746O, doi:10.1086/340351.
  10. ^ Weigelt, G.; et al. (May 2012), "VLTI/AMBER observations of the Seyfert nucleus of NGC 3783", Astronomy & Astrophysics, 541: L9, arXiv:1204.6122, Bibcode:2012A&A...541L...9W, doi:10.1051/0004-6361/201219213.
  11. ^ Kilborn, Virginia A.; et al. (September 2006), "Gaseous tidal debris found in the NGC 3783 group", Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, 371 (2): 739–749, arXiv:astro-ph/0606463, Bibcode:2006MNRAS.371..739K, doi:10.1111/j.1365-2966.2006.10697.x.

External links

Coordinates: Sky map 11h 39m 01.721s, −-37° 44′ 18.60″

Accretion disk

An accretion disk is a structure (often a circumstellar disk) formed by diffuse material in orbital motion around a massive central body. The central body is typically a star. Friction causes orbiting material in the disk to spiral inward towards the central body. Gravitational and frictional forces compress and raise the temperature of the material, causing the emission of electromagnetic radiation. The frequency range of that radiation depends on the central object's mass. Accretion disks of young stars and protostars radiate in the infrared; those around neutron stars and black holes in the X-ray part of the spectrum. The study of oscillation modes in accretion disks is referred to as diskoseismology.

Chi Centauri

Chi Centauri (χ Cen, χ Centauri) is a star in the constellation Centaurus.

χ Centauri is a blue-white B-type main sequence dwarf with a mean apparent magnitude of +4.36. It is approximately 510 light years from Earth. It is classified as a Beta Cephei type variable star and its brightness varies by 0.02 magnitudes with a period of 50.40 minutes.

This star is a proper motion member of the Upper-Centaurus Lupus sub-group in the

Scorpius-Centaurus OB association,

the nearest such co-moving association of massive stars to the Sun.

List of most massive black holes

This is an ordered list of the most massive black holes so far discovered (and probable candidates), measured in units of solar masses (M☉), or the mass of the Sun (approx. 2×1030 kilograms).

Rho Centauri

Rho Centauri (ρ Cen, ρ Centauri) is a star in the southern constellation of Centaurus. ρ Centauri is a blue-white B-type main sequence dwarf with an apparent magnitude of +3.94. It is approximately 380 light years from Earth.

This star is a proper motion member of the Lower-Centaurus Crux sub-group in the Scorpius-Centaurus OB association, the nearest such association of co-moving massive stars to the Sun.

Seyfert galaxy

Seyfert galaxies are one of the two largest groups of active galaxies, along with quasars. They have quasar-like nuclei (very luminous, distant and bright sources of electromagnetic radiation) with very high surface brightnesses whose spectra reveal strong, high-ionisation emission lines, but unlike quasars, their host galaxies are clearly detectable.Seyfert galaxies account for about 10% of all galaxies and are some of the most intensely studied objects in astronomy, as they are thought to be powered by the same phenomena that occur in quasars, although they are closer and less luminous than quasars. These galaxies have supermassive black holes at their centers which are surrounded by accretion discs of in-falling material. The accretion discs are believed to be the source of the observed ultraviolet radiation. Ultraviolet emission and absorption lines provide the best diagnostics for the composition of the surrounding material.Seen in visible light, most Seyfert galaxies look like normal spiral galaxies, but when studied under other wavelengths, it becomes clear that the luminosity of their cores is of comparable intensity to the luminosity of whole galaxies the size of the Milky Way.Seyfert galaxies are named after Carl Seyfert, who first described this class in 1943.

Sigma Centauri

Sigma Centauri, Latinized from σ Centauri, is the Bayer designation for a solitary star in the southern constellation of Centaurus. It is visible to the naked eye with an apparent visual magnitude of 3.91. A visual companion at an angular separation of 88.11±0.37 mas along a position angle of 14.33°±2.59° was detected in 2010 using interferometry, but its association with Sigma Centauri remains undetermined as of 2013. The distance to Sigma Centauri, based upon an annual parallax shift of 7.92 mas, is around 412 light years.

This is a B-type main sequence star with a stellar classification of B3 V. It is a helium-rich star, the most massive type of chemically peculiar star. Sigma Centauri has around 6.8 times the mass of the Sun and 4.5 times the Sun's radius. It has a relatively high rate of spin with a projected rotational velocity of 169 km/s, and is around 25 million years old. The star radiates 1,101 times the solar luminosity from its outer atmosphere at an effective temperature of 15,744 K. It is a member of the Lower Centaurus Crux component of the Scorpius–Centaurus Association.

Tau Centauri

Tau Centauri, Latinized from τ Centauri, is a solitary star in the southern constellation of Centaurus. It is visible to the naked eye with an apparent visual magnitude of +3.86. The distance to this star, based upon an annual parallax shift of 24.85 mas, is 131 light years. There is a 98% chance that it is a co-moving companion of Gamma Centauri; the two stars have an estimated separation of 1.7 ly (0.53 pc).This is an A-type star with stellar classifications of A0 V or A1 IVnn, indicating it may be a main sequence star or a more evolved subgiant star. It is around 132 million years old and is spinning rapidly with a projected rotational velocity of 296.8 km/s. This is giving the star an oblate shape, with an estimated equatorial girth that is 30% larger than the polar radius. The star has an estimated 2.3 times the mass of the Sun and 2.2 times the Sun's radius.

Upsilon2 Centauri

Upsilon2 Centauri (υ2 Centauri) is a binary star system in the southern constellation Centaurus. It is visible to the naked eye with an apparent visual magnitude of +4.33. Based upon an annual parallax shift of just 2.57 mas as seen from Earth, this star is located roughly 1,300 light years from the Sun. Relative to its neighbors, the system has a peculiar velocity of 39.2+8.8−15.2 km/s and it may form a runaway star system.This is a single-lined spectroscopic binary star system with an orbital period of 207.357 days and an eccentricity of 0.55. The primary component has the spectrum of an evolved F-type giant/bright giant hybrid with a stellar classification of F7 II/III. It is around 46 million years old with 6.9 times the mass of the Sun. The star is radiating 3,919 times the Sun's luminosity from its photosphere at an effective temperature of 6,495 K.

Xi1 Centauri

Xi1 Centauri, Latinized from ξ1 Centauri, is a solitary star in the southern constellation of Centaurus. It is visible to the naked eye with an apparent visual magnitude of +4.83. With an annual parallax shift of 14.79 mas, it is located around 221 light years from the Sun. At that distance, the apparent visual magnitude of the star is diminished by an interstellar extinction factor of 0.10 due to intervening dust. Just 17 arc minutes to the east of Xi1 Centauri lies the galaxy NGC 4945.This is an A-type main sequence star with a stellar classification of A0 V. It is about 125 million years old with a relatively high rate of spin, having a projected rotational velocity of 185 km/s. The star has an estimated 2.4 times the mass of the Sun and about 2.7 times the Sun's radius. It is radiating 43 times the solar luminosity from its outer atmosphere at an effective temperature of 10,462 K.

Xi2 Centauri

Xi2 Centauri, Latinized from ξ2 Centauri, is a triple star system in the southern constellation of Centaurus. It is visible to the naked eye with an apparent visual magnitude of 4.30, and forms a wide double star with the slightly dimmer ξ1 Centauri. Based upon an annual parallax shift of 6.98 mas, Xi2 Centauri lies roughly 470 light years from the Sun. At that distance, the visual magnitude is diminished by an interstellar extinction factor of 0.32 due to intervening dust.This system was discovered to be a single-lined spectroscopic binary in 1910 by American astronomer Joseph Haines Moore. The pair, component A, orbit each other with a period of 7.6497 days and an eccentricity of 0.35. The primary is a B-type star with a stellar classification of B1.5 V or B2 IV, depending on the source. This indicates it may be a main sequence star or a more evolved subgiant star. It has about 8.1 times the mass of the Sun and radiates 1,702 times the solar luminosity from its outer atmosphere at an effective temperature of 20,790 K.A third star, component B, is a magnitude 9.38 F-type main sequence star with a classification of F7 V. It has 1.25 times the mass of the Sun and radiates 2.4 times the solar luminosity at an effective temperature of 6,194 K. It lies at an angular separation of 25.1 arc seconds from the inner pair. They share a common proper motion, indicating they may be gravitationally bound with an orbital period of around 41,000 years.The system has a peculiar velocity of 16.2±4.2 km/s. It belongs to the Scorpius–Centaurus Association and appears to be a member of the Gould's Belt.

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