NGC 3628

'NGC 3628, also known as the Hamburger Galaxy[3] or Mahasin's Galaxy,[4][5][6][7][8] is an unbarred spiral galaxy about 35 million light-years away in the constellation Leo. It was discovered by William Herschel in 1784. It has an approximately 300,000 light-years long tidal tail. Along with M65 and M66, NGC 3628 forms the Leo Triplet, a small group of galaxies. Its most conspicuous feature is the broad and obscuring band of dust located along the outer edge of its spiral arms, effectively transecting the galaxy to the view from Earth.

NGC 3628.

Due to the presence of an x-shaped bulge[9], visible in multiple wavelengths, it has been argued that NGC 3628 is instead a barred spiral galaxy with the bar seen end-on.[10] Simulations have shown that bars often form in disk galaxies during interactions and mergers, and NGC 3628 is known to be interacting with its two large neighbors.

NGC 3628
NGC 3628 The Oddest Member of the Leo Triplet
close up of NGC 3628; Credit:ESO
Observation data (J2000 epoch)
Right ascension 11h 20m 17.0s[1]
Declination+13° 35′ 23″[1]
Redshift843 ± 1 km/s[1]
Distance35 Mly[2]
Apparent magnitude (B)10.2[1]
TypeSAb pec[1]
Apparent size (V)15′ × 3′.6
Notable featuresGalaxy in the Leo Triplet
Other designations
UGC 6350, PGC 34697, VV 308b[1]


  1. ^ a b c d e f "NASA/IPAC Extragalactic Database". Results for NGC 3628. Retrieved 2006-10-24.
  2. ^ Messier Catalogue Description, NGC 3628 page at SEDS.
  3. ^ Sen, Nina (2013-07-28). "Chomp! Hamburger Galaxy Feeds Stargazer's Cosmic Appetite (Photo)". Retrieved 2015-06-14.
  4. ^ "Inside the March 2015 Issue - Sky & Telescope". 2015-01-16. Retrieved 2015-10-13.
  5. ^ "NGC 3628 (Sarah's Galaxy)". 2012-03-04. Retrieved 2015-10-13.
  6. ^ "Astronomers Do It In The Dark - NGC 3628 - the 3rd Galaxy in the Leo Triplet (reprocessed) - Spiral Galaxies - Typically younger galaxies with Spiral Arms of star formation". Retrieved 2015-10-13.
  7. ^ "The Delight of Sarah's Galaxy | Parables of the Sky Blog". Retrieved 2015-10-13.
  8. ^ "Astronomy Picture of the Month | 2011 | The Mahasin's Galaxy". Retrieved 2015-10-13.
  9. ^ Bogdan C. Ciambur; Alister W. Graham (2016), Quantifying the (X/peanut)-shaped structure in edge-on disc galaxies: length, strength, and nested peanuts
  10. ^ "Calvin College".

External links

Herschel 400 Catalogue

The Herschel 400 catalogue is a subset of William Herschel's original Catalogue of Nebulae and Clusters of Stars, selected by Brenda F. Guzman (Branchett), Lydel Guzman, Paul Jones, James Morrison, Peggy Taylor and Sara Saey of the Ancient City Astronomy Club in St. Augustine, Florida, United States c. 1980. They decided to generate the list after reading a letter published in Sky & Telescope by James Mullaney of Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, USA.In this letter Mr. Mullaney suggested that William Herschel's original catalogue of 2,500 objects would be an excellent basis for deep sky object selection for amateur astronomers looking for a challenge after completing the Messier Catalogue.

The Herschel 400 is a subset of John Herschel's General Catalogue of Nebulae and Clusters published in 1864 of 5,000 objects, and hence also of the New General Catalogue.

The catalogue forms the basis of the Astronomical League's Herschel 400 club. In 1997, another subset of 400 Herschel objects was selected by the Rose City Astronomers of Portland, Oregon as the Herschel II list, which forms the basis of the Astronomical League's Herschel II Program.

Interstellar formaldehyde

Interstellar formaldehyde (a topic relevant to astrochemistry) was first discovered in 1969 by L. Snyder et al. using the National Radio Astronomy Observatory. Formaldehyde (H2CO) was detected by means of the 111 - 110 ground state rotational transition at 4830 MHz. On 11 August 2014, astronomers released studies, using the Atacama Large Millimeter/Submillimeter Array (ALMA) for the first time, that detailed the distribution of HCN, HNC, H2CO, and dust inside the comae of comets C/2012 F6 (Lemmon) and C/2012 S1 (ISON).

Leo (constellation)

Leo is one of the constellations of the zodiac, lying between Cancer the crab to the west and Virgo the maiden to the east. Its name is Latin for lion, and to the ancient Greeks represented the Nemean Lion killed by the mythical Greek hero Heracles meaning 'Glory of Hera' (known to the ancient Romans as Hercules) as one of his twelve labors. Its symbol is (Unicode ♌). One of the 48 constellations described by the 2nd-century astronomer Ptolemy, Leo remains one of the 88 modern constellations today, and one of the most easily recognizable due to its many bright stars and a distinctive shape that is reminiscent of the crouching lion it depicts. The lion's mane and shoulders also form an asterism known as "The Sickle," which to modern observers may resemble a backwards "question mark."

Leo Triplet

The Leo Triplet (also known as the M66 Group) is a small group of galaxies about 35 million light-years away in the constellation Leo. This galaxy group consists of the spiral galaxies M65, M66, and NGC 3628.

List of spiral galaxies

A spiral galaxy is a type of galaxy characterized by a central bulge of old Population II stars surrounded by a rotating disc of younger Population I stars. A spiral galaxy maintains its spirals arms due to density wave theory.

M96 Group

The M96 Group (also known as the Leo I Group) is a group of galaxies in the constellation Leo. This group contains between 8 and 24 galaxies, including three Messier objects. The group is one of many groups that lies within the Virgo Supercluster (the combined Local Group and Virgo cluster).

Messier 65

Messier 65 (also known as NGC 3623) is an intermediate spiral galaxy about 35 million light-years away in the constellation Leo. It was discovered by Charles Messier in 1780. Along with M66 and NGC 3628, M65 forms the Leo Triplet, a small group of galaxies.

Messier 66

Messier 66 or M66, also known as NGC 3627, is an intermediate spiral galaxy in the equatorial constellation of Leo. It was discovered by French astronomer Charles Messier on March 1, 1780, who described it as "very long and very faint". This galaxy is a member of a small group of galaxies that includes M65 and NGC 3628, known as the Leo Triplet, or the M66 Group. M65 and M66 make a popular pair for observers, being separated by only 20′.M66 has a morphological classification of SABb, indicating a spiral shape with a weak bar feature and loosely wound arms. The isophotal axis ratio is 0.32, indicating that it is being viewed at an angle. M66 is receding from us with a heliocentric radial velocity of 696.3±12.7 km/s. It lies 31 million light-years away and is about 95 thousand light-years across with striking dust lanes and bright star clusters along sweeping spiral arms. As of 2018, five supernovae have been observed in M66: SN 2016cok, 2009hd, 1997bs, 1989B, and 1973R.Gravitational interaction from its past encounter with neighboring NGC 3628 has resulted in an extremely high central mass concentration; a high molecular to atomic mass ratio; and a resolved non-rotating clump of H I material apparently removed from one of the spiral arms. The latter feature shows up visually as an extremely prominent and unusual spiral arm and dust lane structures as originally noted in the Atlas of Peculiar Galaxies.

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