NGC 1365

NGC 1365, also known as the Great Barred Spiral Galaxy,[3] is a barred spiral galaxy about 56 million light-years away in the constellation Fornax. The core is an oval shape with an apparent size of about 50″ × 40″.[4] The spiral arms extend in a wide curve north and south from the ends of the east-west bar and form an almost ring like Z-shaped halo.[4]

Supernovae 2012fr, 2001du, 1983V, and 1957C were observed in NGC 1365.

The central supermassive black hole in the active nucleus, measured to be about 2 million solar masses in size, rotates close to the relativistic limit (the dimensionless spin parameter is larger than 0.84). These observations, announced in February 2013, were made using the X-ray telescope satellite NuSTAR.[5][6]

NGC 1365

NGC 1365's central region showing dust lanes.

This video sequence shows the rapid brightening and slower fading of a supernova explosion in the galaxy.


An ultraviolet image of NGC 1365 taken with GALEX. Credit: GALEX/NASA.

NGC 1365 ESO

HAWK-I infrared image of NGC 1365. Credit: ESO/P. Grosbøl.

NGC 1365
Credit: ESO
Observation data (J2000 epoch)
Right ascension 03h 33m 36.4s[1]
Declination−36° 08′ 25″[1]
Redshift1636 ± 1 km/s[1]
Distance56.2 ± 2.6 Mly (17.2 ± 0.8 Mpc)[2]
Apparent magnitude (V)10.3[1]
Apparent size (V)11′.2 × 6′.2[1]
Other designations
ESO 358- G 017, VV 825, MCG -06-08-026, PGC 13179[1]

See also


  1. ^ a b c d e f g "NASA/IPAC Extragalactic Database". Results for NGC 1365. Retrieved 2006-11-21.
  2. ^ Jensen, Joseph B.; Tonry, John L.; Barris, Brian J.; Thompson, Rodger I.; et al. (February 2003). "Measuring Distances and Probing the Unresolved Stellar Populations of Galaxies Using Infrared Surface Brightness Fluctuations". Astrophysical Journal. 583 (2): 712–726. arXiv:astro-ph/0210129. Bibcode:2003ApJ...583..712J. doi:10.1086/345430.
  3. ^ Garlick, Mark A. (2004). Astronomy: A Visual Guide. Firefly Books. p. 293. ISBN 978-1-55297-958-7.
  4. ^ a b Kepple, George Robert; Glen W. Sanner (1998). The Night Sky Observer's Guide. 1. Willmann-Bell, Inc. p. 198. ISBN 978-0-943396-58-3.
  5. ^ Reynolds, Christopher (2013). "Astrophysics: Black holes in a spin". Nature. 494 (7438): 432–433. Bibcode:2013Natur.494..432R. doi:10.1038/494432a. PMID 23446411.
  6. ^ - Unambiguous Determination of the Spin of the Black Hole in NGC 1365

External links

Barred spiral galaxy

A barred spiral galaxy is a spiral galaxy with a central bar-shaped structure composed of stars. Bars are found in between one third and two thirds of all spiral galaxies. Bars generally affect both the motions of stars and interstellar gas within spiral galaxies and can affect spiral arms as well. The Milky Way Galaxy, where our own Solar System is located, is classified as a barred spiral galaxy.Edwin Hubble classified spiral galaxies of this type as "SB" (spiral, barred) in his Hubble sequence and arranged them into sub-categories based on how open the arms of the spiral are. SBa types feature tightly bound arms, while SBc types are at the other extreme and have loosely bound arms. SBb-type galaxies lie in between the two. SB0 is a barred lenticular galaxy. A new type, SBm, was subsequently created to describe somewhat irregular barred spirals, such as the Magellanic Clouds, which were once classified as irregular galaxies, but have since been found to contain barred spiral structures. Among other types in Hubble's classifications for the galaxies are the spiral galaxy, elliptical galaxy and irregular galaxy.

Fiona A. Harrison

Fiona A. Harrison is the Kent and Joyce Kresa Leadership Chair of the Division of Physics, Mathematics and Astronomy at Caltech, Benjamin M. Rosen Professor of Physics at Caltech and the Principal Investigator for NASA's Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array (NuSTAR) mission.


Fornax () is a constellation in the southern sky, partly ringed by the celestial river Eridanus. Its name is Latin for furnace. It was named by French astronomer Nicolas Louis de Lacaille in 1756. Fornax is one of the 88 modern constellations.

The three brightest stars—Alpha, Beta and Nu Fornacis—form a flattened triangle facing south. With an apparent magnitude of 3.91, Alpha Fornacis is the brightest star in Fornax. Six star systems have been found to have exoplanets.

Fornax Cluster

The Fornax Cluster is a cluster of galaxies lying at a distance of 19 megaparsecs (62 million light-years). It is the second richest galaxy cluster within 100 million light-years, after the considerably larger Virgo Cluster, and may be associated with the nearby Eridanus Group. It lies primarily in the constellation Fornax, with its southern boundaries partially crossing into the constellation of Eridanus, and covers an area of sky about 6° across or about 28 sq degrees. The Fornax cluster is a part of larger Fornax Wall.The Fornax Cluster is a particularly valuable source of information about the evolution of such clusters due to its relatively close proximity to the Sun. It also shows the gravitational effects of a merger of a galaxy subgroup with the main galaxy group, which in turn lends clues about the associated galactic superstructure. At the centre of the cluster lies NGC 1399. Other cluster members include NGC 1316 (the group's brightest galaxy), NGC 1365, NGC 1427A, and NGC 1404.

List of spiral galaxies

A spiral galaxy is a type of galaxy characterized by a central bulge of old Population II stars surrounded by a rotating disc of younger Population I stars. A spiral galaxy maintains its spirals arms due to density wave theory.

Multiwavelength Atlas of Galaxies

The Multiwavelength Atlas of Galaxies is a textbook and atlas of 35 well studied galaxies (including our Galaxy) authored by Glen Mackie of the Centre for Astrophysics & Supercomputing, Swinburne University of Technology. It was originally published in 2011 by Cambridge University Press.

NGC 3370

NGC 3370 (also known as UGC 5887 or Silverado Galaxy) is a spiral galaxy about 98 million light-years away in the constellation Leo. It is comparable to our own Milky Way both in diameter (100,000 light years) and mass (1011 solar masses). NGC 3370 exhibits an intricate spiral arm structure surrounding a poorly defined nucleus.


NuSTAR (Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array) is a space-based X-ray telescope that uses a conical approximation to a Wolter telescope to focus high energy X-rays from astrophysical sources, especially for nuclear spectroscopy, and operates in the range of 3 to 79 keV.NuSTAR is the eleventh mission of NASA's Small Explorer satellite program (SMEX-11) and the first space-based direct-imaging X-ray telescope at energies beyond those of the Chandra X-ray Observatory and XMM-Newton. It was successfully launched on 13 June 2012, having previously been delayed from 21 March due to software issues with the launch vehicle.The mission's primary scientific goals are to conduct a deep survey for black holes a billion times more massive than the Sun, to investigate how particles are accelerated to very high energy in active galaxies, and to understand how the elements are created in the explosions of massive stars by imaging the remains, which are called supernova remnants.

After a primary mission lasting two years (to 2014) it is now in its fifth year in space.

Robert Evans (astronomer)

Robert Owen Evans, OAM (born 20 February 1937) is a minister of the Uniting Church in Australia and an amateur astronomer who holds the record for visual discoveries of supernovae (42).

SN 2012fr

SN 2012fr was a supernova in the NGC 1365 galaxy that was discovered by Alain Klotz on October 27, 2012.

Seyfert galaxy

Seyfert galaxies are one of the two largest groups of active galaxies, along with quasars. They have quasar-like nuclei (very luminous, distant and bright sources of electromagnetic radiation) with very high surface brightnesses whose spectra reveal strong, high-ionisation emission lines, but unlike quasars, their host galaxies are clearly detectable.Seyfert galaxies account for about 10% of all galaxies and are some of the most intensely studied objects in astronomy, as they are thought to be powered by the same phenomena that occur in quasars, although they are closer and less luminous than quasars. These galaxies have supermassive black holes at their centers which are surrounded by accretion discs of in-falling material. The accretion discs are believed to be the source of the observed ultraviolet radiation. Ultraviolet emission and absorption lines provide the best diagnostics for the composition of the surrounding material.Seen in visible light, most Seyfert galaxies look like normal spiral galaxies, but when studied under other wavelengths, it becomes clear that the luminosity of their cores is of comparable intensity to the luminosity of whole galaxies the size of the Milky Way.Seyfert galaxies are named after Carl Seyfert, who first described this class in 1943.

Sufi Observing Competition

Sufi Observing Competition is an international competition and like Messier marathon, but more difficult with various subjects.

Since 2006, Astronomical Society of Iran – Amateur Committee (ASIAC) holds an international observing competition in the memory of Azophi. The first competition was held in 2006 in the north of Semnan Province and the 2nd SUFI observing competition was held in summer of 2008 in Ladiz near Zahedan. More than 100 observers from Iran and Iraq participated in this event.

Third Sufi Competition was held in Pasargadae, Fars province of Iran, at the enclosure of the historical tomb of Cyrus the Great on 17–20 August 2009. More than 120 amateur astronomers participated in this competition which held in 2 class of individuals and groups. Closing ceremony of 3rd Sufi Competition was held in Persepolis historical site splendidly which is in the list of UNESCO world heritage site.

Babak Amin Tafreshi, Pouria Nazemi, Kazem Kookaram and Mohammad H. Almasi are Iranian amateur astronomers who designed and manage this competition in their country until today.

Supermassive black hole

A supermassive black hole (SMBH or sometimes SBH) is the largest type of black hole, containing a mass of the order of hundreds of thousands, to billions times, the mass of the Sun (M☉). This is a class of astronomical objects that has undergone gravitational collapse, leaving behind a spheroidal region of space from which nothing can escape; not even light. Observational evidence indicates that all, or nearly all, massive galaxies contain a supermassive black hole, located at the galaxy's center. In the case of the Milky Way, the supermassive black hole corresponds to the location of Sagittarius A* at the Galactic Core. Accretion of interstellar gas onto supermassive black holes is the process responsible for powering quasars and other types of active galactic nuclei.


A supernova ( plural: supernovae or supernovas, abbreviations: SN and SNe) is an event that occurs upon the death of certain types of stars.

Supernovae are more energetic than novae. In Latin, nova means "new", referring astronomically to what appears to be a temporary new bright star. Adding the prefix "super-" distinguishes supernovae from ordinary novae, which are far less luminous. The word supernova was coined by Walter Baade and Fritz Zwicky in 1931.Only three Milky Way, naked-eye supernova events have been observed during the last thousand years, though many have been seen in other galaxies. The most recent directly observed supernova in the Milky Way was Kepler's Supernova in 1604, but two more recent supernova remnants have also been found. Statistical observations of supernovae in other galaxies suggest they occur on average about three times every century in the Milky Way, and that any galactic supernova would almost certainly be observable with modern astronomical telescopes.

Supernovae may expel much, if not all, of the material away from a star at velocities up to 30,000 km/s or 10% of the speed of light. This drives an expanding and fast-moving shock wave into the surrounding interstellar medium, and in turn, sweeping up an expanding shell of gas and dust, which is observed as a supernova remnant. Supernovae create, fuse and eject the bulk of the chemical elements produced by nucleosynthesis. Supernovae play a significant role in enriching the interstellar medium with the heavier atomic mass chemical elements. Furthermore, the expanding shock waves from supernovae can trigger the formation of new stars. Supernova remnants are expected to accelerate a large fraction of galactic primary cosmic rays, but direct evidence for cosmic ray production was found only in a few of them so far. They are also potentially strong galactic sources of gravitational waves.Theoretical studies indicate that most supernovae are triggered by one of two basic mechanisms: the sudden re-ignition of nuclear fusion in a degenerate star or the sudden gravitational collapse of a massive star's core. In the first instance, a degenerate white dwarf may accumulate sufficient material from a binary companion, either through accretion or via a merger, to raise its core temperature enough to trigger runaway nuclear fusion, completely disrupting the star. In the second case, the core of a massive star may undergo sudden gravitational collapse, releasing gravitational potential energy as a supernova. While some observed supernovae are more complex than these two simplified theories, the astrophysical collapse mechanics have been established and accepted by most astronomers for some time.

Owing to the wide range of astrophysical consequences of these events, astronomers now deem supernova research, across the fields of stellar and galactic evolution, as an especially important area for investigation.

VISTA (telescope)

The VISTA (Visible and Infrared Survey Telescope for Astronomy) is a wide-field reflecting telescope with a 4.1 metre mirror, located at the Paranal Observatory in Chile. It is operated by the European Southern Observatory and started science operations in December 2009. VISTA was conceived and developed by a consortium of universities in the United Kingdom led by Queen Mary University of London and became an in-kind contribution to ESO as part of the UK's accession agreement, with the subscription paid by the UK Science and Technology Facilities Council (STFC).VISTA is a survey telescope working at infrared wavelengths, and is by far the largest telescope in the world dedicated to surveying the sky at near-infrared wavelengths. The telescope has only one instrument: VIRCAM, the Vista InfraRed CAMera. This is a 3-tonne camera containing 16 special detectors sensitive to infrared light, with a combined total of 67 million pixels.A second-generation instrument called 4MOST, a 2400-object fibre-fed multi-object spectrograph, is under development for installation around 2020.

Observing at wavelengths longer than those visible to the human eye allows VISTA to study objects that may be almost impossible to see in visible light because they are cool, obscured by dust clouds or because their light has been stretched towards redder wavelengths by the expansion of space during the light’s long journey from the early Universe.


XMM-Newton, also known as the High Throughput X-ray Spectroscopy Mission and the X-ray Multi-Mirror Mission, is an X-ray space observatory launched by the European Space Agency in December 1999 on an Ariane 5 rocket. It is the second cornerstone mission of ESA's Horizon 2000 programme. Named after physicist and astronomer Sir Isaac Newton, the spacecraft is tasked with investigating interstellar X-ray sources, performing narrow- and broad-range spectroscopy, and performing the first simultaneous imaging of objects in both X-ray and optical (visible and ultraviolet) wavelengths.Originally scheduled for a two-year mission, the spacecraft remains in good health and has received repeated mission extensions, most recently in November 2018 and is scheduled to operate until the end of 2020. It will probably receive a mission extension lasting until 2022. ESA plans to succeed XMM-Newton with the Advanced Telescope for High Energy Astrophysics (ATHENA), the second large mission in the Cosmic Vision 2015-2025 plan, to be launched in 2028. XMM-Newton is similar to NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory, also launched in 1999.

As of May 2018, close to 5,600 papers have been published about either XMM-Newton or the scientific results it has returned.

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