NGC 1097

NGC 1097 is a barred spiral galaxy about 45 million light years away in the constellation Fornax. It was discovered by William Herschel on 9 October 1790. It is a severely interacting galaxy with obvious tidal debris and distortions caused by interaction with the companion galaxy NGC 1097A.[3] Three supernovae (SN 1992bd, SN 1999eu, and SN 2003B) have been observed in NGC 1097 since 1992.[4]

NGC 1097
NGC 1097 as taken from VLT
Observation data (J2000 epoch)
Right ascension02h 46m 19.0s[1]
Declination−30° 16′ 30″[1]
Redshift1271 ± 3 km/s[1]
Distance45 million ly [2]
Apparent magnitude (V)10.2[1]
Apparent size (V)9′.3 × 6′.3[1]
Other designations
ESO 416- G 20, PGC 10488, UGCA 041[1] Arp 77[1] Caldwell 67

General information

NGC 1097 is also a Seyfert galaxy. Deep photographs revealed four narrow optical jets that appear to emanate from the nucleus. These have been interpreted as manifestations of the (currently weak) active nucleus. Subsequent analysis of the brightest jet's radio-to-X-ray spectral energy distribution were able to rule out synchrotron and thermal free-free emission. The optical jets are in fact composed of stars. The failure to detect atomic hydrogen gas in the jets (under the assumption that they were an example of tidal tails) using deep 21 cm HI imaging with the Very Large Array radio telescope and numerical simulations led to the current interpretation that the jets are actually the shattered remains of a cannibalized dwarf galaxy.

NGC 1097 has a supermassive black hole at its center, which is 140 million times the mass of the Sun.[5][6] Around the central black hole is a glowing ring of star-forming regions with a network of gas and dust that spirals from the ring to the black hole. An inflow of material toward the central bar of the galaxy causes new stars to be created in the ring. The ring is approximately 5,000 light-years in diameter, the spiral arms of the galaxy extend tens of thousands of light-years beyond the ring.[5]

NGC 1097 has two satellite galaxies, NGC 1097A and NGC 1097B. Dwarf elliptical galaxy NGC 1097A is the larger of the two. It is a peculiar elliptical galaxy that orbits 42,000 light-years from the center of NGC 1097. Dwarf galaxy NGC 1097B (5 x 106 solar masses), the outermost one, was discovered by its HI emission, and appears to be a typical dwarf irregular. Little else is known about it.

Image gallery

NGC 1097 center Hubble

Star forming ring in NGC 1097. HST. 0.9′ view


Colour-composite image of the central 5,500 light-years wide region of the spiral galaxy NGC 1097, obtained with the NACO adaptive optics on the VLT. Credit: ESO

Coiled Galaxy

False-colour image of NGC 1097 in infrared, from the Spitzer Space Telescope

See also


  1. ^ a b c d e f g h "NASA/IPAC Extragalactic Database". Results for NGC 1097. Retrieved 2006-11-25.
  2. ^ "Feeding the Monster: New VLT Images Reveal the Surroundings of a Super-massive Black Hole". European Southern Observatory. Retrieved 2008-03-15.
  3. ^ Buta, Ronald J; Corwin, Harold G; Odewahn, Stephen C (2007). The de Vaucouleurs Atlas of Galaxies. Cambridge University Press. p. 193. ISBN 9780521820486. Retrieved 21 June 2015.
  4. ^ Harrington, Philip S. (2010). Cosmic Challenge: The Ultimate Observing List for Amateurs. Cambridge, United Kingdom: Cambridge University Press. p. 351. ISBN 9781139493680.
  5. ^ a b "Astronomers Measure Mass of Supermassive Black Hole in NGC 1097 | Astronomy |". Retrieved 2015-06-20.
  6. ^ Onishi, K.; Iguchi, S.; Sheth, K.; Kohno, K. (2015-06-10). "A Measurement of the Black Hole Mass in NGC 1097 Using ALMA". The Astrophysical Journal. 806 (1): 39. arXiv:1506.05917. Bibcode:2015ApJ...806...39O. doi:10.1088/0004-637X/806/1/39. ISSN 0004-637X.

External links

Coordinates: Sky map 02h 46m 19.0s, −30° 16′ 30″

Atlas of Peculiar Galaxies

The Atlas of Peculiar Galaxies is a catalog of peculiar galaxies produced by Halton Arp in 1966. A total of 338 galaxies are presented in the atlas, which was originally published in 1966 by the California Institute of Technology. The primary goal of the catalog was to present photographs of examples of the different kinds of peculiar structures found among galaxies.


C67 or C-67 may refer to :

C-67 Dragon, an aircraft

Caldwell 67 (NGC 1097), a barred spiral galaxy in the constellation Fornax

4-Pfünder-Feldkanone C/67 model of Krupp field gun from the Franco-Prussian Warand also :

Ruy Lopez chess openings ECO code

Hours of Work and Rest Periods (Road Transport) Convention, 1939 (shelved) code

Bladder cancer ICD-10 code

Caldwell catalogue

The Caldwell catalogue is an astronomical catalogue of 109 star clusters, nebulae, and galaxies for observation by amateur astronomers. The list was compiled by Patrick Moore as a complement to the Messier catalogue.While the Messier catalogue is used by amateur astronomers as a list of deep-sky objects for observation, Moore noted that Messier's list was not compiled for that purpose and excluded many of the sky's brightest deep-sky objects, such as the Hyades, the Double Cluster (NGC 869 and NGC 884), and the Sculptor Galaxy (NGC 253). The Messier catalogue was actually compiled as a list of known objects that might be confused with comets. Moore also observed that since Messier compiled his list from observations in Paris, it did not include bright deep-sky objects visible in the Southern Hemisphere, such as Omega Centauri, Centaurus A, the Jewel Box, and 47 Tucanae. Moore compiled a list of 109 objects to match the commonly accepted number of Messier objects (he excluded M110), and the list was published in Sky & Telescope in December 1995.Moore used his other surname – Caldwell – to name the list, since the initial of "Moore" is already used for the Messier catalogue. Entries in the catalogue are designated with a "C" and the catalogue number (1 to 109).

Unlike objects in the Messier catalogue, which are listed roughly in the order of discovery by Messier and his colleagues, the Caldwell catalogue is ordered by declination, with C1 being the most northerly and C109 being the most southerly, although two objects (NGC 4244 and the Hyades) are listed out of sequence. Other errors in the original list have since been corrected: it incorrectly identified the S Norma Cluster (NGC 6087) as NGC 6067 and incorrectly labelled the Lambda Centauri Cluster (IC 2944) as the Gamma Centauri Cluster.


Fornax () is a constellation in the southern sky, partly ringed by the celestial river Eridanus. Its name is Latin for furnace. It was named by French astronomer Nicolas Louis de Lacaille in 1756. Fornax is one of the 88 modern constellations.

The three brightest stars—Alpha, Beta and Nu Fornacis—form a flattened triangle facing south. With an apparent magnitude of 3.91, Alpha Fornacis is the brightest star in Fornax. Six star systems have been found to have exoplanets.

Interacting galaxy

Interacting galaxies (colliding galaxies) are galaxies whose gravitational fields result in a disturbance of one another. An example of a minor interaction is a satellite galaxy's disturbing the primary galaxy's spiral arms. An example of a major interaction is a galactic collision, which may lead to a galaxy merger.

List of black holes

This is a list of black holes (and stars considered probable candidates) organized by size (including black holes of undetermined mass); some items in this list are galaxies or star clusters that are believed to be organized around a black hole. Messier and New General Catalogue designations are given where possible.

List of spiral galaxies

A spiral galaxy is a type of galaxy characterized by a central bulge of old Population II stars surrounded by a rotating disc of younger Population I stars. A spiral galaxy maintains its spirals arms due to density wave theory.

NGC 1232

NGC 1232 is an intermediate spiral galaxy about 60 million light-years away in the constellation Eridanus. It was discovered by German-British astronomer William Herschel on 20 October 1784.

It is dominated by millions of bright stars and dark dust, in spiral arms rotating about the center. Open clusters containing bright blue stars are sprinkled along these spiral arms, with dark lanes of dense interstellar dust between. Less visible are dim normal stars and interstellar gas, producing such high mass that they dominate the dynamics of the inner galaxy. Not visible is matter of unknown form called dark matter, needed to explain the motions of the visible material in the outer galaxy. The galaxy is approximately 200,000 light-years across, in between the sizes of the Andromeda Galaxy and our home galaxy, the Milky Way.

NGC 1232 and its satellite are part of the Eridanus cluster of galaxies, along with NGC 1300.

NGC 1316

NGC 1316 (also known as Fornax A) is a lenticular galaxy about 60 million light-years away in the constellation Fornax It is a radio galaxy and at 1400 MHz is the fourth-brightest radio source in the sky.

NGC 1365

NGC 1365, also known as the Great Barred Spiral Galaxy, is a barred spiral galaxy about 56 million light-years away in the constellation Fornax.

The core is an oval shape with an apparent size of about 50″ × 40″.

The spiral arms extend in a wide curve north and south from the ends of the east-west bar and form an almost ring like Z-shaped halo.Supernovae 2012fr, 2001du, 1983V, and 1957C were observed in NGC 1365.

The central supermassive black hole in the active nucleus, measured to be about 2 million solar masses in size, rotates close to the relativistic limit (the dimensionless spin parameter is larger than 0.84). These observations, announced in February 2013, were made using the X-ray telescope satellite NuSTAR.

NGC 3313

NGC 3313 is a large barred spiral galaxy located about 55 megaparsecs (180 million light-years) away in the constellation Hydra. It was discovered by astronomer Ormond Stone in 1886 and is an outlying member of the Hydra Cluster.

NGC 5195

NGC 5195 (also known as Messier 51b or M51b) is a dwarf galaxy that is interacting with the Whirlpool Galaxy (also known as M51a or NGC 5194). Both galaxies are located approximately 25 million light-years away in the constellation Canes Venatici. Together, the two galaxies are one of the most famous interacting galaxy pairs.

NGC 6907

NGC 6907 is a spiral galaxy located in the constellation Capricornus. It is located at a distance of circa 120 million light years from Earth, which, given its apparent dimensions, means that NGC 6907 is about 115,000 light years across. It was discovered by William Herschel οn July 12, 1784. The total infrared luminosity of the galaxy is 1011.03 L☉, and thus it is categorised as a luminous infrared galaxy.

NGC 772

NGC 772 (also known as Arp 78) is an unbarred spiral galaxy approximately 130 million light-years away in the constellation Aries.

Robert Evans (astronomer)

Robert Owen Evans, OAM (born 20 February 1937) is a minister of the Uniting Church in Australia and an amateur astronomer who holds the record for visual discoveries of supernovae (42).

SN 1992bd

SN 1992bd was a type II supernova event in NGC 1097, positioned some 1.5″ east and 9″ south of the galactic nucleus. It was discovered by astronomers Chris Smith and Lisa Wells on October 12, 1992. Spectra of the object collected October 17 showed it to have an expansion velocity of 7,500 km/s. Subsequent examination of archival images from the Hubble Space Telescope showed an image of the supernova had been captured on September 20, 1992, 12 days prior to its discovery with ground-based telescopes. The eruption occurred in the circumnuclear star-forming region of the galaxy.

SN 1999eu

SN 1999eu was a type IIP supernova that happened in NGC 1097 in the constellation Fornax. It was discovered 5 November 1999, possibly three months after its initial brightening, and is unusually under-luminous for a type II supernova.

SN 2003B

SN 2003B was a type II supernova that happened in NGC 1097 on January 5, 2003.

Seyfert galaxy

Seyfert galaxies are one of the two largest groups of active galaxies, along with quasars. They have quasar-like nuclei (very luminous, distant and bright sources of electromagnetic radiation) with very high surface brightnesses whose spectra reveal strong, high-ionisation emission lines, but unlike quasars, their host galaxies are clearly detectable.Seyfert galaxies account for about 10% of all galaxies and are some of the most intensely studied objects in astronomy, as they are thought to be powered by the same phenomena that occur in quasars, although they are closer and less luminous than quasars. These galaxies have supermassive black holes at their centers which are surrounded by accretion discs of in-falling material. The accretion discs are believed to be the source of the observed ultraviolet radiation. Ultraviolet emission and absorption lines provide the best diagnostics for the composition of the surrounding material.Seen in visible light, most Seyfert galaxies look like normal spiral galaxies, but when studied under other wavelengths, it becomes clear that the luminosity of their cores is of comparable intensity to the luminosity of whole galaxies the size of the Milky Way.Seyfert galaxies are named after Carl Seyfert, who first described this class in 1943.

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