NFL on Thanksgiving Day

Since its inception in 1920, the National Football League has played games on Thanksgiving Day, patterned upon the historic playing of college football games on and around the Thanksgiving holiday.

Since 1978, the NFL's Thanksgiving Day games have traditionally included one game hosted by the Detroit Lions, and one game hosted by the Dallas Cowboys. Since 2006, with the advent of the NFL's then-new Thursday Night Football package, a third primetime game has also been played on Thanksgiving (which, in 2012, was moved to the NFL's flagship primetime package). Unlike the traditional afternoon games, this game has no fixed host and has featured different teams annually.

NFL Thanksgiving logo
The NFL Thanksgiving logo used for 2016; the year is updated annually, with the new NFL shield being used for the first time in 2008.


The concept of American football games being played on Thanksgiving Day dates back to 1876, shortly after the game had been invented, as it was a day that most people had off from work. In that year, the college football teams at Yale and Princeton began an annual tradition of playing each other on Thanksgiving Day.[1] The University of Michigan also made it a tradition to play annual Thanksgiving games, holding 19 such games from 1885 to 1905.[2][3][4][5][6] The Thanksgiving Day games between Michigan and the Chicago Maroons in the 1890s have been cited as "The Beginning of Thanksgiving Day Football."[7] In some areas, high-school teams play on Thanksgiving, usually to wrap-up the regular-season.

By the time football had become a professional event, playing on Thanksgiving had already become an institution. Records of pro football being played on Thanksgiving date back to as early as the 1890s, with the first pro–am team, the Allegheny Athletic Association of Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. In 1902, the "National" Football League, a Major League Baseball-backed organization based entirely in Pennsylvania and unrelated to the current NFL, attempted to settle its championship over Thanksgiving weekend; after the game ended in a tie, eventually all three teams in the league claimed to have won the title. Members of the Ohio League, during its early years, usually placed their marquee matchups on Thanksgiving Day. For instance, in 1905 and 1906 the Latrobe Athletic Association and Canton Bulldogs, considered at the time to be two of the best teams in professional football (along with the Massillon Tigers), played on Thanksgiving. A rigging scandal with the Tigers leading up to the 1906 game led to severe drops in attendance for the Bulldogs and ultimately led to their suspension of operations. During the 1910s, the Ohio League stopped holding Thanksgiving games because many of its players coached high school teams and were unavailable. This was not the case in other regional circuits: in 1919, the New York Pro Football League featured a Thanksgiving matchup between the Buffalo Prospects and the Rochester Jeffersons. The game ended in a scoreless tie, leading to a rematch the next Sunday for the league championship.

Several other NFL teams played regularly on Thanksgiving in the first eighteen years of the league, including the Chicago Bears and Chicago Cardinals (1922–33; the Bears played the Lions from 1934 to 1938 while the Cardinals switched to the Green Bay Packers for 1934 and 1935), Frankford Yellow Jackets, Pottsville Maroons, Buffalo All-Americans, Canton Bulldogs (even after the team moved to Cleveland they played the 1924 Thanksgiving game in Canton), and the New York Giants (1929–38, who always played a crosstown rival). The first owner of the Lions, George A. Richards, started the tradition of the Thanksgiving Day game as a gimmick to get people to go to Lions football games, and to continue a tradition begun by the city's previous NFL teams.[8] What differentiated the Lions' efforts from other teams that played on the holiday was that Richards owned radio station WJR, a major affiliate of the NBC Blue Network; he was able to negotiate an agreement with NBC to carry his Thanksgiving games live across the network.[9]

During the Franksgiving controversy in 1939 and 1940, the only two teams to play the game were the Pittsburgh Steelers and Philadelphia Eagles, as both teams were in the same state (Pennsylvania). (At the time, then-president Franklin Roosevelt wanted to move the holiday for economic reasons and many states were resistant to the move; half the states recognized the move and the other half did not. This complicated scheduling for Thanksgiving games. Incidentally, the two teams were also exploring the possibility of a merger at the time.[10]) Because of the looming World War II and the resulting shorter seasons, the NFL did not schedule any Thanksgiving games in 1941, nor did it schedule any in the subsequent years until the war ended in 1945. When the Thanksgiving games resumed in 1945, only the Lions' annual home game would remain on the Thanksgiving holiday. In 1951, the Packers began a thirteen-season run as the perpetual opponent to the Lions each year through 1963.

The All-America Football Conference and American Football League, both of which would later be absorbed into the NFL, also held Thanksgiving contests, although neither of those leagues had permanent hosts. Likewise, the AFL of 1926 also played two Thanksgiving games in its lone season of existence, while the AFL of 1936 hosted one in its first season, which featured the Cleveland Rams, a future NFL team, and the 1940–41 incarnation of the American Football League played two games in 1940 on the earlier "Franksgiving" date.

In 1966, the Dallas Cowboys, who had been founded six years earlier, adopted the practice of hosting Thanksgiving games. It is widely rumored that the Cowboys sought a guarantee that they would regularly host Thanksgiving games as a condition of their very first one (since games on days other than Sunday were uncommon at the time and thus high attendance was not a certainty).[11] This is only partly true; Dallas had in fact decided to host games on Thanksgiving by their own decision because there was nothing else to do or watch on that day. In 1975 and 1977, at the behest of then-Commissioner Pete Rozelle, the St. Louis Cardinals replaced Dallas as a host team (Dallas then hosted St. Louis in 1976). Although the Cardinals, at the time known as the "Cardiac Cards" due to their propensity for winning very close games, were a modest success at the time, they were nowhere near as popular nationwide as the Cowboys, who were regular Super Bowl contenders during this era. This, combined with St. Louis's consistently weak attendance, a series of ugly Cardinals losses in the three-game stretch, and opposition from the Kirkwood–Webster Groves Turkey Day Game (a local high school football contest) led to Dallas resuming regular hosting duties in 1978; it was then, after Rozelle asked Dallas to resume hosting Thanksgiving games, that the Cowboys requested (and received) an agreement guaranteeing the Cowboys a spot on Thanksgiving Day forever.[12]

Since 1978, Thanksgiving games have been hosted in Detroit and Dallas every year, with Detroit in the early time slot and Dallas in the late afternoon slot. Because of TV network commitments in place through the 2013 season, to make sure that both the AFC-carrying network (NBC from 1965 to 1997, and CBS since 1998) and the NFC-carrying network (CBS from 1956 to 1993, and Fox since 1994) got at least one game each, one of these games was between NFC opponents, and one featured AFC-NFC opponents. Thus, the AFC could showcase only one team on Thanksgiving, and the AFC team was always the visiting team.

Since 2006, a third NFL game on Thanksgiving has been played in primetime. It originally aired on the NFL Network as part of its Thursday Night Football package until 2011; in 2012, the game was moved to NBC as part of its Sunday Night Football package. The night game never had any conference tie-ins, meaning the league could place any game into the time slot. In 2014, a series of changes to the broadcast contracts freed CBS from its obligation to carry an AFC team; by 2018, the last vestiges of conference ties to the Thanksgiving games were eliminated (in practice, games on Fox remain all-NFC contests).

Throwback uniforms

Since 2001 teams playing on Thanksgiving have worn throwback uniforms on numerous occasions. In some years (namely 2002), it extended to nearly all games of the weekend, and in some cases also involved classic field logos at the respective stadiums.

In 2001–2004, and again in 2008, 2010, and 2017 the Detroit Lions have worn throwback uniforms based on their very early years.

From 2001 to 2003, Dallas chose to represent the 1990s Cowboys dynasty by wearing the navy "Double-Star" jersey not seen since 1995. In 2004, the team wore uniforms not seen since 1963. In 2009, to celebrate the 50th anniversary of the AFL, both Dallas and Oakland played in a "AFL Legacy Game." In 2013, the Cowboys intended to wear their 1960s throwbacks, but chose not to do so after the NFL adopted a new policy requiring players and teams to utilize only one helmet a season to address the league's new concussion protocol; rather than sport an incomplete throwback look, the Cowboys instead wore their standard blue jerseys at home for the first time since 1963.[13] In 2015, the Cowboys resurrected their 1994 white "Double-Star" jerseys only this time wore them with white pants as part of the league's "Color Rush", a trial run of specially-designed, monochromatic jerseys to be worn during Thursday games.[14]

Memorable games

  • 1920: An urban legend states that the Chicago Tigers and Decatur Staleys challenged each other to a Thanksgiving duel, in Chicago, in the league's inaugural season, with the loser being relegated out of the league at the end of the season, purportedly explaining why the Tigers were the only NFL team to fold after the 1920 season (no other team would fold until 1921). The claims of it being a duel are unsubstantiated and no evidence exists that the Tigers were ever officially league members; nevertheless, the Tigers, after a 27–0 win over the non-league Thorn Tornadoes the next week, never played football again. The Staleys would move to Chicago during the next season, later renaming themselves the Bears.
  • 1921: In a matchup of two of the league's best teams, the Staleys lose to the Buffalo All-Americans at home. The Staleys demand a rematch, with Buffalo agreeing to a December match only on the terms of it being considered an off-the-record exhibition game. That later match, which Chicago won, ended up counting despite the All-Americans' insistence, controversially handing Chicago the championship.
  • 1952: The Dallas Texans are forced to move their lone remaining home game to the Rubber Bowl in Akron, Ohio as the undercard to a high school football contest. Their opponent for that game, the Chicago Bears, underestimated the then-winless Texans and sent their second string team to the game; the Texans scored a 27–23 upset over the Bears for their only win of their existence.
  • 1962: The Lions handed the 10–0 Green Bay Packers their lone defeat of the season.
  • 1964–65: The 1964 and 1965 AFL contests featured the Buffalo Bills and San Diego Chargers, the two teams that would eventually meet in those years' American Football League Championship Games.
  • 1974: Unknown Cowboys backup quarterback Clint Longley took over for an injured Roger Staubach with the team down 16–3 and rallied them to an improbable victory over Washington on two deep passes.
  • 1976: The Bills offense put forth one of the best and the worst performances in Thanksgiving history. O. J. Simpson set the NFL record for most rushing yards in a single game, with 273. However, Bills backup quarterback Gary Marangi completed only 4 of 21 pass attempts, for 29 yards passing, and a rating of 19.7. The Lions defeated the Bills 27-14.[15]
  • 1980: With the Lions and Bears tied 17-17 at the end of regulation, the game went to overtime, the first Thanksgiving game to do so (overtime was not added to the NFL regular season until 1974), and the first overtime game at the Silverdome. Bears running back Dave Williams returned the fifth-quarter opening kickoff 95 yards for a game-winning touchdown, ending the shortest overtime period in NFL history at the time (13 seconds).
  • 1986: The Lions and the Packers had the highest scoring game in Thanksgiving history. It was the best day of receiver Walter Stanley's career; Stanley netted 207 all-purpose yards and three touchdowns, including an 83-yard punt return to win the game for Green Bay, 44–40. Stanley had an otherwise undistinguished career in the NFL.
  • 1989: Known as the "Bounty Bowl", the Eagles crushed the Cowboys by a score of 27–0. Allegations surfaced that the Eagles had placed a bounty on the Cowboys kicker, thus becoming the first of a string of three bitterly contested games between the two teams, the other two being Bounty Bowl II and the Porkchop Bowl a year later.
  • 1993: In one of the more famous Thanksgiving Day games in recent history, the Cowboys led the Dolphins 14–13 with just seconds remaining in a rare, snow-filled Texas Stadium. Miami's Pete Stoyanovich attempted a game winning 40-yard field goal that was blocked by the Cowboys' Jimmie Jones. Dick Enberg of NBC proclaimed "The Cowboys will win."[16] Indeed, since the kick landed beyond the line of scrimmage, once the ball stopped moving the play would be declared dead and Dallas would gain possession. However, the ball landed and began spinning on its tip, leading Cowboys lineman Leon Lett to try to gain possession. Lett slipped, fell, and knocked the ball forward. By rule, the ball was live and the Dolphins fell on it at the two yard line. With the recovery, Stoyanovich got a second chance to win the game and hit the much shorter field goal. The Dolphins won 16–14.[17]
  • 1994: Troy Aikman was injured and third-string quarterback Jason Garrett was forced to start for Dallas against the Green Bay Packers. The Cowboys won a 42–31 shoot-out against Brett Favre.
  • 1998: In another controversial Thanksgiving Day game, the Steelers and Lions went to overtime tied 16–16. Pittsburgh's Jerome Bettis called the coin toss in the air, but head referee Phil Luckett awarded Detroit the ball after Bettis tried to call both heads and tails at the same time. The Lions went on to kick a field goal on the first possession, winning 19–16. As a result of the fiasco, team captains are now required to call the coin toss before the coin is tossed, and a later rule change now prevents teams from automatically winning a game by scoring a field goal on the first possession. The day also saw a memorable performance by the Minnesota Vikings in a 46–36 win over the Dallas Cowboys as Vikings rookie Randy Moss caught three touchdowns, all of over 50 yards.
  • 2008: The 10–1 Titans routed the 0–11 Lions by a score of 47–10, one of the most lopsided results in history on Thanksgiving. The Lions would go on to finish the season 0–16.
  • 2011: The trio of games[18] was lauded as one of the better Thanksgiving Day slates of games in NFL history.[19] The night game between Baltimore and San Francisco pitted head coaches and brothers John and Jim Harbaugh against each other – a preview of Super Bowl XLVII.
  • 2012: The prime time contest became infamous for the "Butt fumble", an incident in which Jets quarterback Mark Sanchez ran headfirst into the buttocks of his own offensive lineman. He subsequently fumbled the ball; it was recovered by New England, who returned it for a touchdown. In the earlier game, one of the NFL's most infamous rule changes came when former Lions coach Jim Schwartz challenged a play in which Texans running back Justin Forsett's knee clearly touched the ground before sprinting for an 81-yard touchdown. Referee Walt Coleman stated that, by rule, scoring plays are automatically reviewed and the play was not challengeable by a coach. Because of the improper attempted challenge, the review was cancelled and Coleman assessed a 15-yard kickoff penalty for unsportsmanlike conduct. The NFL then passed a new rule that stated that if a coach attempted to challenge a play that is automatically reviewed, the review would continue. It was called the 'Jim Schwartz rule'.

Home team controversy

It has remained a tradition for Dallas and Detroit to host the afternoon games dating back several decades. However, in recent years, other teams have expressed interest in hosting Thanksgiving games. Lamar Hunt, the former owner of the Chiefs (who had hosted Thanksgiving games from 1967–69 as an AFL team prior to the merger), lobbied heavily in favor of his team hosting a game on the holiday. When the NFL adopted a third, prime time game, the Chiefs were selected as the first team to host such a contest, but the team was not made a permanent host, and Hunt's death shortly after the 2006 contest ended the lobbying on behalf of that team.

The host issue came to a head in 2008, focusing particularly on the winless Lions. Going into the game, Detroit had lost their last four Thanksgiving games, and opinions amongst the media had suggested removing Detroit and replacing them with a more attractive matchup.[20][21] The team also required an extension to prevent a local television blackout.[22] The Lions were routed by Tennessee 47–10, en route to the team's 0–16 season.[23] NFL commissioner Roger Goodell confirmed that the Lions would stay on Thanksgiving for the 2009 season, but kept the issue open to revisit in the future.[24][25]

Conversely, the Dallas Cowboys, who typically represent a larger television draw,[26] have had many fewer public calls to be replaced on Thanksgiving. One issue that has been debated is a perceived unfair advantage of playing at home on Thanksgiving.[27] The advantage is given in the form of an extra day of practice for the home team while the road team has to travel to the game site. This is true for most Thursday games, but with the night games, the visitor can travel to the game site after practice and hold the final walk-thru the following morning.

With the introduction of the prime time game, which effectively allows all teams in the league an opportunity to play on Thanksgiving, along with the introduction of year-long Thursday Night Football ensuring all teams have one Thursday game during the regular season (thus negating any on-field advantages or disadvantages to being selected for Thanksgiving), the calls for Detroit and Dallas to be removed have curtailed.

Game results

(Winning teams are denoted by boldface type; tie games are italicized.)


  • All three of the generally recognized iterations of the American Football League that played during this era (AFL I in 1926, AFL II in 1936 and AFL III in 1940) played Thanksgiving games, which are also listed as indicated.
  • Non-NFL team games between league teams and non league teams counted in the 1920 standings. The All-Tonawanda Lumberjacks later joined the league as the Tonawanda Kardex, albeit only for one game.
  • Thanksgiving fell on the final Thursday in November until 1938 and was held on two conflicting days from 1939 to 1941.
Season Visiting Team Score Home Team Score
Nov 25, 1920 Canton Bulldogs 0 Akron Pros 7
Decatur Staleys 6 Chicago Tigers 0
Detroit Heralds 0 Dayton Triangles 28
Columbus Panhandles 0 Elyria Athletics* 0
Hammond Pros 0 Chicago Boosters* 27
All-Tonawanda * 14 Rochester Jeffersons 3
Nov 24, 1921 Canton Bulldogs 14 Akron Pros 0
Buffalo All-Americans 7 Chicago Staleys 6
Nov 30, 1922 Buffalo All-Americans 21 Rochester Jeffersons 0
Chicago Bears 0 Chicago Cardinals 6
Milwaukee Badgers 0 Racine Legion 3
Oorang Indians 18 Columbus Panhandles 6
Akron Pros 0 Canton Bulldogs 14
Nov 29, 1923 Toledo Maroons 0 Canton Bulldogs 28
Chicago Cardinals 0 Chicago Bears 3
Hammond Pros 0 Green Bay Packers 19
Milwaukee Badgers 16 Racine Legion 0
Nov 27, 1924 Buffalo Bisons 0 Akron Pros 22
Chicago Bears 21 Chicago Cardinals 0
Dayton Triangles 7 Frankford Yellowjackets 32
Milwaukee Badgers 10 Cleveland Bulldogs
(at Canton)
Green Bay Packers 17 Kansas City Blues 6
Nov 26, 1925 Chicago Cardinals 0 Chicago Bears 0
Kansas City Cowboys 17 Cleveland Bulldogs
(at Hartford)
Rock Island Independents 6 Detroit Panthers 3
Green Bay Packers 0 Pottsville Maroons 31
Nov 25, 1926 New York Giants 17 Brooklyn Lions 0
Los Angeles Buccaneers 9 Detroit Panthers 6
Chicago Cardinals 0 Chicago Bears 0
Green Bay Packers 14 Frankford Yellowjackets 20
Providence Steam Roller 0 Pottsville Maroons 8
Akron Pros 0 Canton Bulldogs 0
(AFL I) Los Angeles Wildcats 0 Chicago Bulls 0
(AFL I) Philadelphia Quakers 13 New York Yankees 10
Nov 24, 1927 Chicago Cardinals 3 Chicago Bears 0
Providence Steam Roller 0 Pottsville Maroons 6
Green Bay Packers 17 Frankford Yellowjackets 9
Cleveland Bulldogs 30 New York Yankees 19
Season Visiting Team Score Home Team Score
Nov 29, 1928 Providence Steam Roller 7 Pottsville Maroons 0
Dayton Triangles 0 Detroit Wolverines 33
Green Bay Packers 0 Frankford Yellow Jackets 2
Chicago Cardinals 0 Chicago Bears 34
Nov 28, 1929 New York Giants 21 Staten Island Stapletons 7
Green Bay Packers 0 Frankford Yellow Jackets 0
Chicago Cardinals 40 Chicago Bears 6
Nov 27, 1930 New York Giants 6 Staten Island Stapletons 7
Providence Steam Roller 12 Brooklyn Dodgers 33
Green Bay Packers 25 Frankford Yellowjackets 7
Chicago Cardinals 0 Chicago Bears 6
Nov 26, 1931 Green Bay Packers 38 Providence Steam Roller 7
New York Giants 6 Staten Island Stapletons 9
Chicago Cardinals 7 Chicago Bears 18
Nov 24, 1932 Green Bay Packers 7 Brooklyn Dodgers 0
New York Giants 13 Staten Island Stapletons 13
Chicago Cardinals 0 Chicago Bears 24
Nov 30, 1933 New York Giants 10 Brooklyn Dodgers 0
Chicago Bears 22 Chicago Cardinals 6
Nov 29, 1934 Green Bay Packers 0 Chicago Cardinals 6
New York Giants 27 Brooklyn Dodgers 0
Chicago Bears 19 Detroit Lions 16
Nov 28, 1935 Green Bay Packers 7 Chicago Cardinals 9
New York Giants 21 Brooklyn Dodgers 0
Chicago Bears 2 Detroit Lions 14
Nov 26, 1936 Chicago Bears 7 Detroit Lions 13
New York Giants 14 Brooklyn Dodgers 0
(AFL II) Cleveland Rams 7 Rochester Tigers 6
Nov 25, 1937 Chicago Bears 13 Detroit Lions 0
New York Giants 13 Brooklyn Dodgers 13
Nov 24, 1938 Chicago Bears 7 Detroit Lions 14
New York Giants 7 Brooklyn Dodgers 7
Nov 23, 1939 Pittsburgh Pirates 14 Philadelphia Eagles 17
Nov 21, 1940 (AFL III) New York Yankees 16 Columbus Bullies 17
(AFL III) Buffalo Tigers 13 Milwaukee Chiefs 30
Nov 28, 1940 Pittsburgh Steelers 0 Philadelphia Eagles 7


  • No Thanksgiving games were held from 1941 to 1944.
  • Thanksgiving games were played on the fourth Thursday in November from 1945 onward.
  • The All-America Football Conference (AAFC) also played Thanksgiving games from 1946 to 1949.
Season League Visiting Team Score Home Team Score
Nov 22, 1945 NFL Cleveland Rams 28 Detroit Lions 21
Nov 28, 1946 NFL Boston Yanks 34 Detroit Lions 10
AAFC New York Yankees 21 Brooklyn Dodgers 7
Nov 27, 1947 NFL Chicago Bears 34 Detroit Lions 14
AAFC Cleveland Browns 27 Los Angeles Dons 17
AAFC San Francisco 49ers 21 Brooklyn Dodgers 7
Nov 25, 1948 NFL Chicago Cardinals 28 Detroit Lions 14
AAFC Cleveland Browns 31 Los Angeles Dons 14
AAFC Buffalo Bills 39 Chicago Rockets 35
Nov 24, 1949 NFL Chicago Bears 28 Detroit Lions 7
AAFC New York Yankees 17 Los Angeles Dons 16
AAFC Cleveland Browns 14 Chicago Hornets 6
Nov 23, 1950 NFL New York Yanks 14 Detroit Lions 49
Pittsburgh Steelers 28 Chicago Cardinals 17
Nov 22, 1951 NFL Green Bay Packers 35 Detroit Lions 52
Nov 27, 1952 NFL Green Bay Packers 24 Detroit Lions 48
Chicago Bears 23 Dallas Texans (at Akron, Ohio) 27
Nov 26, 1953 NFL Green Bay Packers 15 Detroit Lions 34
Nov 25, 1954 NFL Green Bay Packers 24 Detroit Lions 28
Nov 24, 1955 NFL Green Bay Packers 10 Detroit Lions 24
Nov 22, 1956 NFL Green Bay Packers 24 Detroit Lions 20
Nov 28, 1957 NFL Green Bay Packers 6 Detroit Lions 18
Nov 27, 1958 NFL Green Bay Packers 14 Detroit Lions 24
Nov 26, 1959 NFL Green Bay Packers 24 Detroit Lions 17


Season League Visiting Team Score Home Team Score
Nov 24, 1960 NFL Green Bay Packers 10 Detroit Lions 23
AFL Dallas Texans 35 New York Titans 41
Nov 23, 1961 NFL Green Bay Packers 17 Detroit Lions 9
AFL Buffalo Bills 14 New York Titans 21
Nov 22, 1962 NFL Green Bay Packers 14 Detroit Lions 26
AFL New York Titans 46 Denver Broncos 45
Nov 28, 1963 NFL Green Bay Packers 13 Detroit Lions 13
AFL Oakland Raiders 26 Denver Broncos 10
Nov 26, 1964 NFL Chicago Bears 27 Detroit Lions 24
AFL Buffalo Bills 27 San Diego Chargers 24
Nov 25, 1965 NFL Baltimore Colts 24 Detroit Lions 24
AFL Buffalo Bills 20 San Diego Chargers 20
Nov 24, 1966 NFL San Francisco 49ers 41 Detroit Lions 14
Cleveland Browns 14 Dallas Cowboys 26
AFL Buffalo Bills 31 Oakland Raiders 10
Nov 23, 1967 NFL Los Angeles Rams 31 Detroit Lions 7
St. Louis Cardinals 21 Dallas Cowboys 46
AFL Oakland Raiders 44 Kansas City Chiefs 22
Denver Broncos 20 San Diego Chargers 24
Nov 28, 1968 NFL Philadelphia Eagles 12 Detroit Lions 0
Washington Redskins 20 Dallas Cowboys 29
AFL Buffalo Bills 10 Oakland Raiders 13
Houston Oilers 10 Kansas City Chiefs 24
Nov 27, 1969 NFL Minnesota Vikings 27 Detroit Lions 0
San Francisco 49ers 24 Dallas Cowboys 24
AFL Denver Broncos 17 Kansas City Chiefs 31
San Diego Chargers 21 Houston Oilers 17


  • From 1970 to 2005, three NFC teams and one AFC team played each Thanksgiving.
  • The two afternoon games were held at Detroit (12:30 p.m. EST) and Dallas (4:15 p.m. EST), respectively. Detroit always hosts the "early" game because a 12:30 p.m. EST kick-off at Dallas would be 11:30 a.m. local time (CST), and the NFL avoids starting games before noon locally. The two games rotate annually as intra-conference (NFC vs. NFC) and inter-conference (AFC vs. NFC) games. This is to satisfy the television contract balance between CBS (which broadcasts games in which the visiting team is from the AFC) and Fox (which broadcasts games in which the visiting team is from the NFC).
  • The "early" game kicks off at a special time of 12:30 p.m. EST as opposed to the typical afternoon start time of 1 p.m. This provides an additional 30 minutes to prevent overlapping of the "late" game, and also gave the network time for a pregame show and some additional time for an expanded halftime show (selected years). When Fox carries the "early" game, they typically start their pregame coverage (Fox NFL Sunday) at 11:30 a.m. (with the addition of Fox NFL Kickoff to the Fox lineup, its pregame will begin at 10:30 a.m. for 2015). When CBS carries the "early" game, they start their pregame coverage (The NFL Today) at 12:00 p.m., due to the fact that their morning parade coverage runs until noon. The network with the 4:15 "late" game begins pregame coverage at 3:30 p.m. EST.
  • Dallas was replaced by the St. Louis Cardinals as a host team in 1975 and 1977; Dallas and St. Louis faced each other at Texas Stadium in 1976. Because of the Missouri Turkey Day Game, the long-established KirkwoodWebster Groves high school football game that takes place on Thanksgiving in St. Louis, weak fan support in St. Louis, and general national preference of the Cowboys over the historically weaker Cardinals, the Cardinals' hosting of the Thanksgiving game was not popular. Dallas returned to hosting the game in 1978 and has hosted since. Likewise, the Rams never played on Thanksgiving while in St. Louis, in part because of the Turkey Day Game and also because the Missouri State High School Activities Association has held its state football championship games on Thanksgiving weekend at The Dome at America's Center since 1996.
  • Since the time NFL began its current alignment in 2002, no team from the AFC North can play a Thanksgiving Day game against the traditional hosts. This is because under the current rotation, the Cowboys and the Lions each play AFC North teams in years that Fox is scheduled to broadcast its Thanksgiving Day game, requiring an NFC opponent. To date, the last game to feature a team currently in the AFC North was the Lions matchup against the Pittsburgh Steelers in 1998. AFC North teams can play in the prime time game, as the Cincinnati Bengals did in 2010.With the advent of games being flexed to other networks starting around 2014, this is no longer an issue.
Season Visiting Team Score Home Team Score OT
Nov 26, 1970 Oakland Raiders 14 Detroit Lions 28
Green Bay Packers 3 Dallas Cowboys 16
Nov 25, 1971 Kansas City Chiefs 21 Detroit Lions 32
Los Angeles Rams 21 Dallas Cowboys 28
Nov 23, 1972 New York Jets 20 Detroit Lions 37
San Francisco 49ers 31 Dallas Cowboys 10
Nov 22, 1973 Washington Redskins 20 Detroit Lions 0
Miami Dolphins 14 Dallas Cowboys 7
Nov 28, 1974 Denver Broncos 31 Detroit Lions 27
Washington Redskins 23 Dallas Cowboys 24
Nov 27, 1975 Los Angeles Rams 20 Detroit Lions 0
Buffalo Bills 32 St. Louis Cardinals 14
Nov 25, 1976 Buffalo Bills 14 Detroit Lions 27
St. Louis Cardinals 14 Dallas Cowboys 19
Nov 24, 1977 Chicago Bears 31 Detroit Lions 14
Miami Dolphins 55 St. Louis Cardinals 14
Nov 23, 1978 Denver Broncos 14 Detroit Lions 17
Washington Redskins 10 Dallas Cowboys 37
Nov 22, 1979 Chicago Bears 0 Detroit Lions 20
Houston Oilers 30 Dallas Cowboys 24
Nov 27, 1980 Chicago Bears 23 Detroit Lions 17 (OT)
Seattle Seahawks 7 Dallas Cowboys 51
Nov 26, 1981 Kansas City Chiefs 10 Detroit Lions 27
Chicago Bears 9 Dallas Cowboys 10
Nov 25, 1982 New York Giants 13 Detroit Lions 6
Cleveland Browns 14 Dallas Cowboys 31
Nov 24, 1983 Pittsburgh Steelers 3 Detroit Lions 45
St. Louis Cardinals 17 Dallas Cowboys 35
Nov 22, 1984 Green Bay Packers 28 Detroit Lions 31
New England Patriots 17 Dallas Cowboys 20
Nov 28, 1985 New York Jets 20 Detroit Lions 31
St. Louis Cardinals 17 Dallas Cowboys 35
Nov 27, 1986 Green Bay Packers 44 Detroit Lions 40
Seattle Seahawks 31 Dallas Cowboys 14
Nov 26, 1987 Kansas City Chiefs 27 Detroit Lions 20
Minnesota Vikings 44 Dallas Cowboys 38 (OT)
Nov 24, 1988 Minnesota Vikings 23 Detroit Lions 0
Houston Oilers 25 Dallas Cowboys 17
Nov 23, 1989 Cleveland Browns 10 Detroit Lions 13
Philadelphia Eagles 27 Dallas Cowboys 0
Nov 22, 1990 Denver Broncos 27 Detroit Lions 40
Washington Redskins 17 Dallas Cowboys 27
Nov 28, 1991 Chicago Bears 6 Detroit Lions 16
Pittsburgh Steelers 10 Dallas Cowboys 20
Nov 26, 1992 Houston Oilers 24 Detroit Lions 21
New York Giants 3 Dallas Cowboys 30
Nov 25, 1993 Chicago Bears 10 Detroit Lions 6
Miami Dolphins 16 Dallas Cowboys 14
Nov 24, 1994 Buffalo Bills 21 Detroit Lions 35
Green Bay Packers 31 Dallas Cowboys 42
Nov 23, 1995 Minnesota Vikings 38 Detroit Lions 44
Kansas City Chiefs 12 Dallas Cowboys 24
Nov 28, 1996 Kansas City Chiefs 28 Detroit Lions 24
Washington Redskins 10 Dallas Cowboys 21
Nov 27, 1997 Chicago Bears 20 Detroit Lions 55
Tennessee Oilers 27 Dallas Cowboys 14
Nov 26, 1998 Pittsburgh Steelers 16 Detroit Lions 19 (OT)
Minnesota Vikings 46 Dallas Cowboys 36
Nov 25, 1999 Chicago Bears 17 Detroit Lions 21
Miami Dolphins 0 Dallas Cowboys 20
Nov 23, 2000 New England Patriots 9 Detroit Lions 34
Minnesota Vikings 27 Dallas Cowboys 15
Nov 22, 2001 Green Bay Packers 29 Detroit Lions 27
Denver Broncos 26 Dallas Cowboys 24
Nov 28, 2002 New England Patriots 20 Detroit Lions 12
Washington Redskins 20 Dallas Cowboys 27
Nov 27, 2003 Green Bay Packers 14 Detroit Lions 22
Miami Dolphins 40 Dallas Cowboys 21
Nov 25, 2004 Indianapolis Colts 41 Detroit Lions 9
Chicago Bears 7 Dallas Cowboys 21
Nov 24, 2005 Atlanta Falcons 27 Detroit Lions 7
Denver Broncos 24 Dallas Cowboys 21 (OT)


  • Since 2006, three contests have been played on Thanksgiving. In addition to the traditional Detroit and Dallas home afternoon games, a third game is now played in primetime and televised by NFL Network (2006–2011) or NBC (since 2012). Current plans call for the various NFL teams (other than the Lions and Cowboys) to take turns hosting the night game on a rotation basis.
  • In 2006, Kansas City hosted the first prime time Thanksgiving game. The game marked a new "Thanksgiving Tripleheader" tradition. The Denver/Kansas City game marked the first time more than two games were played on Thanksgiving (as well as the first all-AFC holiday matchup) since the AFL–NFL merger in 1970.
  • The 2014 season was the first in which all three games feature NFC vs. NFC opponents; since then, none of the three Thanksgiving games have been bound to any conference. There were also all NFC matchups in 2015 and 2018 respectively. [28][29]
Season Visiting Team Score Home Team Score OT
Nov 23, 2006 Miami Dolphins 27 Detroit Lions 10
Tampa Bay Buccaneers 10 Dallas Cowboys 38
Denver Broncos 10 Kansas City Chiefs 19
Nov 22, 2007 Green Bay Packers 37 Detroit Lions 26
New York Jets 3 Dallas Cowboys 34
Indianapolis Colts 31 Atlanta Falcons 13
Nov 27, 2008 Tennessee Titans 47 Detroit Lions 10
Seattle Seahawks 9 Dallas Cowboys 34
Arizona Cardinals 20 Philadelphia Eagles 48
Nov 26, 2009 Green Bay Packers 34 Detroit Lions 12
Oakland Raiders 7 Dallas Cowboys 24
New York Giants 6 Denver Broncos 26
Nov 25, 2010 New England Patriots 45 Detroit Lions 24
New Orleans Saints 30 Dallas Cowboys 27
Cincinnati Bengals 10 New York Jets 26
Nov 24, 2011 Green Bay Packers 27 Detroit Lions 15
Miami Dolphins 19 Dallas Cowboys 20
San Francisco 49ers 6 Baltimore Ravens 16
Nov 22, 2012 Houston Texans 34 Detroit Lions 31 (OT)
Washington Redskins 38 Dallas Cowboys 31
New England Patriots 49 New York Jets 19
Nov 28, 2013 Green Bay Packers 10 Detroit Lions 40
Oakland Raiders 24 Dallas Cowboys 31
Pittsburgh Steelers 20 Baltimore Ravens 22
Nov 27, 2014 Chicago Bears 17 Detroit Lions 34
Philadelphia Eagles 33 Dallas Cowboys 10
Seattle Seahawks 19 San Francisco 49ers 3
Nov 26, 2015 Philadelphia Eagles 14 Detroit Lions 45
Carolina Panthers 33 Dallas Cowboys 14
Chicago Bears 17 Green Bay Packers 13
Nov 24, 2016 Minnesota Vikings 13 Detroit Lions 16
Washington Redskins 26 Dallas Cowboys 31
Pittsburgh Steelers 28 Indianapolis Colts 7
Nov 23, 2017 Minnesota Vikings 30 Detroit Lions 23
Los Angeles Chargers 28 Dallas Cowboys 6
New York Giants 10 Washington Redskins 20
Nov 22, 2018 Chicago Bears 23 Detroit Lions 16
Washington Redskins 23 Dallas Cowboys 31
Atlanta Falcons 17 New Orleans Saints 31
Nov 28, 2019 TBA Detroit Lions
TBA Dallas Cowboys

Thanksgiving Day standings

Of current NFL franchises. This includes American Football League (AFL) games; however, it does not include All-America Football Conference (AAFC) games.

Team Last Game Wins Losses Ties Win % Other names appeared under
Arizona Cardinals 2008
(lost 48–20 at Philadelphia)
6 15 2 .304 Chicago Cardinals (1920–1959)
St. Louis Cardinals (1960–1987)
Phoenix Cardinals (1988–1993)
Atlanta Falcons 2018
(lost 31–17 at New Orleans)
1 2 0 .333
Baltimore Ravens 2013
(won 22–20 vs. Pittsburgh)
2 0 0 1.000
Buffalo Bills 1994
(lost 35–21 at Detroit)
3 4 1 .438 Does not include 1–0 record of unrelated AAFC team of same name.
Carolina Panthers 2015
(won 33–14 at Dallas)
1 0 0 1.000
Chicago Bears 2018
(won 23–16 at Detroit)
18 15 2 .543 Decatur Staleys (1920)
Chicago Staleys (1921)
Cincinnati Bengals 2010
(lost 26–10 at N.Y. Jets)
0 1 0 .000
Cleveland Browns 1989
(lost 13–10 at Detroit)
0 3 0 .000 Does not include 3–0 record when team was a member of the AAFC.
Dallas Cowboys 2018
(won 31–23 vs. Washington)
31 19 1 .618
Denver Broncos 2009
(won 26–6 vs. N.Y. Giants)
4 7 0 .364
Detroit Lions 2018
(lost 23–16 vs. Chicago)
37 40 2 .481
Green Bay Packers 2015
(lost 17–13 vs. Chicago)
14 20 2 .417
Houston Texans 2012
(won 34–31 (OT) at Detroit)
1 0 0 1.000
Indianapolis Colts 2016
(lost 28–7 vs. Pittsburgh)
2 1 1 .625 Baltimore Colts (1953–1983)
Jacksonville Jaguars Never 0 0 0 Only active franchise to have never played on Thanksgiving.
Kansas City Chiefs 2006
(won 19–10 vs. Denver)
5 5 0 .500 Dallas Texans (1960–1962), does not include 1–0 record of unrelated NFL Dallas Texans.
Los Angeles Chargers 2017
(won 28–6 vs. Dallas)
3 1 1 .700 San Diego Chargers (1961–2016)
Los Angeles Rams 1975
(won 20–0 vs. Detroit)
3 1 0 .750 Cleveland Rams (1937–1945), does not include 1936 AFL's Cleveland Rams
Miami Dolphins 2011
(lost 20–19 at Dallas)
5 2 0 .714
Minnesota Vikings 2017
(won 30–23 at Detroit)
6 2 0 .750
New England Patriots 2012
(won 49–19 at N.Y. Jets)
3 2 0 .600
New Orleans Saints 2018
(won 31–17 vs. Atlanta)
2 0 0 1.000
New York Giants 2017
(lost 20–10 at Washington)
7 5 3 .567
New York Jets 2012
(lost 49–19 vs. New England)
4 4 0 .500 New York Titans (1960–1962)
Oakland Raiders 2013
(lost 31–24 at Dallas)
3 4 0 .429
Philadelphia Eagles 2015
(lost 45–14 at Detroit)
6 1 0 .857
Pittsburgh Steelers 2016
(won 28–7 at Indianapolis)
2 6 0 .250
San Francisco 49ers 2014
(lost 19–3 vs. Seattle)
2 2 1 .500 Does not include 1–0 record when team was a member of the AAFC.
Seattle Seahawks 2014
(won 19–3 at San Francisco)
2 2 0 .500
Tampa Bay Buccaneers 2006
(lost 38–10 at Dallas)
0 1 0 .000
Tennessee Titans 2008
(won 47–10 at Detroit)
5 2 0 .714 Houston Oilers (1960–1996)
Tennessee Oilers (1997–1998)
Washington Redskins 2018
(lost 31–23 at Dallas)
3 8 0 .273

Notable appearance droughts

The last currently active franchise to have never played on Thanksgiving through 2018 is the Jacksonville Jaguars, who joined the league in 1995.

An idiosyncrasy in the NFL's current scheduling formula, which has been in effect in its basic form since 2002, effectively prevented teams from the AFC North from playing the Lions or Cowboys on Thanksgiving, as the formula had the AFC North playing in Dallas or Detroit in years when the other team was slated to play the AFC game on Thanksgiving. These teams, under the television contracts in place at the time, could only play in the third (night) game. With the changes in the scheduling practices in 2014, the division is no longer barred from participating in the game (since both CBS and Fox can choose teams from either conference; because of the idiosyncrasy, the AFC North team would, if chosen, always play on Fox). In practice, the changes have led to fewer AFC games, as the league has regularly scheduled the Lions' and Cowboys' division rivals for the contests so that ratings are maximized; seven out of the ten Thanksgiving games involving the Lions or Cowboys since 2014 have involved a team in the same division, while only one (a 2017 contest between the Cowboys and Los Angeles Chargers) has involved the AFC.

The Los Angeles Rams have the longest active appearance drought of any team, with their last appearance coming in 1975. Among current NFL markets, Cleveland has had the longest wait to have a team from its city play on Thanksgiving; the Browns last appeared in 1989, several years before suspending operations in 1995, and have not appeared in the game since rejoining the league as an expansion team in 1999.

Since 2010, several appearance droughts have ended. New Orleans, Cincinnati, Baltimore, Houston, and Carolina all played their first Thanksgiving games during this time frame. San Francisco likewise played their first Thanksgiving game since 1972 in 2011, and the Los Angeles Chargers, who last played on the holiday in 1969 (while the team was still an AFL franchise in San Diego) before actually joining the league, appeared for the first time as an NFL member in 2017.[30]

Thanksgiving Day records of defunct teams

League teams only, since 1920.
Team Wins Losses Ties Win Pct. Other names appeared under
Frankford Yellow Jackets 2 0   1.000 Defunct (1931)
New York Yankees* 2 0   1.000 Defunct (1949)
Pottsville Maroons 2 0   1.000 Defunct (1928)
Boston Yanks 1 0   1.000 Defunct (1948)
Buffalo Bills* 1 0   1.000 Defunct (1949), unrelated to current NFL team with this name
Dallas Texans 1 0   1.000 Defunct (1952), does not count AFL's Dallas Texans, which are now the Kansas City Chiefs
Los Angeles Buccaneers 1 0   1.000 Defunct (1926)
Oorang Indians 1 0   1.000 Defunct (1923)
Rock Island Independents 1 0   1.000 Defunct (1925)
All-Tonawanda Lumberjacks 1 0   1.000 Defunct (1921)
Akron Pros 3 1 1 .700 Defunct (1926)
Buffalo Bisons 1 1 1 .500 Buffalo All-Americans (1920–1923), Defunct (1929)
Canton Bulldogs 1 1 1 .500 Defunct (1926)
Cleveland Bulldogs 1 1   .500 Defunct (1927)
Dayton Triangles 1 1   .500 Defunct (1929)
Kansas City Cowboys 1 1   .500 Kansas City Blues (1924), Defunct (1926)
Milwaukee Badgers 1 1   .500 Defunct (1926)
Brooklyn Lions 0 1   .000 Defunct (1926)
Chicago Tigers 0 1   .000 Defunct (1920)
Detroit Heralds 0 1   .000 Defunct (1920)
New York Yanks 0 1   .000 Defunct (1950)
Providence Steam Roller 0 1   .000 Defunct (1931)
Racine Legion 0 1   .000 Defunct (1926)
Toledo Maroons 0 1   .000 Defunct (1923)
Brooklyn Dodgers* 0 2   .000 Defunct (1949)
Chicago Hornets* 0 2   .000 Chicago Rockets (1946–1948), Defunct (1949)
Columbus Panhandles 0 2   .000 Defunct (1926)
Detroit Panthers 0 2   .000 Defunct (1926)
Hammond Pros 0 2   .000 Defunct (1926)
Rochester Jeffersons 0 2   .000 Defunct (1925)
Los Angeles Dons* 0 3   .000 Defunct (1949)

*All-America Football Conference team.

Game MVPs

Since 1989, informal and sometimes lighthearted Man of the Match awards have been issued by the networks broadcasting the respective games. Running back Emmitt Smith holds the record for most Thanksgiving MVPs with five (1990, 1992, 1994, 1996 and 2002). Voting on the respective awards is typically done informally by the announcing crew themselves, and criteria are loose. Noteworthy statistical accomplishments weigh heavily, and "group" awards are common. The announcement of the winner(s), and the presentation of the award is normally done immediately following the game, during post-game network coverage.

Turkey Leg Award (CBS & Fox)

In 1989, John Madden of CBS awarded the first "Turkey Leg Award", for the game's most valuable player. Pursuant to its name, it was an actual cooked turkey leg, and players typically took a celebratory bite out of the leg for the cameras during post-game interviews. Reggie White of the Eagles was the first recipient. The gesture was seen mostly as a humorous gimmick relating to Madden's famous multi-legged turkey,[31] cooked and delivered by local restaurant owner Joe Pat Fieseler of Harvey's Barbecue (located less than a mile from Texas Stadium). Since then, however, the award has gained subtle notoriety. Madden brought the award to Fox in 1994, and it continued through 2001.

Because of the loose and informal nature of the award, at times it has been awarded to multiple players. On one occasion in 1994, it was given to players of both teams.

Galloping Gobbler / Game Ball (Fox)

When John Madden left Fox after 2001, the network introduced a new award starting in 2002, named the "Galloping Gobbler." It was represented by a small figurine of a cartoonish, silver turkey wearing a football helmet[32] striking a Heisman-like pose.[33] Much like Cleatus and Digger, the original Galloping Gobbler trophy reflected Fox's irreverent mascots, and went through several iterations.[32] Unimpressed by its tackiness, 2002 winner Emmitt Smith famously threw his in a trash can.[32]

In 2007, the kitschy statuette was replaced with a bronze-colored statue of a nondescript turkey holding a football.[33] In 2011, the trophies were discarded altogether and replaced by an attractive plaque. Unlike the aforementioned "Turkey Leg Award", the "Galloping Gobbler" is normally awarded to only one player annually,[34] however in 2016, co-winners were honored.[35]

For 2017, the Galloping Gobbler was permanently retired, and replaced with the "Game Ball," an stylish, ornate football-shaped trophy, reminiscent of the tradition where game-used balls are typically awarded to players of the game. No one at Fox seemed to notice the first ball awarded has the stripe markings of a college ball.

All-Iron Award (CBS)

When the NFL returned to CBS in 1998, they introduced their own award, the "All-Iron Award", which is, suitably enough, a small silver iron, a reference to Phil Simms' All-Iron team for toughness. The All-Iron winner also receives a skillet of blackberry cobbler made by Simms' mother.

Through 2006, the trophy was only awarded to one player annually. Occasionally, it has been issued as a "group award" in addition to a single player award. In 2008, Simms stated it was "too close to call" and named four players to the trophy; he then gave the award to several people every year until 2013, after which he reverted to a single MVP in 2014.

Simms was removed from the broadcast booth for the 2017 season in favor of Tony Romo, who did not carry on the tradition.

Prime time games (NFLN & NBC)

During the time when NFL Network held the broadcast rights the prime time game, from 2007 to 2011 they gave out the "Pudding Pie Award" for MVPs. The award was an actual pie. In 2009, NFL Network gave Brandon Marshall a pumpkin pie rather than the chocolate pudding pie of the previous two years.

NBC, which carried Thanksgiving afternoon games through 1997, did not issue an MVP award during that time. NBC began broadcasting the Thanksgiving prime time game in 2012, at which point the MVP award was added. The award is currently called the Sunday Night Football on Thanksgiving Night Player of the Game, and is typically awarded to multiple players on the winning team.[36] From 2012 to 2015, the NBC award was referred to as the "Madden Thanksgiving Player-of-the-Game", honoring John Madden (who announced NBC games from 2006 to 2008).[37][38] In the first few years, the award specifically went to players on both offense and defense, but in recent years, defensive players have not necessarily been recognized. The winning players are presented with ceremonial game balls and, as a gesture to Madden, a cooked turkey leg.[39]

Complete list

CBS Turkey Leg Award
Year MVP (Team)
1989 Reggie White (Phi)
1990 Troy Aikman & Emmitt Smith (Dal)
1991 Barry Sanders (Det)
1992 Emmitt Smith & Cowboys Offensive line
1993 Richard Dent (Chi)
CBS All-Iron Award
1998 Stephen Boyd (Det)
1999 Dexter Coakley (Dal)
2000 Charlie Batch (Det)
2001 Mike Anderson (Den)
2002 Troy Brown (NE)
2003 Jay Fiedler & Chris Chambers (Mia)
2004 Peyton Manning & Colts Offensive line
2005 Ron Dayne (Den)
2006 Joey Harrington (Mia)
2007 Tony Romo & Cowboys defense*
2008 Albert Haynesworth (Ten)
Chris Johnson (Ten)
Kevin Mawae (Ten)
LenDale White (Ten)
2009 Miles Austin (Dal)
Tony Romo (Dal)
Jason Witten (Dal)
2010 Tom Brady (NE)
2011 DeMarcus Ware (Dal)
2012 Andre Johnson (Hou)
Matt Schaub (Hou)
J.J. Watt (Hou)
2013 Tony Romo (Dal)
DeMarco Murray (Dal)
Lance Dunbar (Dal)
HM: Matthew McGloin (Oak)
2014 Calvin Johnson (Det)
2015 Luke Kuechly (Car)
Jerricho Cotchery (Car)
Kurt Coleman (Car)
Cam Newton (Car)
2016 Matt Prater (Det)
Darius Slay (Det)
Matthew Stafford (Det)
Fox Turkey Leg Award
Year MVP (Team)
1994 Emmitt Smith & Jason Garrett (Dal)
Brett Favre & Sterling Sharpe (GB)
1995 Herman Moore (Det)
Brett Perriman (Det)
Johnnie Morton (Det)
1996 Emmitt Smith (Dal)
1997 Luther Ellis (Det)
1998 Randy Moss (Min)
1999 Gus Frerotte (Det)
Greg Hill (Det)
Johnnie Morton (Det)
Robert Porcher (Det)
2000 Robert Smith (Min)
Randy Moss (Min)
Daunte Culpepper (Min)
Cris Carter (Min)
2001 Brett Favre & Ahman Green (GB)
Fox Galloping Gobbler Award
2002 Emmitt Smith (Dal)
2003 Dré Bly (Det)
2004 Julius Jones (Dal)
2005 Michael Vick (Atl)
2006 Tony Romo (Dal)
2007 Brett Favre (GB)
2008 DeMarcus Ware (Dal)
2009 Donald Driver (GB)
2010 Drew Brees (NO)
2011 Aaron Rodgers (GB)
2012 Robert Griffin III (Was)
2013 Reggie Bush (Det)
2014 LeSean McCoy (Phi)
2015 Matthew Stafford (Det)
2016 Dak Prescott & Ezekiel Elliott (Dal)
Fox Game Ball
2017 Case Keenum (Min)
2018 Amari Cooper (Dal)
NFL Network Pudding Pie Award
Year MVP (Team)
2006 Not given
2007 Reggie Wayne (Ind)
2008 Donovan McNabb & Brian Westbrook (Phi)
2009 Brandon Marshall (Den)
2010 Brad Smith & Darrelle Revis (NYJ)
2011 Terrell Suggs (Bal)
NBC Player of the Game
2012 Tom Brady (NE)
Vince Wilfork (NE)
Steve Gregory (NE)
2013 Jacoby Jones (Bal)
Justin Tucker (Bal)
2014 Russell Wilson (Sea)
Richard Sherman (Sea)
2015 Jay Cutler (Chi)
Tracy Porter (Chi)
2016 Le'Veon Bell (Pit)
Ben Roethlisberger (Pit)
Antonio Brown (Pit)
2017 Kirk Cousins (Was)
Jamison Crowder (Was)
Ryan Kerrigan (Was)
2018 Drew Brees (NO)
Alvin Kamara (NO)
Cameron Jordan (NO)


DuMont was the first network to televise Thanksgiving games in 1953; CBS took over in 1956, and in 1965, the first ever color television broadcast of an NFL game was the Thanksgiving match between the Lions and the Baltimore Colts.

Starting in 2012, all three broadcast networks with NFL rights will carry one game apiece. The first two games are split between CBS and Fox. These games are rotated annually, with CBS getting the 12:30 p.m. (EST) "early" game, and Fox getting the 4:25 p.m. "late" game in even-numbered years, while Fox likewise gets the "early" game and CBS the "late" game in odd-numbered years. The third game, with a prime time 8:30 p.m. start, is carried by NBC[40]. The NFL may involve the Flexible Scheduling rule in the future to reassign games if the night game has less importance than the Dallas or Detroit game.

In 2014, two developments would eventually allow for the networks to carry teams from either of the two conferences, something that was not allowed prior to this point. First, a system known as "cross-flex" was imposed, in which the two networks bound by conference restrictions, CBS and Fox, could carry Sunday afternoon games that would otherwise air on the other network.[41][42] That same year, in order to accommodate CBS's new contract to simulcast Thursday Night Football, the network was given permission to air games with teams from either conference on Thursdays in a deal separate from its Sunday afternoon rights.[43] From that year through 2016, CBS carried all-NFC contests every year on Thanksgiving, and in 2014 and 2015, no AFC teams played in any of the Thanksgiving games. It was initially unclear what mechanism was involved that allowed CBS to carry the NFC vs. NFC matchups; two separate articles on the NFL's official Web site gave conflicting possibilities, with one by Kevin Patra speculating that it was covered under the cross-flex rule[28] and another by Gregg Rosenthal stating that, because the Thanksgiving matchup was on a Thursday, the cross-flex rule did not apply.[44]

CBS's Thursday Night Football rights expired after the 2017 season, after which Fox won the bidding. The league then scheduled all three games in 2018 to feature NFC vs. NFC opponents, with CBS given the Chicago Bears as the Lions' opponent for the early game while Fox carries the Washington at Dallas late afternoon game. NBC still held the rights to the Thanksgiving night game, Atlanta Falcons at New Orleans Saints.[29] (The same year, the league expanded its flexible scheduling policies to include days other than Sundays.)[45] To date, the NFL has never assigned an AFC road game to Fox on Thanksgiving.

Westwood One most recently held national radio broadcast rights to all three games, with Compass Media Networks sharing rights to the Cowboys contest. (Under league rules, only radio stations that carry at least 12 Cowboys games in a season are allowed to carry the Compass broadcast.) The participating teams also air the games on their local flagship stations and regional radio networks.

The Cowboys Thanksgiving game has regularly been the most watched NFL regular season telecast each year, with the Lions Thanksgiving game usually in the top five.

See also


  1. ^ "Navy vs Michigan st (NJ)". College Football Data Warehouse. Archived from the original on December 7, 2013. Retrieved December 2, 2011.
  2. ^ "1885 Football Team". University of Michigan, Bentley Historical Library.
  3. ^ "1887 Football Team". University of Michigan, Bentley Historical Library.
  4. ^ "1888 Football Team". University of Michigan, Bentley Historical Library.
  5. ^ "1889 Football Team". University of Michigan, Bentley Historical Library.
  6. ^ "1891 Football Team". University of Michigan, Bentley Historical Library.
  7. ^ "Football on Thanksgiving: A Brief But Comprehensive History". Midwest Sports Fans. November 23, 2011.
  8. ^ "The Origins of the Thanksgiving Day Tradition". Detroit Lions. Retrieved 2007-10-04.
  9. ^ Jaworowski, Matt (November 24, 2016). Timeline: How football became a Thanksgiving tradition. WIVB-TV. Retrieved November 24, 2016.
  10. ^ See also: Pennsylvania Keystoners
  11. ^ Scales, Kristi (November 26, 2014). "Why Do the Cowboys Play on Thanksgiving Day?". 5 Points Blue (Dallas Cowboys). Retrieved June 4, 2015.
  12. ^ McManaman, Bob (November 22, 2017). Cardinals, not Cowboys, could have been an NFL Thanksgiving Day staple. Retrieved November 23, 2017.
  13. ^ Eatman, Nick (November 26, 2013). "Cowboys To Wear Blue Jerseys At Home Thursday". Dallas Cowboys. Retrieved June 4, 2015.
  14. ^ Splash of color for Thursday Night teams. Retrieved October 30, 2015.
  15. ^ Buffalo Bills at Detroit Lions - November 25th, 1976 |
  16. ^ 1993 - Dolphins @ Cowboys - Leon Lett Opps - YouTube
  17. ^ Miami Dolphins at Dallas Cowboys - November 25th, 1993 |
  18. ^ "NFL Thanksgiving Day Football Preview: Games, TV Schedule, Point Spreads, Picks and Predictions". 2011-11-21. Retrieved 2012-11-23.
  19. ^ Silver, Michael (2011-11-21). "NFL Thanksgiving games are appealing, for once – NFL – Yahoo! Sports". Retrieved 2012-11-23.
  20. ^ Bakay, Nick (12 November 2008). "Manly House of Football: Another helping of Lions football for the holiday? No, thanks!".
  21. ^ Kulfan, Ted. Annual Lions game is roasted. The Detroit News. 25 November 2008
  22. ^ Slevin, Peter (November 27, 2008). "In Detroit, Tradition Takes a Hike; Annual Thanksgiving Football Game Offers Little Joy for Troubled City". Washington Post. p. A1.
  23. ^ Lage, Larry (November 28, 2008). "Once-beaten Titans dominate winless Lions 47–10". Associated Press.
  24. ^ Niyo, John (31 January 2009). "Turkey game safe ... for now". Detroit Free Press. p. C6.
  25. ^ Kowalski, Tom (22 March 2009). "Lions president says NFL will not take away team's Thanksgiving Day game".
  26. ^ Horn, Barry (10 March 2009). "Networks vie for Dallas Cowboys' home opener". Dallas Morning News.
  27. ^ King, Peter (1 December 2008). "The best football writer of our time".
  28. ^ a b Patra, Kevin (23 April 2014). "2014 NFL Schedule: No AFC teams on Thanksgiving Day". Retrieved 24 April 2014.
  29. ^ a b Brinson, Will (19 April 2018). "2018 NFL Schedule: Thanksgiving has three great division rivalry games, Bears-Lions on CBS". CBS Sports. Retrieved 19 April 2018.
  30. ^ Bergman, Jeremy (April 20, 2017). "Previewing the 2017 Thanksgiving Day slate". National Football League. Retrieved April 21, 2017.
  31. ^ Imnam, Cam (November 23, 2016). "John Madden talks Thanksgiving, his health, Raiders rise, 49ers fall, NFL TV ratings". The Mercury News. Retrieved November 27, 2016.
  32. ^ a b c "Galloping Gobbler: An evolution of greatness". Laces Out – Fox Blog. Fox Sports. November 21, 2013. Retrieved December 2, 2014.
  33. ^ a b "NFL Thanksgiving Day Football History, Trivia, and Fun Facts". Sports Geekery. November 24, 2014. Retrieved December 2, 2014.
  34. ^ "NFL Thanksgiving Day Football History, Trivia, and Fun Facts - Sports Geekery". 2010-11-24. Retrieved 2016-09-28.
  35. ^ Ezekiel Elliott, Dak Prescott win Galloping Gobbler after Thanksgiving win vs. Washington
  36. ^ 2016 Steelers-Colts Game Broadcast on NBC, Post-game coverage: November 24, 2016
  37. ^ "Easton-P'burg TV coverage won't crash gate". The Morning Call. November 20, 2012. Retrieved November 20, 2012. As an added bonus, John Madden will return to NBC to open the broadcast and will give his first "Madden Thanksgiving Player of the-Game" award
  38. ^ "Thanksgiving Night Game on NBC New England Patriots vs. New York Jets" (Press release). NBCUniversal. November 20, 2012. Retrieved November 20, 2012.
  39. ^ Turkey Leg Award is the best NFL football on Thanksgiving tradition. SB Nation (November 24, 2016). Retrieved November 25, 2016.
  40. ^ "NBC's "Turkey Day" tradition begins". NBC Sports History Page.
  41. ^ "NFL announces Week 13 flex plan". ESPN. Retrieved November 21, 2011.
  42. ^ Best, Neil (December 14, 2011). "NFL renews lucrative TV deals". Newsday. Retrieved October 29, 2013.
  43. ^ "CBS to broadcast eight Thursday night football games in 2014". CBS Sports. Retrieved February 5, 2014.
  44. ^ Rosenthal, Gregg (April 23, 2014). "2014 NFL Schedule: Flex games can now start in Week 5". National Football League. Retrieved June 4, 2015. Thursday, Saturday, and Monday games are not affected.
  45. ^ "NFL Announces the 2018 Regular Season Schedule". NFL Football Operations. April 19, 2018. Retrieved April 23, 2018.


External links

2017 Los Angeles Chargers season

The 2017 Los Angeles Chargers season was the franchise's 48th season in the National Football League (NFL), the 58th overall, the 2nd in the Greater Los Angeles Area and the first under head coach Anthony Lynn. It was the Chargers' first season in Los Angeles since their inaugural 1960 season, when they were in the AFL, as the team exercised its option to move back to the city and join the Los Angeles Rams on January 12, 2017. The 2017 season was the first of three seasons played at StubHub Center prior to the new stadium in Inglewood being completed in 2020.

The Chargers, despite an 0–4 start, improved their 5–11 record from last season after a week 13 win over the Cleveland Browns. Their season finale win over the Raiders helped the Chargers finish with a winning record for the first time since 2014. However, they missed the playoffs for the fourth consecutive season — the Chargers finished in a four-way tie with the Tennessee Titans, Buffalo Bills and Baltimore Ravens for the two Wild Card playoff spots, but the Titans and Bills claimed the Wild Cards based on tiebreakers.

2017 Minnesota Vikings season

The 2017 season was the Minnesota Vikings' 57th in the National Football League, and their fourth under head coach Mike Zimmer. With the team's home stadium, U.S. Bank Stadium, scheduled to host Super Bowl LII at the end of the season, the Vikings attempted to make history as the first team to play the Super Bowl on their home field; in recording their best regular season record since 1998, they clinched a first-round bye for the first time since 2009 and became the eighth team in the Super Bowl era to qualify for the playoffs in a season in which their stadium hosted the Super Bowl. They defeated the New Orleans Saints in the Divisional Round 29–24 on a walk-off play referred to as the "Minneapolis Miracle", but lost 38–7 to the eventual Super Bowl champion Philadelphia Eagles in the NFC Championship Game.

2017 Washington Redskins season

The 2017 Washington Redskins season was the franchise's 86th season in the National Football League and the fourth under head coach Jay Gruden. The Redskins ended the season losing seven of the final 11 games after a 3-2 start, failing to improve on their 8–7–1 record from the previous season, and were mathematically eliminated from the playoffs after losing to the Chargers. This was likely due to the abundance of injuries at key positions and one of the league's toughest schedules.

In Week 2, the Redskins played the Rams in Los Angeles for the first time in 23 years. It was also their first game in the L.A. Coliseum in 28 years. Washington got their first win in the Coliseum in 43 years.

Also, this was the last of six seasons that quarterback Kirk Cousins was on the roster, as he would join the Minnesota Vikings in the following offseason.

2018 Atlanta Falcons season

The 2018 season was the Atlanta Falcons' 53rd in the National Football League, their second playing their home games at Mercedes-Benz Stadium (the venue for Super Bowl LIII) and their fourth under head coach Dan Quinn. The Falcons attempted to be the first team to play the Super Bowl in their home stadium as an expected Super Bowl contender. However the Falcons were riddled with injuries, losing 7 starters to IR with the Falcons stumbling to a 1–4 start.

Following a 31–17 loss to the Saints in Week 12, the Falcons fell to 4–7 and failed to improve on their 10–6 campaign from 2017. With a 34–20 loss to the Green Bay Packers, the Falcons fell to 4–9 and suffered their first losing season since the 2014 season. Despite beating the Arizona Cardinals 40–14 in Week 15, the Falcons were eliminated from playoff contention for the first time since 2015 after the Minnesota Vikings defeated the Miami Dolphins 41–17. However, they were able to end their season with a 3 game win streak to finish 7–9.

2018 Washington Redskins season

The 2018 season was the Washington Redskins' 87th in the National Football League and their fifth under head coach Jay Gruden. This is the first season since 2011 that quarterback Kirk Cousins is not on the roster, as he joined the Minnesota Vikings in the offseason as a free agent.

The team finished with the same record from the previous season, 7–9, and missed the playoffs for the third straight season. Despite a 6–3 start which was their best since 2008 plus leading the NFC East, the team suffered 4 straight losses after the team lost their starting quarterback Alex Smith to a leg injury in their Week 11 loss to the Houston Texans. This resulted in a quarterback hangover. First, it forced Colt McCoy into the starting role in Weeks 12 and 13 before suffering a fractured fibula in a 28–13 loss to the Philadelphia Eagles in Week 13, thus forcing the Redskins to start journeyman quarterback Mark Sanchez in Week 14 before starting another journeyman quarterback Josh Johnson against the Jacksonville Jaguars after benching Sanchez at halftime against the New York Giants. After the Alex Smith injury, the Redskins finished the last 7 games of the season with a record of 1–6. They were eliminated from playoff contention by a 25–16 loss to the Titans, and wins by the Eagles and Vikings in Week 16. The team's season ended with 25 players on injured reserve, which were a league high.

American football on Thanksgiving

American football is one of the many traditions in American culture that is associated with Thanksgiving Day. Virtually every level of football, from amateur and high school to college and the NFL (including the CFL on Canadian Thanksgiving), plays football on Thanksgiving Day (Thursday) or the immediately following holiday weekend (Friday, Saturday, and Sunday).

Bounty Bowl

The Bounty Bowl was the name given to two NFL games held in 1989 between the Philadelphia Eagles and Dallas Cowboys. The first, a 1989 Thanksgiving Day game in Dallas, was noted for allegations that the Eagles put a $200 bounty on Cowboys kicker Luis Zendejas, who had been cut by Philadelphia earlier that season. The second was a rematch held two weeks later in Philadelphia. The Eagles, favored to win both games, swept the series.

Butt fumble

The butt fumble was a notable American football play from a National Football League (NFL) game played on Thanksgiving Day, November 22, 2012, between the New York Jets and New England Patriots.

In front of the home crowd of 79,000 at MetLife Stadium and a primetime television audience of 20 million, Jets quarterback Mark Sanchez collided with the rear end of his teammate Brandon Moore and fumbled the ball, which was recovered by the Patriots' Steve Gregory and returned for a touchdown. The play was the centerpiece of a disastrous sequence in the second quarter, as the Jets lost three fumbles and the Patriots scored three touchdowns—one each on offense, defense, and special teams—all in the span of 52 seconds of game time; in that quarter, the Jets held the ball for over 12 minutes (out of 15), but were outscored 35–3. The game and the so-called "butt fumble" in particular are remembered as the low point of the Jets' 2012 season. The butt fumble was ranked as the most embarrassing moment in Jets history by ESPN.

Buy Nothing Day

Buy Nothing Day (BND) is an international day of protest against consumerism. In North America, the United Kingdom, Finland and Sweden, Buy Nothing Day is held the day after U.S. Thanksgiving, concurrent to Black Friday; elsewhere, it is held the following day, which is the last Saturday in November. Buy Nothing Day was founded in Vancouver by artist Ted Dave and subsequently promoted by Adbusters, based in Canada.

The first Buy Nothing Day was organized in Canada in September 1992 "as a day for society to examine the issue of overconsumption." In 1997, it was moved to the Friday after American Thanksgiving, also called "Black Friday", which is one of the ten busiest shopping days in the United States. In 2000, some advertisements by Adbusters promoting Buy Nothing Day were denied advertising time by almost all major television networks except for CNN. Soon, campaigns started appearing in the United States, the United Kingdom, Israel, Austria, Germany, New Zealand, Japan, the Netherlands, France, Norway and Sweden. Participation now includes more than 65 nations.

Detroit Lions

The Detroit Lions are a professional American football team based in Detroit, Michigan. The Lions compete in the National Football League (NFL) as a member club of the league's National Football Conference (NFC) North division. The team plays its home games at Ford Field in Downtown Detroit.

Originally based in Portsmouth, Ohio and called the Portsmouth Spartans, the team formally joined the NFL on July 12, 1930 and began play in the 1930 season. Despite success within the NFL, they could not survive in Portsmouth, then the NFL's smallest city. The team was purchased and relocated to Detroit for the 1934 season.

The Lions have won four NFL championships, tied for 9th overall in total championships among all 32 NFL franchises; however, their last was in 1957, which gives the club the second-longest NFL championship drought behind the Arizona Cardinals. They are one of four current teams and the only NFC team to have not yet played in the Super Bowl. They are also the only franchise to have been in operation for all 52 seasons of the Super Bowl era without having appeared in one (the Cleveland Browns were not in operation for the 1996 to 1998 seasons).

English–Latin football rivalry

Since 1887, two of the oldest public schools in the United States, the Boston Latin School and English High School of Boston, have faced off in an annual football rivalry which now takes place on Thanksgiving day at Harvard Stadium. The rivalry is the oldest continuous high school football rivalry in the U.S, and fifth longest all time behind Phillips Academy versus Phillips Exeter Academy, Wellesley, Massachusetts versus Needham, Massachusetts, New London, Connecticut versus Norwich Free Academy in Norwich, Connecticut, and Lawrenceville School vs. The Hill School.

Galloping Gobbler

The name Galloping Gobbler can refer to:

The annual Turkey Trot in Fort Wayne, Indiana

A most valuable player award given for NFL Thanksgiving games, see NFL on Thanksgiving Day#Game MVPs

Joe McConnell

Joseph Fredrick McConnell (March 10, 1939 – April 8, 2018) was an American sports announcer.

Mourt's Relation

The booklet Mourt's Relation (full title: A Relation or Journal of the Beginning and Proceedings of the English Plantation Settled at Plimoth in New England) was written primarily by Edward Winslow, although William Bradford appears to have written most of the first section. It was written between November 1620 and November 1621 and describes in detail what happened from the landing of the Mayflower Pilgrims on Cape Cod in Provincetown Harbor through their exploring and eventual settling of Plymouth Colony. The book describes their relations with the surrounding Native Americans, up to what is commonly called the first Thanksgiving and the arrival of the ship Fortune in November 1621. Mourt's Relation was first published and sold by John Bellamy in London in 1622. This significant tract has often been erroneously cited as "by George Morton, sometimes called George Mourt" (hence the title Mourt's Relation).

Morton was an English Puritan Separatist who had moved to Leiden, Holland. He stayed behind when the first settlers left for Plymouth, Massachusetts, but he continued to orchestrate business affairs in Europe and London for their cause—presumably arranging for the publication of and perhaps helping write Mourt's Relation. In 1623, Morton himself emigrated to the Plymouth Colony with his wife Juliana, the sister of Governor William Bradford's wife Alice. But George Morton didn't survive long in the New World; he died the following year in 1624.

George Morton's son Nathaniel Morton became the clerk of Plymouth Colony, a close adviser to his uncle Governor William Bradford who raised him after the death of his father, and the author of the influential early history of the Plymouth Colony "New England's Memorial." A four-decade long tradition at The Wall Street Journal is to reprint the section on the "first Thanksgiving" on the Wednesday before the holiday.

The booklet was summarized by other publications without the now-familiar Thanksgiving story, but the original booklet appeared to be lost or forgotten by the eighteenth century. A copy was rediscovered in Philadelphia in 1820, with the first full reprinting in 1841. In a footnote, editor Alexander Young was the first person to identify the 1621 feast as "the first Thanksgiving."

National Day of Mourning (United States protest)

The National Day of Mourning is an annual protest organized since 1970 by Native Americans of New England on the fourth Thursday of November, the same day as Thanksgiving in the United States. It coincides with an unrelated similar protest, Unthanksgiving Day, held on the West Coast.

The organizers consider the national holiday of Thanksgiving Day as a reminder of the democide and continued suffering of the Native American peoples. Participants in the National Day of Mourning honor Native ancestors and the struggles of Native peoples to survive today. They want to educate Americans about history. The event was organized in a period of Native American activism and general cultural protests. The protest is organized by the United American Indians of New England (UAINE). Since it was first organized, social changes have resulted in major revisions to the portrayal of United States history, the government's and settlers' relations with Native American peoples, and renewed appreciation for Native American culture.

National Thanksgiving Proclamation

The National Thanksgiving Proclamation was the first formal proclamation of Thanksgiving in the United States. President George Washington declared Thursday, November 26, 1789 as a day of public thanksgiving and prayer.

Robert Hoernschemeyer

Robert James "Hunchy" Hoernschemeyer (September 25, 1925 – June 18, 1980) was an American football player. A native of Cincinnati, he played college football as a halfback for the Indiana Hoosiers football in 1943 and 1944 and as a quarterback for the Navy Midshipmen football team in 1945. He led the NCAA in both total offense and passing yards during the 1943 season.

He played professional football for ten years in the All-America Football Conference (AAFC) and National Football League (NFL). He played for the Chicago Rockets and Brooklyn Dodgers from 1946 to 1948 and was among the AAFC leaders in multiple offensive categories and, when the league folded in 1950, Hoernschemeyer held the league record with 6,218 yards of total offense (4,109 passing yards and 2,109 rushing yards). He then played six years in the NFL with the Detroit Lions from 1950 to 1955. He was the Lions' leading rusher for four consecutive years and was a member of the club's 1952 and 1953 NFL championship teams. He played in the 1952 and 1953 Pro Bowls and was selected as a second-team All-Pro player in 1952 and 1953.

Unthanksgiving Day

Unthanksgiving Day (or Un-Thanksgiving Day), also known as The Indigenous Peoples Sunrise Ceremony, is an event held on Alcatraz Island in San Francisco Bay to honor the indigenous peoples of the Americas and promote their rights. It coincides with a similar protest, the National Day of Mourning, held in Massachusetts. Held annually since 1975, the Alcatraz ceremony commemorates the protest event of 1969, where the Alcatraz-Red Power Movement (ARPM) occupied the island. Currently the annual ceremony is organized by the International Indian Treaty Council and American Indian Contemporary Arts.The event is designed to commemorate the survival of Native American peoples following the settlement of Europeans in the Western Hemisphere, which led to genocide and enormous economic and cultural losses among the indigenous from disease, warfare and social disruption. Organizers want it to serve in contrast to the traditional American Thanksgiving story in which the Pilgrims supposedly shared a meal with Native Americans.

This page is based on a Wikipedia article written by authors (here).
Text is available under the CC BY-SA 3.0 license; additional terms may apply.
Images, videos and audio are available under their respective licenses.