A NATO summit is a summit meeting that is regarded as a periodic opportunity for Heads of State and Heads of Government of NATO member countries to evaluate and provide strategic direction for Alliance activities.
NATO summits are not regular meetings like the more frequent NATO ministerial meetings, but rather are important junctures in the alliance's decision-making process on the highest level. Summits are often used to introduce new policy, invite new members into the alliance, launch major new initiatives, and build partnerships with non-NATO countries.
From the founding of NATO in 1949, there have been a total of thirty NATO summits; the last of which was the 2018 Brussels summit held in July 2018. Only the traditional summits have received an official number, thereby excluding the exceptional summit of 2001 in NATO headquarters.
|1977||10–11 May||United Kingdom||London|
|1978||30–31 May||United States||Washington, D.C.|
|1982||10 June||West Germany||Bonn|
|1990||5–6 July||United Kingdom||London|
|1999||23–25 April||United States||Washington, D.C.|
|2002||21–22 November||Czech Republic||Prague|
|2009||2–3 April||France/ Germany||Strasbourg/Kehl|
|2012||20–21 May||United States||Chicago|
|2014||4–5 September||United Kingdom||Newport/Cardiff|
Source: NATO, Summits & Ministerial Meetings (outdated)
The 1985 Brussels summit was the 7th NATO summit bringing the leaders of member nations together at the same time. The formal sessions and informal meetings in Brussels, Belgium took place on November 21, 1985. This event was only the seventh meeting of the NATO heads of state following the ceremonial signing of the North Atlantic Treaty on April 4, 1949.1991 Rome summit
The 1991 Rome summit was the 12th NATO summit bringing the leaders of member nations together at the same time. The formal sessions and informal meetings in Rome, Italy took place on November 7–8, 1991.1994 Brussels summit
The 1994 Brussels summit was the 13th NATO summit bringing the leaders of member nations together at the same time. The formal sessions and informal meetings in Brussels, Belgium took place on 10–11 January 1994.1997 Madrid summit
The 1997 Madrid summit was a NATO summit held in Madrid, Spain from 8–9 July 1997. It was the 15th NATO summit and the second in 1997, the previous one being held in Paris. The summit was notable for inviting three new members, Hungary, Poland, and the Czech Republic to join the alliance.1999 Washington summit
The 1999 Washington summit was the 16th NATO summit and was held in Washington, D.C. on April 24–25, 1999.
Held at the height of the NATO bombing of Yugoslavia, the summit commemorated the fiftieth anniversary of NATO and reiterated the "determination to put an end to the repressive actions" by Serbian President Milošević against the local ethnic Albanian population in Kosovo. It was also the first summit in which three new NATO members (the Czech Republic, Hungary, and Poland) participated.
The Membership Action Plan, an important part of NATO's Open Door Policy, was adopted and a revised version of the Strategic Concept was made public. The European Security and Defence Identity within NATO was also enhanced; the Defence Capabilities Initiative and the Weapons of Mass Destruction Initiative was launched; the Partnership for Peace, the Euro-Atlantic Partnership Council, and the Mediterranean Dialogue was strengthened.2004 Istanbul summit
The 2004 Istanbul summit was held in Istanbul, Turkey from June 28 to June 29, 2004. It was the 17th NATO summit in which NATO's Heads of State and Governments met to make formal decisions about security topics. In general, the summit is seen as a continuation of the transformation process that began in the 2002 Prague summit, which hoped to create a shift from a Cold War alliance against Soviet aggression to a 21st-century coalition against new and out-of-area security threats. The summit consisted of four meetings.
NATO members welcomed seven new alliance members during the North Atlantic Council meeting, decided to expand the alliance's presence in the War in Afghanistan and to end its presence in Bosnia, agreed to assist Iraq with training, launched a new partnership initiative and adopted measures to improve NATO's operational capabilities.The NATO-Russia Council meeting was mostly noted by the absence of both Russian president Vladimir Putin and of any progress concerning the ratification of the adapted CFE treaty or the withdrawal of Russian troops from Georgia and Moldova. NATO leaders further welcomed progress made by Ukraine towards membership in the NATO-Ukraine Commission meeting and discussed some general and mostly symbolic topics with its non-NATO counterparts during the Euro-Atlantic Partnership Council meeting.Due to Turkish government fears of a terrorist attack, security measures during the summit were tight. Demonstrators from around the world gathered to protest against NATO or the American foreign policy under the George W. Bush Administration, while the summit itself was blown off the front pages of the world press by the unexpected transfer of Iraqi sovereignty, coinciding with the first day of the NATO summit on June 28.2006 Riga summit
The 2006 Riga summit or the 19th NATO Summit was a NATO summit held in the Olympic Sports Centre, Riga, Latvia from 28 to 29 November 2006. The most important topics discussed were the War in Afghanistan and the future role and borders of the alliance. Further, the summit focused on the alliance's continued transformation, taking stock of what has been accomplished since the 2002 Prague Summit. NATO also committed itself to extend further membership invitations in the upcoming 2008 Bucharest Summit. This summit was the first NATO summit held on territory of a former USSR republic.2008 Bucharest summit
The 2008 Bucharest Summit or the 20th NATO Summit was a NATO summit organized in the Palace of the Parliament, Bucharest, Romania on 2 – 4 April 2008. Among other business, Croatia and Albania were invited to join the alliance. Macedonia was not invited due to its ongoing naming dispute with Greece. Georgia and Ukraine had hoped to join the NATO Membership Action Plan, but the NATO members decided to review their request in December 2008.The fear that NATO is evolving into a worldwide coalition of the willing, as such increasing polarisation and militarization in international affairs, sparked protests at NATO's HQ in Brussels two weeks before the summit, and in Bucharest. Protesters targeted the renewed determination of NATO to use nuclear weapons and NATO's backing of the US anti-missile shield.2009 Strasbourg–Kehl summit
The 2009 Strasbourg–Kehl Summit was a NATO summit of heads of state and heads of government held in Strasbourg, France, and in Kehl and Baden-Baden, Germany, on 3–4 April 2009. The summit marked the 60th anniversary of the establishment of North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO). Expected to be primarily a celebratory 60th-anniversary event, the agenda included a number of urgent topics commanding the NATO leaders' attention.2010 Lisbon summit
The 2010 Lisbon summit was a meeting of the heads of state and heads of government of NATO held in Lisbon, Portugal, on 19 and 20 November 2010.
The member states adopted a new "Strategic Concept", the alliance's new ten-year plan following the expiration of the previous plan adopted at the 1999 Washington summit. In addition to accepting the Strategic Concept that addressed the alliance's modern challenges such as terrorism and cyber attacks, the members agreed to develop a mutual missile defense system. The members met with President of Afghanistan Hamid Karzai regarding the group's operations in the country. They agreed to gradually withdraw combat forces from the country with a completion date of 2014. NATO reaffirmed their commitment to remain in Afghanistan to provide training and advice to Afghan forces and police.2012 Chicago summit
The 2012 Chicago Summit was a meeting of the heads of state and heads of government of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO), held in Chicago, Illinois, on May 20 and 21 of 2012. This was the first time ever that a NATO summit was held in the United States outside of the nation's capital, Washington, D.C. The event was originally scheduled to coincide and be held after the 2012 G8 summit in Chicago as well, but the G8 summit was later rescheduled to be held at Camp David.2014 Wales summit
The 2014 Wales Summit of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) was a meeting of the heads of state and heads of government of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization, held in Newport, Wales on 4 and 5 September 2014. Such summits are sporadically held, and allow leaders and officials from NATO Allies to discuss current issues of mutual concern and to plan strategic activities. The 2014 summit has been described by US Navy Admiral James Stavridis as the most important since the fall of the Berlin Wall.2016 Warsaw summit
The 2016 Warsaw Summit of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) was the 27th formal meeting of the heads of state and heads of government of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization, held at the National Stadium in Warsaw, Poland, on 8 and 9 July 2016.2018 Brussels summit
The 2018 Brussels Summit of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) was the 29th formal meeting of the heads of state and heads of government of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization, held in Brussels, Belgium, on 11 and 12 July 2018.December 1989 Brussels summit
The December 1989 NATO summit was a summit held for the North Atlantic Treaty Organization. The summit was held in Brussels, Belgium. This summit was the tenth NATO summit to bring world leaders from NATO together. Manfred Wörner headed the summit, and there were sixteen NATO members when the summit was held.List of diplomatic missions in Latvia
This page lists diplomatic missions resident in Latvia. At present, the capital city of Riga hosts 36 embassies. Several other countries have ambassadors accredited to Latvia, with most being resident in Stockholm, Moscow, Warsaw or other Nordic capitals.
In late-November 2006, Riga hosted the 19th NATO Summit, significantly boosting the diplomatic profile of the country.Occupy Chicago
Occupy Chicago was an ongoing collaboration that included peaceful protests and demonstrations against economic inequality, corporate greed and the influence of corporations and lobbyists on government which began in Chicago on September 24, 2011. The protests began in solidarity with the Occupy Wall Street protests in New York.On October 10, 2011, protesters from Occupy Chicago joined with members of the "Stand Up Chicago" coalition and marched through downtown Chicago, with numbers estimated at around 3,000.Ortaköy
Ortaköy (literally Middle Village in Turkish) in Greek known as Agios Fokas (Άγιος Φωκάς) in the Byzantine period and Mesachorion (Μεσαχώριον, meaning "middle village") later, is a neighbourhood, formerly a small village, within the Beşiktaş district of Istanbul, Turkey, located in the middle of the European bank of the Bosphorus.
Ortaköy was a cosmopolitan area during the Ottoman era and the first decades of the Turkish Republic, with communities of Turks, Greeks, Armenians and Jews. Today the neighbourhood still hosts many different religious (Muslim, Jewish, Orthodox, and other Christian) structures. It is also a popular spot for locals and tourists alike, with its art galleries, night clubs, cafés, bars, and restaurants.
The Neo-Baroque style Ortaköy Mosque is a beautifully ornate structure, right on the jetty of Ortaköy, bordering the waters of the Bosphorus, and thus highly visible from the passing boats.
Several reputable schools, such as Kabataş Erkek Lisesi and Galatasaray University, are located in Ortaköy. The European pylon of the Bosphorus Bridge, one of the two bridges that connect the European and Asian banks of İstanbul, is also situated in this neighbourhood.
Ortaköy was the site of George W. Bush's speech during the NATO Summit of 2004, which he delivered at Galatasaray University.Partnership for Peace
The Partnership for Peace (PfP) is a North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) program aimed at creating trust between NATO and other states in Europe and the former Soviet Union; 21 states are members. It was first discussed by the Bulgarian Society Novae, after being proposed as an American initiative at the meeting of NATO defense ministers in Travemünde, Germany, on October 20–21, 1993, and formally launched on January 10–11, 1994 NATO summit in Brussels, Belgium. According to declassified U.S. State Department records, President Bill Clinton characterized the Partnership for Peace as a "track that will lead to NATO membership" and that "does not draw another line dividing Europe a few hundred miles to the east."