NASDAQ

The Nasdaq Stock Market (/ˈnæzˌdæk/ (listen), also known as Nasdaq) is an American stock exchange. It is the second-largest stock exchange in the world by market capitalization, behind only the New York Stock Exchange located in the same city.[2] The exchange platform is owned by Nasdaq, Inc.,[3] which also owns the Nasdaq Nordic (formerly known as OMX) and Nasdaq Baltic stock market network and several U.S. stock and options exchanges

Nasdaq
Nasdaq logo
TypeStock exchange
LocationOne Liberty Plaza
165 Broadway, New York City, New York, U.S.
FoundedFebruary 4, 1971
OwnerNasdaq, Inc.
CurrencyUnited States Dollar
No. of listings3,433 (June 2018)[1]
Market capIncrease $10 trillion
Websitebusiness.nasdaq.com

History

1971–1999

"Nasdaq" was initially an acronym for the National Association of Securities Dealers Automated Quotations.[4] It was founded in 1971 by the National Association of Securities Dealers (NASD),[5] which divested itself of Nasdaq in a series of sales in 2000 and 2001. The Nasdaq Stock Market is owned and operated by Nasdaq, Inc., the stock of which was listed on its own securities exchange on July 2, 2002, under the ticker symbol NDAQ.

NASDAQ
Former logo used from 1971 to 2014

The Nasdaq Stock Market began trading on February 8, 1971. It was the world's first electronic stock market.[5] At first, it was merely a “quotation system” and did not provide a way to perform electronic trades.[6] The Nasdaq Stock Market helped lower the spread (the difference between the bid price and the ask price of the stock) but was unpopular among brokerages which made much of their money on the spread.

The NASDAQ Stock Market eventually assumed the majority of major trades that had been executed by the over-the-counter (OTC) system of trading, but there are still many securities traded in this fashion. As late as 1987, the Nasdaq exchange was still commonly referred to as "OTC" in media reports[7] and also in the monthly Stock Guides (stock guides and procedures) issued by Standard & Poor's Corporation.

Over the years, the Nasdaq Stock Market became more of a stock market by adding trade and volume reporting and automated trading systems. It was also the first stock market in the United States to trade online, highlighting Nasdaq-traded companies and closing with the declaration that the Nasdaq Stock Market is "the stock market for the next hundred years". The Nasdaq Stock Market attracted new growth companies, including Microsoft, Apple, Cisco, Oracle and Dell, and it helped modernize the IPO.

Its main index is the NASDAQ Composite, which has been published since its inception. However, its exchange-traded fund tracks the large-cap NASDAQ-100 index, which was introduced in 1985 alongside the NASDAQ Financial-100 Index, which tracks the largest 100 companies in terms of market capitalization.

In 1992, the Nasdaq Stock Market joined with the London Stock Exchange to form the first intercontinental linkage of securities markets.[8] The National Association of Securities Dealers spun off the Nasdaq Stock Market in 2000 to form a publicly traded company.

Nasdaq Composite dot-com bubble
The NASDAQ Composite index spiked in the late 1990s and then fell sharply as a result of the dot-com bubble.

2000–present

NASDAQ Market Site 201506
Studio

On March 10, 2000, the NASDAQ Composite peaked at 5,132.52, but fell to 3,227 by April 17,[9] and in the following 30 months fell 78% from its peak.[10]

In 2006, the status of the Nasdaq Stock Market was changed from a stock market to a licensed national securities exchange.[11]

In 2007, Nasdaq merged with OMX, a leading exchange operator in the Nordic countries, expanded its global footprint, and changed its name to the NASDAQ OMX Group.[12]

To qualify for listing on the exchange, a company must be registered with the United States Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC), must have at least three market makers (financial firms that act as brokers or dealers for specific securities) and must meet minimum requirements for assets, capital, public shares, and shareholders.

In February 2011, in the wake of an announced merger of NYSE Euronext with Deutsche Börse, speculation developed that NASDAQ OMX and Intercontinental Exchange (ICE) could mount a counter-bid of their own for NYSE. NASDAQ OMX could be looking to acquire the American exchange's cash equities business, ICE the derivatives business. At the time, "NYSE Euronext’s market value was $9.75 billion. Nasdaq was valued at $5.78 billion, while ICE was valued at $9.45 billion."[13] Late in the month, Nasdaq was reported to be considering asking either ICE or the Chicago Mercantile Exchange to join in what would probably have to be, if it proceeded, an $11–12 billion counterbid.[14]

The European Association of Securities Dealers Automatic Quotation System (EASDAQ) was founded as a European equivalent to the Nasdaq Stock Market. It was purchased by NASDAQ in 2001 and became NASDAQ Europe. Operations were shut down, however, as a result of the burst of the dot-com bubble. In 2007, NASDAQ Europe was revived as Equiduct, and is currently operating under Börse Berlin.[15]

On June 18, 2012, Nasdaq OMX became a founding member of the United Nations Sustainable Stock Exchanges initiative on the eve of the United Nations Conference on Sustainable Development (Rio+20).[16]

In November 2016, Nasdaq Chief Operating Officer Adena Friedman was promoted to the role of CEO, becoming the first woman to run a major exchange in the U.S.[17] In 2016, Nasdaq earned $272 million in listings-related revenues.[18]

In October 2018, the SEC ruled that the NYSE and Nasdaq did not justify the continued price increases when selling market data.[19][20][21]

Quote availability

Nasdaq quotes are available at three levels:

  • Level 1 shows the highest bid and lowest ask—inside quote.
  • Level 2 shows all public quotes of market makers together with information of market dealers wishing to buy or sell stock and recently executed orders.[22]
  • Level 3 is used by the market makers and allows them to enter their quotes and execute orders.[23]

Trading schedule

The Nasdaq Stock Market sessions eastern time are:

4:00 am to 9:30 am premarket session

9:30 am to 4:00 pm normal trading session

4:00 pm to 8:00 pm postmarket session[24]

The Nasdaq Stock Market averages about 253 trading days per year.

Market tiers

The Nasdaq Stock Market has three different market tiers:

  • Capital Market (small cap) is an equity market for companies that have relatively small levels of market capitalization. Listing requirements for such "small cap" companies are less stringent than for other Nasdaq markets that list larger companies with significantly higher market capitalization.[25]
  • Global Market (mid cap) is made up of stocks that represent the Nasdaq Global Market. The Global Market consists of 1,450 stocks that meet Nasdaq's strict financial and liquidity requirements, and corporate governance standards. The Global Market is less exclusive than the Global Select Market.[26]
  • Global Select Market (NASDAQ-GS large cap) is a market capitalization-weighted index made up of US-based and international stocks that represent the Global Select Market Composite. The Global Select Market consists of 1,200 stocks that meet Nasdaq's strict financial and liquidity requirements and corporate governance standards. The Global Select Market is more exclusive than the Global Market. Every October, the Nasdaq Listing Qualifications Department reviews the Global Market Composite to determine if any of its stocks have become eligible for listing on the Global Select Market.[27][28]

Average annualized growth rate

As of June 2015, the Nasdaq Stock Market had an average annualized growth rate of 9.24% since its opening in February 1971. Since the end of the recession in June 2009 however, it has increased by 18.29% per year.[29]

See also

References

  1. ^ "Nasdaq Companies". Archived from the original on February 13, 2011. Retrieved December 1, 2018.
  2. ^ "Monthly Reports". World-Exchanges.org. World Federation of Exchanges. Archived from the original on August 17, 2014. Retrieved June 3, 2015.
  3. ^ "Nasdaq – Business Solutions & Services". Business.nasdaq.com. Archived from the original on October 20, 2016. Retrieved October 23, 2016.
  4. ^ Frequently Asked Questions. NASDAQ.com. NASDAQ, n.d. Web. December 23, 2001. Archived February 13, 2011, at WebCite
  5. ^ a b Terrell, Ellen. "History of the American and Nasdaq Stock Exchanges". LOC.gov. Library of Congress Business Reference Services. Archived from the original on April 14, 2013. Retrieved April 27, 2013.
  6. ^ "Nasdaq.com Frequently Asked Questions". Nasdaq.com. Retrieved October 23, 2016.
  7. ^ Gilpin, Kenneth N. (July 3, 1987). "Company News: An Erratic Quarter for Stock Markets". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Archived from the original on August 1, 2017. Retrieved February 1, 2017.
  8. ^ Odekon, Mehmet (March 17, 2015). Booms and Busts: An Encyclopedia of Economic History from the First Stock Market Crash of 1792 to the Current Global Economic Crisis: An Encyclopedia of Economic History from the First Stock Market Crash of 1792 to the Current Global Economic Crisis. Routledge. ISBN 9781317475750. Archived from the original on August 3, 2017.
  9. ^ "NASDAQ Composite daily index". Archived from the original on November 22, 2010.
  10. ^ Glassman, James K. (February 11, 2015). "3 Lessons for Investors From the Tech Bubble". Kiplinger's Personal Finance. Archived from the original on April 15, 2017.
  11. ^ Walsh, Michelle. "Nasdaq Stock Market Becomes A National Securities Exchange; Changes Market Designations". Archived from the original on December 17, 2013.
  12. ^ Lucchetti, Aaron; MacDonald, Alistair (May 26, 2007). "Nasdaq Lands OMX for $3.7 Billion; Are More Merger Deals on the Way?". Wall Street Journal. ISSN 0099-9660. Archived from the original on July 31, 2017. Retrieved July 21, 2017.
  13. ^ De la Merced, Michael J., "Nasdaq and ICE Hold Talks Over Potential N.Y.S.E. Bid" Archived January 20, 2012, at the Wayback Machine., The New York Times Dealbook, February 18, 2011, 12:46 pm. Retrieved February 18, 2011.
  14. ^ Fraser, Michelle E., "Nasdaq May Ask CME or ICE for Help in NYSE Counterbid, WSJ Says" Archived July 29, 2014, at the Wayback Machine., Bloomberg, February 26, 2011 9:30 AM ET. Retrieved March 1, 2011.
  15. ^ "Easdaq Makes A Comeback As Equiduct". Archived from the original on February 13, 2011.
  16. ^ "Sustainable Stock Exchanges Initiative: Exchanges listing over 4,600 companies commit to promoting sustainability". Reuters.com. Reuters. Archived from the original on May 13, 2014. Retrieved May 13, 2014.
  17. ^ "Nasdaq's New CEO Attributes Her Success to an 'Eclectic' Career Path". Fortune. November 15, 2016. Archived from the original on November 17, 2016. Retrieved November 17, 2016.
  18. ^ Osipovich, Alexander (October 26, 2017). "Startup Exchange Cleared to Take on NYSE, Nasdaq for Stock Listings". Wall Street Journal. New York City, United States. Archived from the original on October 26, 2017. Retrieved October 26, 2017.
  19. ^ Alexander Osipovich; Dave Michaels; Gretchen Morgenson. "SEC Ruling Takes Aim at Stock-Exchange Profits". Wall Street Journal. Retrieved 18 October 2018.
  20. ^ "SEC rules NYSE and Nasdaq did not justify data fee increases". Financial Times. Retrieved 18 October 2018.
  21. ^ Michaels, Dave (2018-10-19). "NYSE, Nasdaq Take It on the Chin in Washington". Wall Street Journal. ISSN 0099-9660. Retrieved 2018-10-19.
  22. ^ "Order Book, Level 2 Market Data, and Depth of Market". Daytrading. About.com. Archived from the original on February 13, 2011.
  23. ^ "Nasdaq Level III Quote". Archived from the original on April 13, 2014.
  24. ^ "Nasdaq Trading Schedule". Nasdaq.com. Archived from the original on April 17, 2014. Retrieved April 20, 2014.
  25. ^ "Definition of 'Nasdaq SmallCap Market', now known as Nasdaq Capital Market". Investopedia.com. Archived from the original on August 4, 2013. Retrieved August 25, 2013.
  26. ^ "Definition of 'Nasdaq Global Market Composite'". Investopedia.com. Archived from the original on September 17, 2013. Retrieved August 25, 2013.
  27. ^ "Definition of 'Nasdaq Global Select Market Composite'". Investopedia.com. Archived from the original on October 4, 2013. Retrieved August 25, 2013.
  28. ^ Pinto, Jerald E.; Henry, Elaine; Robinson, Thomas R.; Stowe, John D. (2010). Equity Asset Valuation. CFA Institute Investment Series. 27 (2 ed.). John Wiley & Sons. p. 6. ISBN 9780470579657. Archived from the original on May 10, 2013. Retrieved March 4, 2013. [...] NASDAQ-GS stands for 'Nasdaq Global Select Market,' [...]
  29. ^ "Measuring Worth – Measures of worth, inflation rates, saving calculator, relative value, worth of a dollar, worth of a pound, purchasing power, gold prices, GDP, history of wages, average wage". measuringworth.com. Archived from the original on October 4, 2015. Retrieved October 2, 2015.

External links

21st Century Fox

Twenty-First Century Fox, Inc., doing business as 21st Century Fox, is an American multinational mass media corporation that is based in Midtown Manhattan, New York City. It is one of the two companies formed from the 2013 spin-off of the publishing assets of News Corporation, as founded by Rupert Murdoch in 1979.

21st Century Fox is the legal successor to News Corporation dealing primarily in the film and television industries. It is currently the United States' fourth-largest media conglomerate after The Walt Disney Company, Comcast and AT&T. The other company, the "new" News Corporation, holds Murdoch's print interests and other media assets in Australia (both owned by him and his family via a family trust with 39% interest in each). Murdoch is co-executive chairman, while his sons Lachlan Murdoch and James Murdoch are co-executive chairman and CEO, respectively.

21st Century Fox's assets include the Fox Entertainment Group—owners of the 20th Century Fox film studio (the company's partial namesake) and a majority stake in National Geographic Partners—the commercial media arm of the National Geographic Society, among other assets. It also has significant foreign operations, including the prominent Indian television channel operator Star India. The company ranked No. 109 in the 2018 Fortune 500 list of the largest United States corporations by total revenue.On July 27, 2018, 21st Century Fox shareholders agreed to sell the company to The Walt Disney Company for $71.3 billion, following the spin-off of certain businesses. The sale will include key assets such as 20th Century Fox, FX Networks, National Geographic Partners, and its international networks. Assets such as the Fox television network, Fox Television Stations, and Fox News Channel will be spun off into a new company owned by current 21st Century Fox shareholders, which is called Fox Corporation, while the entirety of Sky plc (a British media group which Fox held a stake in) was acquired by Comcast following a bidding war with Fox. The purchase is expected to be completed by March 2019.

Activision Blizzard

Activision Blizzard, Inc. is an American video game and film holding company based in Santa Monica, California. The company was founded in July 2008 through the merger of Activision and Vivendi Games, the company is traded on the NASDAQ stock exchange under the ticker symbol NASDAQ: ATVI, and since 2015 has been one of the stocks that make up the S&P 500. Activision Blizzard currently includes five business units: Activision, Blizzard Entertainment, Major League Gaming, Activision Blizzard Studios, and King.The company owns and operates additional studios under an independent studios model, including Treyarch, Infinity Ward, High Moon Studios and Toys for Bob, and its titles have broken a number of release records. Call of Duty: Black Ops III grossed $550 million in worldwide sales during its opening weekend in 2015, making it the biggest entertainment launch of the year. The company's franchises also include Activision's Call of Duty, and Skylanders; Blizzard Entertainment's World of Warcraft, StarCraft, Diablo, Hearthstone, Heroes of the Storm, and Overwatch; and King's Candy Crush Saga, Pet Rescue Saga, and Farm Heroes Saga. As of March 2018, it is the largest game company in the Americas and Europe in terms of revenue and market capitalization.

Alphabet Inc.

Alphabet Inc. is an American multinational conglomerate headquartered in Mountain View, California. It was created through a corporate restructuring of Google on October 2, 2015, and became the parent company of Google and several former Google subsidiaries. The two founders of Google assumed executive roles in the new company, with Larry Page serving as CEO and Sergey Brin as president.Alphabet's portfolio encompasses several industries, including technology, life sciences, investment capital, and research. Some of its subsidiaries include Google, Calico, Chronicle, GV, CapitalG, Verily, Waymo, X, Loon and Google Fiber. Some of the subsidiaries of Alphabet have altered their names since leaving Google and becoming part of the new parent company—Google Ventures becoming GV, Google Life Sciences becoming Verily and Google X becoming just X. Following the restructuring, Page became CEO of Alphabet and Sundar Pichai took his position as CEO of Google. Shares of Google's stock have been converted into Alphabet stock, which trade under Google's former ticker symbols of "GOOG" and "GOOGL". As of 2018, Alphabet is ranked No. 22 on the Fortune 500 rankings of the largest United States corporations by total revenue.The establishment of Alphabet was prompted by a desire to make the core Google Internet services business "cleaner and more accountable" while allowing greater autonomy to group companies that operate in businesses other than Internet services.

Amgen

Amgen Inc. (formerly Applied Molecular Genetics Inc.) is an American multinational biopharmaceutical company headquartered in Thousand Oaks, California. In 2013, the company's largest selling product lines were Neulasta/Neupogen, two closely related drugs used to prevent infections in patients undergoing cancer chemotherapy; and Enbrel, a tumor necrosis factor blocker used in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis and other autoimmune diseases. Other products include Epogen, Aranesp, Sensipar/Mimpara, Nplate, Vectibix, Prolia and XGEVA.

Amgen, which is one of the world's largest biotechnology companies, was established in Newbury Park, California in 1980, where its world headquarters are located. It had 5,125 employees in Thousand Oaks as of 2017, which made up 7.5% of the city's total employment. It is the largest employer in Ventura County. Amgen has attracted hundreds of scientists to the Newbury Park area. Focused on the cutting edge of molecular biology and biochemistry, its goal is to provide a healthcare business based on recombinant DNA technology.

Charter Communications

Charter Communications, Inc. is an American telecommunications company that offers its services to consumers and businesses under the branding of Spectrum. Providing services to over 26 million customers in 41 states, it is the second-largest cable operator in the United States by subscribers, just behind Comcast, and third largest pay TV operator behind Comcast and AT&T U-verse/DirecTV. It is the fifth largest telephone provider based upon residential subscriber line count.

In late 2012, with the naming of longtime Cablevision executive Thomas Rutledge as their CEO, the company relocated its corporate headquarters from St. Louis, Missouri, to Stamford, Connecticut, although many operations still remain based out of St. Louis. On May 18, 2016, Charter completed its acquisition of Time Warner Cable and its sister company Bright House Networks, making it the third-largest pay television service in the United States. Charter ranked No. 74 in the 2018 Fortune 500 list of the largest United States corporations by total revenue.

Cognizant

Cognizant is an American multinational corporation that provides IT services, including digital, technology, consulting, and operations services. It is headquartered in Teaneck, New Jersey, United States. Cognizant is included in the NASDAQ-100 and the S&P 500 indices. It is also one of the fastest growing Fortune 500 companies. It was founded as an in-house technology unit of Dun & Bradstreet in 1994, and started serving external clients in 1996.After a series of corporate splits and restructures of its parent companies there was an initial public offering in 1998. Following the Y2K and dot-com boom of the late 1990s, when companies sharpened their focus on hard business parameters such as revenues and profits, the company grew by delivering critical application development and maintenance services.

Cognizant had a period of fast growth during the 2000s, becoming a Fortune 500 company in 2011. In 2015, the Fortune magazine named it as the world's fourth most admired IT services company. In 2017, Cognizant was named in Fortune's Future 50 list.

Kraft Foods

Kraft Foods Group, Inc. is an American grocery manufacturing and processing conglomerate headquartered in Chicago, Illinois, part of the Kraft Heinz Company.The company was restructured in 2012 as a spin off from Kraft Foods Inc., which in turn was renamed Mondelez International. The new Kraft Foods Group was focused mainly on grocery products for the North American market while Mondelez is focused on international confectionery and snack brands. Until the merger with Heinz, Kraft Foods Group was an independent public company listed on the NASDAQ stock exchange.

On July 2, 2015, Kraft completed its merger with Heinz, arranged by Heinz owners Berkshire Hathaway and 3G Capital, creating the fifth-largest food and beverage company in the world, Kraft Heinz Company.

Kraft Heinz

The Kraft Heinz Company is an American food company formed by the merger of Kraft Foods and Heinz based in Chicago, Illinois and Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. Kraft Heinz is the third-largest food and beverage company in North America and the fifth-largest in the world with $26.2 billion in annual sales as of 2017. It is responsible for over 25 brands including Kraft, Heinz, Planters, Grey Poupon, Oscar Mayer and more, of which eight have total individual sales of over $1 billion.

In 2018, Kraft Heinz launched Springboard Brands, a business focused on growing organic, natural, and "super-premium" food brands. Kraft Heinz ranked No. 114 in the 2018 Fortune 500 list of the largest United States corporations by total revenue.

Liberty Global

Liberty Global is a multinational telecommunications company with headquarters in London, Amsterdam and Denver. It was formed in 2005 by the merger of the international arm of Liberty Media (in turn a spin-off of TCI, an American cable-television group) and UGC (UnitedGlobalCom). Liberty Global is the largest broadband internet service provider outside the US.Liberty Global had an annual revenue of $15 billion in 2017, with operations in 10 countries and 26,700 employees by 2017. Its cable services pass 44.3 million homes, with 21 million customers or 44.5 million RGUs (video, internet, and voice subscribers). In 2016, Liberty Global was ranked 88th on the Forbes World's Most Innovative Companies list.

Marriott International

Marriott International is an American multinational diversified hospitality company that manages and franchises a broad portfolio of hotels and related lodging facilities. Founded by J. Willard Marriott, the company is now led by his son, Executive Chairman Bill Marriott, and President and Chief Executive Officer Arne Sorenson.

Headquartered in Bethesda, Maryland, in the Washington, D.C. metropolitan area, Marriott International is the largest hotel chain in the world. It has more than 6,500 properties in 127 countries and territories around the world, over 1.2 million rooms (as of September 2017), and an additional 195,000 rooms in the development pipeline. In 2017, Marriott was ranked #33 on Fortune's "100 Best Companies to Work For" list, its twentieth appearance on the list.

Miami Open (tennis)

The Miami Open, sometimes known as the Miami Masters, is an annual tennis tournament for men and women currently held at the Hard Rock Stadium in Miami Gardens, Florida. Prior to 2019, the tournament was held in Key Biscayne, Florida, an island town just off the coast of Miami. The tournament is an ATP World Tour Masters 1000 event on the men's tour and a Premier Mandatory event on the women's tour, played on hard courts at the Tennis Center at Crandon Park through 2018. The event is held annually in March. In 2019, the event will move to the Hard Rock Stadium in Miami Gardens north of Miami. The City of Miami recently spent over $500 million in additions and renovations to transform the Hard Rock Stadium.The tournament has had multiple sponsorships in its history. During its inaugural playing in 1985, the tournament was known as the Lipton International Players Championships. and it was a premier event of the Grand Prix Tennis Tour as part of the Grand Prix Super Series from its first year until 1990. In 2000, the event was renamed the Ericsson Open. In 2002, the event became known as the NASDAQ-100 Open. In 2007, the tournament was renamed the Sony Ericsson Open, in a deal by which Sony Ericsson would pay $20 million total over the next four years, until 2014. From 2015–2019, the international bank Itaú became the presenting sponsor, making the official name of the tournament Miami Open presented by Itaú.In 2010, a record 300,000 visitors attended matches at the 12-day Sony Ericsson Open, making it one of the largest tennis tournaments outside the four Grand Slams. In 2011, 316,267 visitors attended the Open.The court has been criticized as the slowest hardcourt on the tour, subjecting players to endless grinding rallies in extreme heat and humidity.

Micron Technology

Micron Technology, Inc. is an American global corporation based in Boise, Idaho. The company is a holding company for subsidiaries engaged in the design and production of computers, semiconductors, and other related products. The subsidiaries produce many forms of semiconductor devices, including dynamic random-access memory, flash memory, USB flash drives and solid-state drives. Its consumer products are marketed under the brands Crucial and Ballistix. Micron and Intel together created IM Flash Technologies, which produces NAND flash memory. It owned Lexar between 2006 and 2017.

Microsoft

Microsoft Corporation (MS) is an American multinational technology company with headquarters in Redmond, Washington. It develops, manufactures, licenses, supports and sells computer software, consumer electronics, personal computers, and related services. Its best known software products are the Microsoft Windows line of operating systems, the Microsoft Office suite, and the Internet Explorer and Edge web browsers. Its flagship hardware products are the Xbox video game consoles and the Microsoft Surface lineup of touchscreen personal computers. As of 2016, it is the world's largest software maker by revenue, and one of the world's most valuable companies. The word "Microsoft" is a portmanteau of "microcomputer" and "software". Microsoft is ranked No. 30 in the 2018 Fortune 500 rankings of the largest United States corporations by total revenue.Microsoft was founded by Bill Gates and Paul Allen on April 4, 1975, to develop and sell BASIC interpreters for the Altair 8800. It rose to dominate the personal computer operating system market with MS-DOS in the mid-1980s, followed by Microsoft Windows. The company's 1986 initial public offering (IPO), and subsequent rise in its share price, created three billionaires and an estimated 12,000 millionaires among Microsoft employees. Since the 1990s, it has increasingly diversified from the operating system market and has made a number of corporate acquisitions, their largest being the acquisition of LinkedIn for $26.2 billion in December 2016, followed by their acquisition of Skype Technologies for $8.5 billion in May 2011.As of 2015, Microsoft is market-dominant in the IBM PC-compatible operating system market and the office software suite market, although it has lost the majority of the overall operating system market to Android. The company also produces a wide range of other consumer and enterprise software for desktops and servers, including Internet search (with Bing), the digital services market (through MSN), mixed reality (HoloLens), cloud computing (Azure) and software development (Visual Studio).

Steve Ballmer replaced Gates as CEO in 2000, and later envisioned a "devices and services" strategy. This began with the acquisition of Danger Inc. in 2008, entering the personal computer production market for the first time in June 2012 with the launch of the Microsoft Surface line of tablet computers; and later forming Microsoft Mobile through the acquisition of Nokia's devices and services division. Since Satya Nadella took over as CEO in 2014, the company has scaled back on hardware and has instead focused on cloud computing, a move that helped the company's shares reach its highest value since December 1999.In 2018, Microsoft surpassed Apple as the most valuable publicly traded company in the world after being dethroned by the tech giant in 2010.

NASDAQ-100

The NASDAQ-100 (^NDX) is a stock market index made up of 103 equity securities issued by 100 of the largest non-financial companies listed on the NASDAQ. It is a modified capitalization-weighted index. The stocks' weights in the index are based on their market capitalizations, with certain rules capping the influence of the largest components. It is based on exchange, and it is not an index of U.S.-based companies. It does not have any financial companies, since these were put in a separate index. Both of those criteria differentiate it from the Dow Jones Industrial Average, and the exclusion of financial companies distinguishes it from the S&P 500.

Nasdaq Nordic

Nasdaq Nordic is the common name for the subsidiaries of Nasdaq, Inc. that provide financial services and operate marketplaces for securities in Nordic, Baltic, and Caucasus countries.Historically, the operations have been known by the company name OMX AB (Aktiebolaget Optionsmäklarna/Helsinki Stock Exchange), which was created in 2003 upon a merger between OM AB and HEX plc. In 2015, the legal entity OMX AB was renamed Nasdaq AB, but it also operates under the alias Nasdaq OMX AB. The operations have been part of Nasdaq, Inc. (formerly known as Nasdaq OMX Group) since February 2008.Nasdaq Nordic has two divisions, OMX Exchanges, which operates eight stock exchanges mainly in the Nordic and Baltic countries, and OMX Technology, which develops and markets systems for financial transactions used by OMX Exchanges, as well as by other stock exchanges.

NetEase

NetEase, Inc. (simplified Chinese: 网易; traditional Chinese: 網易; pinyin: WǎngYì) is a Chinese Internet technology company providing online services centered on content, community, communications and commerce. The company was founded in 1997 by Lebunto. NetEase develops and operates online PC and mobile games, advertising services, email services and e-commerce platforms in China. It is one of the largest Internet and video game companies in the world.Some of NetEase's games include the Westward Journey series (Fantasy Westward Journey, Westward Journey Online II, Fantasy Westward Journey II, and New Westward Journey Online II), as well as other games, such as Tianxia III, Heroes of Tang Dynasty Zero and Ghost II. NetEase also partners with Blizzard Entertainment to operate local versions of Warcraft III, World of Warcraft, Hearthstone, StarCraft II, Diablo III: Reaper of Souls and Overwatch in China. They are also developing their very first self-developed VR multiplayer online game with an open world setting, which is called Nostos.

Nvidia

Nvidia Corporation ( en-VID-ee-ə; more commonly referred to as Nvidia, stylized as NVIDIA, or, due to their logo, nVIDIA) is an American technology company incorporated in Delaware and based in Santa Clara, California. It designs graphics processing units (GPUs) for the gaming and professional markets, as well as system on a chip units (SoCs) for the mobile computing and automotive market. Its primary GPU product line, labeled "GeForce", is in direct competition with Advanced Micro Devices' (AMD) "Radeon" products. Nvidia expanded its presence in the gaming industry with its handheld Shield Portable, Shield Tablet and Shield Android TV.

Since 2014, Nvidia has shifted to become a platform company focused on four markets – gaming, professional visualization, data centers and auto. Nvidia is also now focused on artificial intelligence.In addition to GPU manufacturing, Nvidia provides parallel processing capabilities to researchers and scientists that allow them to efficiently run high-performance applications. They are deployed in supercomputing sites around the world. More recently, it has moved into the mobile computing market, where it produces Tegra mobile processors for smartphones and tablets as well as vehicle navigation and entertainment systems. In addition to AMD, its competitors include Intel, Qualcomm and Arm (e.g., because of Denver, while Nvidia also licenses Arm's designs).

Ulta Beauty

Ulta Beauty Inc. (formerly known as Ulta Salon, Cosmetics & Fragrance Inc. until January 2017), is a chain of beauty stores in the United States, headquartered in Bolingbrook, Illinois. Ulta Beauty carries cosmetics and skincare brands, men's and women's fragrances, and haircare products. Each store is also equipped with a salon.

Viacom

Viacom Inc. ( VY-ə-kom or VEE-ə-kom) is an American multinational mass media conglomerate with interests primarily in film and television. It is currently the world's ninth largest broadcasting, cable, and media company in terms of revenue, and has headquarters in New York City. Voting control of Viacom is held by National Amusements, Inc., a privately owned theater company controlled by billionaire Sumner Redstone, who also holds a controlling stake in CBS Corporation.The present-day Viacom was created as a spin-off from the original company, which was renamed as CBS Corporation afterwards, on December 31, 2005. The latter currently retains control of the over-the-air broadcasting, TV production, subscription pay television, and publishing assets, which were previously owned by the original Viacom. Comprising BET Networks, Viacom Media Networks, and Paramount Pictures, Viacom operates approximately 170 networks, reaching approximately 700 million subscribers in approximately 160 countries.

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