N-World is a 3D graphics package developed by Nichimen Graphics in the 1990s, for Silicon Graphics and Windows NT workstations. Intended primarily for video game content creation, it offers polygon modeling tools, 2D and 3D paint, scripting, color reduction, and exporters for several popular game consoles. Once ported to windows, N-World was released as Mirai and Nendo. Its current incarnations can be found as an open source clone called Wings3D.

N-World, Mirai and Nendo
Nichimen Graphics Logo - B&W
Nichimen N-World 3.1 geometry editor
Nichimen N-World 3.1 geometry editor
Developer(s)Nichimen Graphics, Inc.
Stable release
3.2 / January 1999
Operating systemIRIX, Windows
Type3D computer graphics


N-World's origins can be traced back to Symbolics, a computer manufacturer notable for producing LISP-based systems in the 1980s. Among the software packages that were produced for Symbolics computers are S-Graphics, a 3D animation suite that includes modules for polygon modeling, dynamics, paint, and rendering — titled S-Geometry, S-Dynamics, S-Paint, and S-Render, respectively.[1] In 1992, Japanese trading company Nichimen Corporation purchased the rights to S-Graphics, ported it to Silicon Graphics IRIX, and marketed it as N-World.

N-World retains the LISP-based underpinnings of its predecessor,[2] but was targeted at interactive content producers,[3] offering features useful for game developers. Pricing was set at US$16,995 for the full suite of tools, later reduced to US$9,995 when N-World as ported to Windows NT in 1997.[4]

N-World was used to create graphics for a number of console games in the 1990s, including Super Mario 64 and Final Fantasy VII.[5] N-World was superseded by Mirai in 1999.[6]


The N-World package, like its predecessor S-Graphics, is divided into several components:[7]

  • N-Geometry: 3D polygon-based modeling tools, including smoothing, "magnet" geometry editing, and instancing.
  • N-Dynamics: Animation tools including scripting, curve-based animation, and skeletal animation.
  • N-Render: Surfacing and rendering tools with ray tracing and materials output to various game console formats.
  • N-Paint: 2D and 3D paint with mattes, effects, color reduction, and a visual VRAM editor for PlayStation.
  • Game Tools: Utilities for game developers, including exporters for PlayStation, Nintendo 64, and Saturn consoles.


The following titles were created using N-World.[8]


  1. ^ "Lemonodor: Symbolics Color Graphics System". lemonodor.com. Retrieved February 19, 2017.
  2. ^ "Franz Inc Customer Applications: Nichimen Graphics". franz.com. Retrieved February 19, 2017.
  3. ^ Alias. "Nichimen Graphics and Alias Wavefront Announce Collaborative Agreement". prnewswire.com. Retrieved February 19, 2017.
  4. ^ a b c d e f "ACCL Message Board - Msg: 1910481". Retrieved November 7, 2017.
  5. ^ "Super Mario 64 was built with a system written in Lisp - Hacker News". news.ycombinator.com.
  6. ^ "> My primary focus in life has been computer graphics, and my first language... - Hacker News". ycombinator.com. Retrieved February 19, 2017.
  7. ^ "N-World 3.0 Online Documentation". aaronjamesrogers.com. Retrieved February 19, 2017.
  8. ^ "The Rules are Changing". Game Developer Magazine. Miller Freeman Inc. (Vol. 5, No. 5): 37. May 1998.

External links

Anti-Defamation League

The Anti-Defamation League (ADL; formerly known as the Anti-Defamation League of B'nai B'rith) is an international Jewish non-governmental organization based in the United States. The ADL states that its mission is to "[fight] anti-Semitism and all forms of bigotry, [defend] democratic ideals, and [defend] civil rights for all", doing so through "information, education, legislation, and advocacy".Founded in late September 1913 by the Independent Order of B'nai B'rith, a Jewish service organization in the United States, its original mission statement was "to stop, by appeals to reason and conscience and, if necessary, by appeals to law, the defamation of the Jewish people." The ADL has stated that its primary purpose is "to secure justice and fair treatment to all citizens alike, and to put an end forever to unjust and unfair discrimination against and ridicule of any sect or body of citizens." The ADL has 29 offices in the United States and three offices in other countries, with its headquarters located in New York City. Abraham Foxman was the national director from 1987 for more than a quarter century. In November 2014, it was announced that Jonathan Greenblatt would succeed Foxman as national director in July 2015. The national chair is Barry Curtiss-Lusher.The ADL has faced criticism for its support for Israel, charges of defamation, former denial of the Armenian Genocide, and allegations that the organization improperly conflates opposition to Israel with antisemitism.


Colombia ( (listen) kə-LUM-bee-ə, -⁠LOM-; Spanish: [koˈlombja] (listen)), officially the Republic of Colombia (Spanish: República de Colombia ), is a sovereign state largely situated in the northwest of South America, with territories in Central America. Colombia shares a border to the northwest with Panama, to the east with Venezuela and Brazil and to the south with Ecuador and Peru. It shares its maritime limits with Costa Rica, Nicaragua, Honduras, Jamaica, Haiti, and the Dominican Republic. Colombia is a unitary, constitutional republic comprising thirty-two departments, with the capital in Bogota.

Colombia has been inhabited by various indigenous peoples since 12,000 BCE, including the Muisca, Quimbaya, and the Tairona. The Spanish arrived in 1499 and by the mid-16th century conquered and colonized much of the region, establishing the New Kingdom of Granada, with Santafé de Bogotá as its capital. Independence from Spain was achieved in 1819, but by 1830 the "Gran Colombia" Federation was dissolved, with what is now Colombia and Panama emerging as the Republic of New Granada. The new nation experimented with federalism as the Granadine Confederation (1858), and then the United States of Colombia (1863), before the Republic of Colombia was finally declared in 1886. Panama seceded in 1903, leading to Colombia's present borders. Beginning in the 1960s, the country suffered from an asymmetric low-intensity armed conflict and rampant political violence, both of which escalated in the 1990s. Since 2005, there has been significant improvement in security, stability, and rule of law.Colombia is one of the most ethnically and linguistically diverse countries in the world, with its rich cultural heritage reflecting influences by indigenous peoples, European settlement, forced African migration, immigration from Europe and the Middle East. Urban centres are mostly located in the highlands of the Andes mountains and the Caribbean coast.

Colombia is among the world's 17 megadiverse countries, and the most densely biodiverse per square kilometer; its territory encompasses Amazon rainforest, tropical grassland and coastlines along both the Caribbean and Pacific.

Colombia is a middle power and regional actor in Latin America. It is part of the CIVETS group of six leading emerging markets and a member of the UN, the WTO, the OAS, the Pacific Alliance, and other international organizations. Colombia's diversified economy is the fourth largest in Latin America, with macroeconomic stability and favorable long-term growth prospects.

David Beasley

David Muldrow Beasley (born February 26, 1957) is an American politician who is the Executive Director of the U.N. World Food Programme. Beasley, a member of the Republican Party, served one term as the 113th Governor of South Carolina from 1995 until 1999; he was defeated by Democrat Jim Hodges in the 1998 election.

Beasley, a native of Lamar, South Carolina, began his political career as a member of the Democratic Party, but switched to the Republican Party in September 1991, three years before his election as governor. His first run for public office came in 1978, when, as a 21-year-old junior attending Clemson University, he unexpectedly won a seat in the South Carolina House of Representatives. He later graduated from the University of South Carolina and the University of South Carolina School of Law.

David Willey (cricketer)

David Jonathan Willey (born 28 February 1990) is an English cricketer playing for Yorkshire County Cricket Club. He is a left-handed batsman and bowler. He is the son of former England cricketer and international umpire Peter Willey.

December 2010 Bajaur bombing

On 25 December 2010, at least 47 people were killed and over 100 others injured, after a female suicide bomber detonated her explosives in a large crowd of people displaced by fighting, who were collecting food at a distribution centre of the World Food Programme in the Pakistani town of Khar, which is located within the Bajaur tribal region, of north-western Pakistan. It was later reported by witnesses, that the bomber dressed in a full-length burka had reportedly thrown a grenade after resisting search, to which then the bomber proceeded to detonate her explosives. Several police officials confirmed the bomber was a woman, as opposed to the more likely occurrence of a man wearing the burka as a disguise, in order to successfully conduct this suicide attack. It was also known that those in this crowd were predominantly displaced members of the Salarzai Tribe, which has supported Pakistan Army operations against the Pakistani Taliban within the Bajaur tribal regions. Those dozens of people injured in this suicide attack were apparently later taken to local hospitals via means of helicopters. Local Witnesses, including that of a government official at the main government hospital within the region, Dosti Rehman, claimed that he had personally counted some 40 bodies. However, there are concerns that the death toll could very likely rise, as the official stated that several of those injured, as a result of this suicide attack were apparently in a critical condition at the local hospitals. This particular bombing acts as one of a string of recent suicide attacks, which have occurred with near impunity, predominantly throughout Pakistan's north-western, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Province, of north-western Pakistan. No particular militant group has of yet claimed responsibility for this suicide attack, although the Pakistani Taliban are strong suspects. The Bajaur tribal region has reportedly seen several Pakistan Army military operations in recent years, however such suicide attacks still continue throughout the region with near impunity. The Pakistani Prime Minister, Yousaf Raza Gillani later condemned this suicide attack, and claimed that such military offensives would continue against the Pakistani Taliban. This statement will be met with a certain degree of approval in the U.S, as Pakistan has recently been pressured to launch a major ground-offensive in the nearby North Waziristan tribal region, in order to root-out and destroy the last major remaining safe-haven for Radical Islamist and Pakistani Taliban insurgents within the country. The U.N World Food Programme later suspended its food distribution activities in the Bajaur tribal region, as a security precaution to this suicide attack. This suicide bombing was strongly condemned by U.S president, Barack Obama. The Pakistani Taliban later claimed responsibility for this suicide attack. This suicide bombing was officially declared the first such suicide attack to involve a female in Pakistan.

Ebola virus epidemic in Guinea

An epidemic of Ebola virus disease in Guinea represents the first ever outbreak of Ebola in a West African country. Previous outbreaks have been confined to several countries in Sub-Saharan Africa.The epidemic, which began with the death of a two-year-old boy in 2013, is now part of a larger Ebola virus epidemic in West Africa which has spread through Guinea and the neighboring countries of Liberia and Sierra Leone, with minor outbreaks occurring in Senegal, Nigeria, and Mali. In 2015, Guinea was declared free of Ebola transmission by the U.N. World Health Organization.

Final Fantasy VII

Final Fantasy VII is a 1997 role-playing video game developed by Square for the PlayStation console. It is the seventh main installment in the Final Fantasy series. Published in Japan by Square, it was released in other regions by Sony Computer Entertainment and became the first in the main series to see a PAL release. The game's story follows Cloud Strife, a mercenary who joins an eco-terrorist organization to stop a world-controlling megacorporation from using the planet's life essence as an energy source. Events send Cloud and his allies in pursuit of Sephiroth, a superhuman intent on destroying their planet. During the journey, Cloud builds close friendships with his party members, including Aerith Gainsborough, who holds the secret to saving their world.

Development began in 1994, originally for the Super Nintendo Entertainment System. After delays and technical difficulties from experimenting on several platforms, Square moved production to the PlayStation, largely due to the advantages of the CD-ROM format. Veteran Final Fantasy staff returned, including series creator and producer Hironobu Sakaguchi, director Yoshinori Kitase, and composer Nobuo Uematsu. The title became the first in the series to use full motion video and 3D computer graphics, which featured 3D character models superimposed over 2D pre-rendered backgrounds. Although the gameplay systems remained mostly unchanged from previous entries, Final Fantasy VII introduced more widespread science fiction elements and a more realistic presentation. The game had a staff of over 100, with a combined development and marketing budget of around US$80 million.

Assisted by a large promotional campaign, Final Fantasy VII received widespread commercial and critical success and remains widely regarded as a landmark title and one of the greatest games of all time. The title won numerous Game of the Year awards and was acknowledged for boosting the sales of the PlayStation and popularizing Japanese role-playing games worldwide. Critics praised its graphics, gameplay, music, and story, although some criticism was directed towards its English localization. Its success has led to enhanced ports on various platforms, a multimedia subseries called the Compilation of Final Fantasy VII and an upcoming high-definition remake for the PlayStation 4.

Guinea national football team

The Guinea national football team, nicknamed Syli nationale (National Elephants), is the national team of Guinea and is controlled by the Guinean Football Federation. They have never qualified for the World Cup finals, and their best finish in the Africa Cup of Nations was second in 1976. The team reached the quarter-finals in four recent tournaments (2004, 2006, 2008, 2015).


Heterocheila is a genus of acalyptrate true flies (Diptera). They are placed in their own family, Heterocheilidae, in the superfamily Sciomyzoidea. They are not widely familiar outside entomological circles, but the common name "half-bridge flies" has been associated with them. They are medium-sized flies occurring mainly in temperate regions on seashores of the Northern Hemisphere, where they and their larvae typically feed on stranded kelp in the wrack zone. In this, they resemble kelp flies, which are members of a different family, though the same superfamily.

The family Heterocheilidae was established by McAlpine in 1991. He distinguished it from other families to which Heterocheila had hitherto been referred at various times and by various authorities – Helcomyzidae, Dryomyzidae and Coelopidae.

List of centuries in Twenty20 International cricket

A Twenty20 International (T20I) is an international cricket match between two teams, each having T20I status, as determined by the International Cricket Council. In a T20I, the two teams play a single innings each, which is restricted to a maximum of 20 overs. The format was originally introduced by the England and Wales Cricket Board for the county cricket competition with the first matches contested on 13 June 2003 between the English counties in the Twenty20 Cup. The first T20I took place on 17 February 2005 when Australia defeated New Zealand by 44 runs at Eden Park in Auckland, with Australian captain Ricky Ponting finishing not out on 98.A century is a score of one hundred or more runs by a batsman in a single innings. This is regarded as a notable achievement. The first century in a T20I match was scored by Chris Gayle of the West Indies who made 117 against South Africa at the inaugural ICC World Twenty20 in 2007. South Africa won the match, one of only seven occurrences which did not result in a victory to the team with the player scoring the century. The most recent century, as of January 2019, was scored by Ravija Sandaruwan of Kuwait against Bahrain at the Al Emarat Cricket Stadium in January 2019.India's Rohit Sharma leading the list with four T20I centuries, then New Zealand's Colin Munro's three, followed by Munro's compatriots Martin Guptill and Brendon McCullum, West Indians Chris Gayle and Evin Lewis, India's K. L. Rahul and Australia's Glenn Maxwell and Aaron Finch with two each. Lewis' first century came during the 2016 series against India at the Central Broward Regional Park in Lauderhill, Florida. In reply, India's Rahul finished on 110 not out, the only occasion where two T20I centuries were scored in the same match. Rahul's innings was one of the eleven instances where a batsman scored a century in the second innings of a T20I match. In July 2018, Finch posted 172 from 76 balls against Zimbabwe during the 2018 Zimbabwe Tri-Nation Series to break his own record for the highest score in a T20I match, elipsing the 156 he set in August 2013. Rohit Sharma and David Miller of South Africa share the record for the fastest century, both reaching the milestone from 35 deliveries. Miller was also the first player to score a T20I century batting at number five or lower.As of January 2019, 37 centuries have been scored by 25 different players over 700 T20I matches. Players from all teams except Ireland and Zimbabwe that are Full Members and of the teams that are Associate Members only Scotland, Hong Kong, Kuwait and the United Arab Emirates have had a player reach triple figures. New Zealand and India lead the list with seven centuries, followed by Australia, five. Centuries have been scored at 31 different grounds, with Pallekele International Cricket Stadium in Kandy, Sri Lanka, leading the list with three.

List of countries by population in 2005

This is harmonized list of population estimates for the year 2005. For a listing with more recent estimates, see List of countries by population

This is a list of sovereign states and other territories by population, with population figures estimated for 1 July 2005 (rounded to the nearest 1,000). The figures are estimates for the year 2005 from the U.N. World Population Prospects (2004 revision) using the medium fertility variant.The list includes all sovereign states and dependent territories recognized by the United Nations, plus the territory under the effective control of the Republic of China (Taiwan).

This list adopts definitions of "country" on a case by case basis. The "United Kingdom" is considered as a single country while constituent countries of the Kingdom of the Netherlands are regarded separately.


Takamasa Ishihara (石原 崇雅, Ishihara Takamasa, born September 14, 1981), better known by his stage name Miyavi (stylized as MIYAVI), is a Japanese guitarist, singer-songwriter, record producer and actor known for his finger-slapping style of playing a guitar.He has been active since 1999, first as guitarist for the now defunct visual kei rock band Dué le quartz and then as a solo artist starting in 2002. In 2007, he became a member of the rock supergroup Skin and in 2009 founded his own company, J-glam. He toured worldwide several times, with over 250 shows in 30 countries as of 2015. As of 2016, he released ten solo albums and 27 singles.

In 2014, Miyavi appeared in the motion picture Unbroken, directed by Angelina Jolie, and went on to undertake smaller roles in American productions such as Kong: Skull Island and Stray. Since 2013, Miyavi has been a volunteer at UNHCR, visiting refugee camps around the world. In November 2017, he was appointed an official Goodwill Ambassador.


Nimbuzz is a proprietary cross-platform instant messaging aggregator for smartphones, tablets and personal computers developed by MSM Global Holdings Limited. Nimbuzz has 150 million users in 200 countries.Under CEO Anubhav Nagar's leadership, Nimbuzz application enables users to enjoy free calls, instant messaging, social-network games, file sharing, and social networking on their mobile device. In addition; Nimbuzz offers discounted calling rates to most countries in the world. In 2014, Nimbuzz stated they were garnering more than 210,000 new registrations per day.

Sport in Uruguay

Sport in Uruguay has been an important part of Uruguayan culture, since the early start of the nation. Winners of such important awards such as the FIFA World Cup, the French Open, and Olympic medals, Uruguay has been a constantly successful sports nation in continental and world aspects.

Super Mario 64

Super Mario 64 is a 1996 platform video game for the Nintendo 64, and the first in the Super Mario series to feature three-dimensional (3D) gameplay. As Mario, the player explores Princess Peach's castle and must rescue her from Bowser. As an early 3D platformer, Super Mario 64 is based on open-world playability, degrees of freedom through all three axes in space, and relatively large areas which are composed primarily of true 3D polygons as opposed to only two-dimensional (2D) sprites. It places an emphasis on exploration within vast worlds that require the player to complete various missions, in addition to the occasional linear obstacle courses as in traditional platform games. While doing so, it still preserves many gameplay elements and characters of earlier Mario games, and the same visual style.

Producer/director and Mario creator Shigeru Miyamoto conceived a 3D Mario game during the production of Star Fox (1993). Super Mario 64's development, handled by Nintendo EAD, lasted approximately three years; one was spent on designing while the next two on direct work. The visuals were created using the Nichimen N-World toolkit, and Miyamoto aimed to include more details than earlier games. A multiplayer mode featuring Luigi as a playable character was planned but cut. Along with Pilotwings 64, Super Mario 64 was one of the launch games for Nintendo 64. Nintendo released it in Japan on June 23, 1996, and later in North America, Europe, and Australia. A remake, Super Mario 64 DS, was released for the Nintendo DS in 2004, and the original version was rereleased for Nintendo's Virtual Console service on the Wii and Wii U in 2006 and 2015, respectively.

Super Mario 64 is acclaimed as one of the greatest video games of all time, and was the first game to receive a perfect score from Edge magazine. Reviewers praised its ambition, visuals, gameplay, and music, although they criticized its unreliable camera system. It is the Nintendo 64's bestseller, with more than eleven million copies sold by 2003. The game left a lasting impression on the field of 3D game design, featuring a dynamic camera system and 360-degree analog control, and established a new archetype for the 3D genre, much as Super Mario Bros. did for 2D side-scrolling platformers. Numerous developers cited Super Mario 64 as an influence on their later games.

Toshi Arai

Toshihiro 'Toshi' Arai (新井敏弘, Arai Toshihiro, born December 25, 1966) is a Japanese rally driver and team owner.

Arai was born in Isesaki, Gunma. He made his debut in 1987 and drove for the Subaru World Rally Team in the Group N World Rally Championship from 1997–2000 and 2002–2003, and in the Group A Championship in 2000–2001.

In 2004 he established his own team, Subaru Team Arai, and won the FIA Production Car World Rally Championship for Drivers in 2005 and 2007 driving a Subaru Impreza WRX STI. He scored class victories in Turkey, Japan and Australia on his way to the title.

He was also the winner of the short-lived FIA Teams' Cup in 2000.

United Nations

The United Nations (UN) is an intergovernmental organization that was tasked to maintain international peace and security, develop friendly relations among nations, achieve international co-operation and be a centre for harmonizing the actions of nations. The headquarters of the UN is in Manhattan, New York City, and is subject to extraterritoriality. Further main offices are situated in Geneva, Nairobi, and Vienna. The organization is financed by assessed and voluntary contributions from its member states. Its objectives include maintaining international peace and security, protecting human rights, delivering humanitarian aid, promoting sustainable development and upholding international law. The UN is the largest, most familiar, most internationally represented and most powerful intergovernmental organization in the world. In 24 October 1945, at the end of World War II, the organization was established with the aim of preventing future wars. At its founding, the UN had 51 member states; there are now 193. The UN is the successor of the ineffective League of Nations.

On 25 April 1945, 50 governments met in San Francisco for a conference and started drafting the UN Charter, which was adopted on 25 June 1945 in the San Francisco Opera House, and signed on 26 June 1945 in the Herbst Theatre auditorium in the Veterans War Memorial Building. This charter took effect on 24 October 1945, when the UN began operation.

The UN's mission to preserve world peace was complicated in its early decades during the Cold War between the United States and Soviet Union and their respective allies. Its missions have consisted primarily of unarmed military observers and lightly armed troops with primarily monitoring, reporting and confidence-building roles. The organization's membership grew significantly following widespread decolonization which started in the 1960s. Since then, 80 former colonies had gained independence, including 11 trust territories, which were monitored by the Trusteeship Council. By the 1970s its budget for economic and social development programmes far outstripped its spending on peacekeeping. After the end of the Cold War, the UN shifted and expanded its field operations, undertaking a wide variety of complex tasks.The UN has six principal organs: the General Assembly; the Security Council; the Economic and Social Council; the Trusteeship Council; the International Court of Justice; and the UN Secretariat. The UN System agencies include the World Bank Group, the World Health Organization, the World Food Programme, UNESCO, and UNICEF. The UN's most prominent officer is the Secretary-General, an office held by Portuguese politician and diplomat António Guterres since 1 January 2017. Non-governmental organizations may be granted consultative status with ECOSOC and other agencies to participate in the UN's work.

The organization, its officers and its agencies have won many Nobel Peace Prizes.

Other evaluations of the UN's effectiveness have been mixed. Some commentators believe the organization to be an important force for peace and human development, while others have called the organization ineffective, corrupt, or biased.

World Food Programme

The World Food Programme (WFP) is the food-assistance branch of the United Nations and the world's largest humanitarian organization addressing hunger and promoting food security. According to the WFP, it provides food assistance to an average of 91.4 million people in 83 countries each year. From its headquarters in Rome and from more than 80 country offices around the world, the WFP works to help people who cannot produce or obtain enough food for themselves and their families. It is a member of the United Nations Development Group and part of its executive committee.

World Rally Championship-3

The FIA World Rally Championship-3, or WRC-3 (formerly known as Production World Rally Championship, or PWRC), was a companion rally series to the World Rally Championship, and was driven on the same stages. WRC-3 was limited to production-based cars homologated under the R1, R2 and R3 rules. The series began in 2002, replacing the FIA Cup for Production Rally Drivers, and continued for 16 years until its cancellation at the end of 2018. The cars used were Group N modified road cars, often based on turbocharged, four wheel drive versions of standard small cars such as the Subaru Impreza WRX and the Mitsubishi Lancer Evolution, although a wide range of vehicles are homologated by the FIA for use in Group N. Apart from FIA sanctioned events, a lot of rallies at national levels are run under Group N.

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