N’Djamena (/əndʒɑːˈmeɪnɑː/; French: N'Djaména, pronounced [n(ə)dʒa.me.na]; Arabic: انجمينا Injamīnā) is the capital and largest city of Chad. A port on the Chari River, near the confluence with the Logone River, it directly faces the Cameroonian town of Kousséri, to which the city is connected by a bridge. It is also a special statute region, divided into 10 districts or arrondissements. It is a regional market for livestock, salt, dates, and grains. Meat, fish and cotton processing are the chief industries, and the city continues to serve as the center of economic activity in Chad.
Place of the nation
Coat of arms
|• City||104 km2 (40 sq mi)|
|• Metro||166 km2 (64 sq mi)|
|Elevation||298 m (978 ft)|
|• Density||9,148/km2 (23,690/sq mi)|
N’Djamena was founded as Fort-Lamy by French commander Émile Gentil on May 29, 1900, and named after Amédée-François Lamy, an army officer who had been killed in the Battle of Kousséri a few days earlier. It was a major trading city and became the capital of the region and nation.
During the Second World War, the French relied upon the city's airport to move troops and supplies. On 21 January 1942, a lone German He 111 of the Sonderkommando Blaich successfully bombed the airfield at Fort-Lamy, destroying oil supplies and ten aircraft. Fort-Lamy received its first bank branch in 1950, when the Bank of West Africa (BAO) opened a branch there.
On April 6, 1973, the President François Tombalbaye changed its name to N’Djamena (taken from the Arabic name of a nearby village, Niǧāmīnā, meaning "place of rest") as part of his authenticité program of Africanization. The city was occupied by Libya during the 1980–81 Libyan intervention as part of the Chadian–Libyan conflict, and the associated Transitional Government of National Unity.
The city was partly destroyed during the Chadian Civil War, in 1979 and again in 1980. In these years, almost all of the population fled the town, searching for refuge on the opposite bank of the Chari River in Cameroon, next to the city of Kousseri. The residents did not return until 1981–82, after the end of the clashes. Until 1984, facilities and services were subject to strict rationing, and schools remained closed.
The period of turmoil in the city was started by the abortive coup attempted by the northerner Prime Minister Hissène Habré against the southerner President Félix Malloum: while Malloum and the national army loyal to him were defeated, the intervention in the battle of other northern factions rival to that of Habré complicated the situation. A temporary truce was reached in 1979 through international mediation, establishing the warlord Goukouni Oueddei as head of a government of national unity with his rival Habré as Defense Minister. The intense rivalry between Goukouni and Habré caused the eruption of new clashes in the city in 1980; N’Djamena found itself divided into sectors controlled by the various warlords. The tug-of-war reached a conclusion after many months only when Goukouni asked for the intervention of the Libyans, whose tanks overwhelmed Habré's defenses in the capital.
Following differences between Goukouni and Muammar Gaddafi and international disapproval of Libyan intervention, the Libyan troops left the capital and Chad in 1981. This opened the door to Habré, who marched on N’Djamena, occupying the city with little resistance in 1982 and installing himself as the new president. He was eventually dislodged in a similar fashion in 1990 by a former general of his, Idriss Déby, as of 2016 the head of state of Chad.
The city had only 9,976 inhabitants in 1937, but a decade later, in 1947, the population had almost doubled to 18,435. In 1968, after independence, the population reached 126,483. In 1993, it surpassed half a million with 529,555. A good deal of this growth has been due to refugees fleeing into N’Djamena for security, although many people fled N’Djamena, also depending on the political situation.
On April 13, 2006, a rebel United Front for Democratic Change attack on the city was defeated in the Battle of N’Djamena. The city was once again attacked on February 2, 2008, by UFDD and RFC rebels. (See Battle of N'Djamena (2008))
In N’Djamena, only about twenty- six percent of the area is urbanized. Most residents of Chad live in the capital city, N’Djamena, or the Logone Occidental Region just south of the capital. Just about half of the population is under the age of fifteen. Of these people, it is a uniform divide of males and females. While the division between genders is even, the divide among ethnic groups and religion are significantly different. A variety of religions are practiced in the city, but with a clear Islamic predominance. The main ethnic groups are: Daza (16.97%), Chadian Arabs (11.08%), Hadjerai (9.15%), Ngambaye (6.41%), Bilala (5.83%), Kanembu (5.80%), Maba (4.84%), Kanuri (4.39%), Gor (3.32%), Kuka (3.20%), Sara (2.24%), and Barma (2.10%).
N'Djamena's primary economic source is agricultural work. About 80% of the population within N'Djamena works within farming-based industries, including cultivation of crops and growing livestock. The economy in N'Djamena is therefore almost totally reliant on good weather, making the economy struggle in years with low rainfall. N'Djamena receives financial aid from the World Bank, as well as the African Development Bank. There is a high demand for skilled laborers within N'Djamena to work for oil and gas sectors, as well as laborers for foreign non-governmental organizations, medical services, and English teaching. Residents of N'Djamena are liable to pay tax up to a maximum amount of 60% of all net income.
While primarily an administrative center, the city includes the Nassara Strip commercial centre and residential areas, such as Mbololo, Chagoua, Paris Congo and Moursal. The main commercial avenue of the city is the Avenue Charles de Gaulle.
N’Djamena has a semi-arid climate with a short wet season and a lengthy dry season. Despite the fact that the city receives on average approximately 510 mm (20 in) of rain annually, due to the area's very high evapotranspiration, N'Djamena still falls into the semi-arid climate category. The wet season lasts from June to September, with the heaviest precipitation occurring in August. The dry season essentially covers the remaining eight months. Based on annual temperatures, N'Djamena is one of the hottest major cities on the planet. In only one month of the year (August) do average monthly high temperatures fail to cross the 32 °C (90 °F) mark. The city's highest temperatures are usually seen between March and June, just before the onset of the heavier rains. However, outside of the warmest months of the year, nights in N'Djamena are generally tolerable.
Attractions in the city include the Chad National Museum, a cathedral and several mosques. Within the Chad National Museum, one can view the partial skull of Sahelanthropus or "Toumaï." This skull was discovered in the northern part of Chad and is considered to be from one of the earliest human ancestors. Views of sunset across the Chari River can also be spectacular. N’Djamena was named Capital of Islamic Culture for 2009.
In Africa, education can be thought of as a luxury even though it is compulsory and free and has been since Chad's independence in 1960. Currently, not more than forty percent of elementary age children in Chad have an opportunity to attend classes and with N'Djamena's poor state stability it is even harder for children to get an education. After progressing through elementary school, some students go on to a university. N’Djamena has two universities: the University of N’Djamena with French as the language of instruction, built in 1971; and King Faisal University - Chad with Arabic as the language of instruction, built in 1991. Secondary schools include the long established Lycée Félix Éboué and Lycée technique commercial, Lycée Montaigne de N'Djamena (French international school), and the American International School of N’Djamena. Secondary school within Chad is mandatory, however only 68% of students over the age of 12 attend school. Of that 68%, 70% of these students attend school within N'Djamena. The American International School of N'Djamena is a popular choice within the city for secondary schools as international institutions are of a higher standard than public schools. Many of the students in international schools are children of executives, diplomats, and non-governmental organization employees.
N’Djamena is the home of the National Assembly of Chad, along with many political organisations and parties, and every national ministry. The Supreme Court and Court of Appeal are also in N’Djamena, along with every major embassy in Chad, including the French and US embassies. It is sometimes considered within the region of Chari-Baguirmi, although separate.
The city is the eastern terminus of the Trans-Sahelian Highway, and is linked to East Africa by the (largely unpaved) N’Djamena–Djibouti Highway. The Tripoli-Cape Town Highway also passes through N’Djamena, making it a key Central African location in the Trans-African Highway network. N’Djamena is linked by road bridge to Kousseri in Cameroon.
The 2016 LINAFOOT was supposed to be the 29th season of the Chad Premier League, the top Chadian league for association football clubs, since its establishment in 1988. Gazelle were the defending champions. The season started on 28 July 2016. However, the championship was interrupted due financial difficulties, at the end of October.Battle of N'Djamena (2006)
The Battle of N'Djamena was a battle between the forces of the revolutionary United Front for Democratic Change (UFCD) and the military of Chad that occurred on 13 April 2006 when rebel forces launched an assault on the capital of Chad in the pre-dawn hours, attempting to overthrow the government of President Idriss Déby Itno from their bases an estimated thousand miles east.
The battle occurred just months after serious Chad-Sudan tensions ended with the signing of the Tripoli Agreement. Déby broke off relations with the government of Sudan as a result, expelling its diplomats and threatened to stop sheltering thousands of Sudanese refugees from the Darfur region. The Muslim-controlled government of Sudan has also been documented by the United Nations to have engaged in mass murder of approximately 100,000 non-Arab civilians in Darfur in the period 2003–2006.Battle of N'Djamena (2008)
The Battle of N'Djamena began on February 2, 2008 when Chadian rebel forces opposed to Chadian President Idriss Déby entered N'Djamena, the capital of Chad, after a three-day advance through the country. The rebels were initially successful, taking a large part of the city and attacking the heavily defended presidential palace. They did not capture the palace, and after two days of fighting they withdrew to outside the city. Around two days later they retreated east.
The assault on the capital was part of a longer military campaign to unseat the Chadian president. The array of rebels fighting against the government shifted during the war: this attack involved approximately 2,000 men from the Union of Forces for Democracy and Development, the Union of Forces for Democracy and Development-Fundamental and the Rally of Democratic Forces. Several non-rebel opposition leaders were arrested by the government.
Hundreds died in the battle, which displaced at least 30,000. French forces evacuated foreigners, but also provided intelligence and ammunition for the Chadian National Army and sporadically exchanged fire with rebels. Soldiers from the Justice and Equality Movement, a Darfur-based ally of the Chadian government, reportedly took part in the battle, but many more fought in the east of Chad, preventing rebel reinforcements from reaching the city.Chad Cup
The Chad Cup is the top knockout tournament of the Chad football. The winner competes in the CAF Confederation Cup the following season.Chad Premier League
Chad Premier League (French: Ligue Nationale de Football, also known as LINAFOOT) is a Chadian league for men's association football clubs. At the top of the Chadian football league system, it is the country's primary football competition. Contested by 10 clubs, it operates on a system of promotion and relegation with Division 2.
In 2015, season was supposed to run from February to August, with teams playing 22 matches each (playing each team in the league twice, home and away) totalling 132 matches in the season.
Since the inception of the Chad Premier League in 1988, eight clubs have won the title: Renaissance FC (7), Tourbillon FC (5), Elect-Sport FC (4), Gazelle FC (3), Foullah Edifice FC (3), AS CotonTchad (2), Postel 2000 FC (2), Renaissance FC (Abéché) (2). The current champions are Gazelle FC, who won the title in 2015.Chadian Air Force
The Chadian Air Force, in French Force Aérienne Tchadienne, was formed in 1961 as the Escadrille Nationale Tchadienne (Chadian National Flight/Squadron), and was given its current name in 1973. It continues to be part of the Chadian Army.
The force shares a base with French forces at N'Djamena International Airport.Chadian Civil War (2005–2010)
The most recent Chadian Civil War began in December 2005. Since its independence from France in 1960, Chad has been swamped by the civil war between the Arab-Muslims of the north and the Sub-Saharan-Christians of the south. As a result, leadership and presidency in Chad drifted back and forth between the Christian southerners and Muslim northerners. When one side was in power, the other side usually started a revolutionary war to counter it.
France, the former colonial power, and Chad's northern neighbour Libya have both become involved at various times throughout the civil war. By the mid-1990s the civil war had somewhat stabilised, and in 1996 Idriss Déby, a northerner, was confirmed president in Chad's first democratic election. In 1998 an armed rebellion began in the north, led by President Déby's former defence chief, Youssouf Togoimi. A Libyan peace deal in 2002 failed to put an end to the fighting. In 2003, conflict in the neighbouring Darfur region in Sudan leaked across the border into Chad. Refugees from Sudan were joined by Chadian civilians who were trying to escape rebel violence and eventually filled the camps. It was clear that Chad's rebels received weapons and assistance from the government of Sudan. At the same time, Sudan's rebels got help from Chad's government. In February 2008, three rebel groups joined forces and launched an attack on Chad's capital, N'Djamena. After launching an assault that failed to seize the presidential palace, the attack was decisively repulsed.
France sent in troops to shore up the government. Many of the rebels were former allies of President Idriss Déby. They accused him of corruption towards members of his own tribe.Chadian Football Federation
The Chadian Football Federation (French: Fédération Tchadienne de Football Association, FTFA) is the governing body of football in Chad. It was founded in 1962, and affiliated to FIFA and to CAF in 1964. It organizes the national football leagues, including the Chad Premier League, Chad Cup and the national team. Its offices are located in N'Djamena. The FTFA is an apolitical, non-profit and non-denominational association. It has legal personality and financial autonomy. Its current president is Moctar Mahamoud Hamid.Departments of Chad
The regions of Chad are divided into 61 departments. The departments are listed below, by name and by region.Foreign relations of Chad
The foreign relations of Chad are significantly influenced by the desire for oil revenue and investment in Chadian oil industry and support for Chadian President Idriss Déby. Chad is officially non-aligned but has close relations with France, the former colonial power. Relations with neighbouring Libya, and Sudan vary periodically. Lately, the Idris Déby regime has been waging an intermittent proxy war with Sudan. Aside from those two countries, Chad generally enjoys good relations with its neighbouring states.List of Chadian records in athletics
The following are the national records in athletics in Chad maintained by Chad's national athletics federation: Federation Tchadienne d'Athletisme (FTA).Lycée Montaigne de N'Djamena
Lycée Montaigne de N'Djamena (LFM) is a French international school in N'Djamena, Chad. It has maternelle (preschool) through lycée (senior high school) levels. It opened in 1977.Mining industry of Chad
The only mineral exploited in Chad was sodium carbonate, or natron. Also called sal soda or washing soda, natron was used as a salt for medicinal purposes, as a preservative for hides, and as an ingredient in the traditional manufacture of soap; herders also fed it to their animals. Natron deposits were located around the shore of Lake Chad and the wadis of Kanem Prefecture.
Natron occurs naturally in two forms: white and black. More valuable commercially, hard blocks of black natron were exported to Nigeria. White natron was sold on local markets, principally in N'Djamena and farther to the south. Although efforts were made in the late 1960s to control the commercialization of natron through the creation of a parastatal, by 1970 those efforts had failed because of resistance by traditional chiefs and traders who controlled production through a system of perpetual indebtedness.
A number of other mineral deposits are known, but none had been commercially exploited by the mid-1980s. Bauxite is found in the soudanian zone, and gold-bearing quartz is reported in Biltine Prefecture. Uranium is reported in the Aozou Strip, as are tin and tungsten in other parts of the Tibesti Mountains, but exploration reports in 1971 for these three minerals did not indicate large or rich deposits. As of 1987, conflicts in the region prevented further exploration.
By far the potentially most important resource is oil. In 1970, a consortium of Conoco, Shell, Chevron, and Exxon started exploration and in 1974 discovered minor oil deposits at Sédigi, near Rig Rig, to the north of Lake Chad. Total reserves at Sédigi were estimated at 60 million tons, or roughly 438 million barrels (69,600,000 m3) of oil. Exploration in 1985 by the Exxon-led consortium discovered potentially large deposits near Doba in the southern region of Chad. Further efforts were suspended in 1986 when world oil prices continued to drop, although the consortium maintained a liaison office in N'Djamena in 1988.
Plans existed in the late 1970s to exploit the deposits at Sédigi and to construct a small refinery at N'Djamena. Those plans lapsed during the conflicts of the late 1970s and early 1980s but were revived in 1986 by the government with the support of the World Bank. The reasons for proceeding with plans to exploit these deposits and build a refinery were clear. The cost of importing petroleum products exceeded the cost of extracting and refining domestic crude, even when international oil prices were low. The plans, which anticipated operations to begin in the early 1990s, included well development in the Sédigi field, a pipeline to N'Djamena, a refinery with a 2,000- to 5,000 barrels per day (790 m3/d) capacity, and the transformation or acquisition of power-generating equipment in the capital to burn the refinery's residual fuel oil. The refinery's output would satisfy 80 percent of Chad's annual fuel needs, including all gasoline, diesel, butane, and kerosene; lubricants and jet fuel, however, would still have to be imported.N'Djamena International Airport
N'Djamena International Airport (IATA: NDJ, ICAO: FTTJ) (Arabic: مطار انجمينا الدولي; French: Aéroport international de N'Djaména) is an international airport serving N'Djamena, the capital city of Chad. It is the country's only international airport. The airport is dual use, with civilian and military installations on opposite sides of the single runway.Red Cross of Chad
Red Cross of Chad also known as CRC was founded in 1983. It has its headquarters in N’Djamena, Chad.Stade Omnisports Idriss Mahamat Ouya
Stade Nacional, also named Stade Omnisports Idriss Mahamat Ouya (Arabic: ملعب وطني), is a multi-use stadium in N'Djamena, Chad. It is currently used mostly for football matches. The stadium holds 20,000 people and sometimes 30,000 people, and has artificial grass. It is currently the home ground of the Chad national football team. It is named after former Chadian highjumper Mahamat Idriss (1942—1987).
The stadium is located on Avenue Bezo, also known as Avenue Bokasa.
It is the home field of several clubs including Gazelle, Renaissance N'Djamena, CotonTchad (or CotonTchad N'Djamena), Tourbilllon, Postel 2000, DGSSIE and Foullah Edifice.UNOSAT
UNOSAT was established in 2001 as an operational, technology-intensive programme of the United Nations Institute for Training and Research (UNITAR). UNOSAT provides satellite imagery analysis and capacity development to the UN system, UN member states, and its partners. The programme's work supports evidence-based decision making for peace, security and resilience. UNOSAT products are used in response to humanitarian crises and for implementation of the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development.
The UNOSAT team is mainly composed of GIS and imagery analysts, remote sensing experts, geologists, hydrogeologists and hydrologists, supported by IT engineers, programmers, and management experts.
UNOSAT is headquartered at The European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN) in Geneva, Switzerland with regional presence in Bangkok, Nairobi and N’Djamena.University of N'Djamena
The University of N'Djamena (Arabic: جامعة انجامينا, French: Université de N'Djamena, UNDT) is the leading institution of higher education in Chad. It was created in 1971 as the University of Chad, and was renamed to "University of N'Djamena" in 1994.
The university is a member of the International Association of Universities.
|Climate data for N'Djamena (1961–1990, extremes 1904–present)|
|Record high °C (°F)||41.8
|Average high °C (°F)||32.4
|Daily mean °C (°F)||23.4
|Average low °C (°F)||14.3
|Record low °C (°F)||6.5
|Average precipitation mm (inches)||0.0
|Average precipitation days (≥ 0.1 mm)||0||0||1||3||6||9||13||15||9||3||1||0||60|
|Average relative humidity (%)||29||23||21||28||39||52||68||76||72||49||33||31||43|
|Mean monthly sunshine hours||297.6||277.2||282.1||273.0||285.2||258.0||213.9||201.5||228.0||285.2||300.0||303.8||3,205.5|
|Mean daily sunshine hours||9.6||9.9||9.1||9.1||9.2||8.6||6.9||6.5||7.6||9.2||10.0||9.8||8.8|
|Source #1: World Meteorological Organization (precipitation)|
|Source #2: NOAA (sun, humidity, temperatures), Meteo Climat (record highs and lows)|
Capitals of African states