Myxophaga

Myxophaga is the second smallest suborder of the Coleoptera after Archostemata, consisting of roughly 65 species of small to minute beetles in four families. The members of this suborder are aquatic and semiaquatic, and feed on algae.

Myxophaga
Temporal range: Roadian–Recent
Sphaerius.acaroides.Reitter.tafel64
Sphaerius acaroides
Scientific classification
Kingdom:
Phylum:
Class:
Order:
Suborder:
Myxophaga

Crowson, 1955
Families

Hydroscaphidae
Lepiceridae
Sphaeriusidae
Torridincolidae

Taxonomy

There are four extant families in the suborder Myxophaga divided between two superfamilies,[1] containing about 65 described species,[2] and at least two extinct superfamilies of the suborder.[a]

  • Superfamily Lepiceroidea
  • Superfamily Sphaeriusoidea
  • Superfamily Rhombocoleoidea
  • †Family Rhombocoleidae
  • Superfamily Schizophoroidea
  • †Family Catiniidae
  • †Family Schizocoleidae
  • †Family Schizophoridae

Phylogeny

Little about the fossil record of Myxophaga is known, with only two fossils being described from Cretaceous amber. The first was originally placed in a new family, Haplochelidae,[3] but latterly moved to the family Lepiceridae.[4] The second fossil specimen from amber was placed in the Sphaeriusidae.[5] No impression fossils of myxophagan beetle were described until 2012, probably because of their small body size and specialized habitat.[6] This fossil specimen, from the Yixian Formation in the Jehol Biota, dates from the Early Cretaceous and shows that the development of Myxophaga must pre-date this period.[6]

Description

Myxophaga have several diagnostic features: the antennae are more or less distinctly clubbed with usually fewer than nine segments, mesocoxal cavities are open laterally and bordered by a mesepimeron and metanepisternum, the hind wings are rolled apically in the resting positions. Internally, they are characterised by the presence of six malpighian tubules and the testes are tube-like and coiled.[7]

Beetles of this suborder are adapted to feed on algae. Their mouthparts are characteristic in lacking galeae and having a mobile tooth on their left mandible.[8]

Distribution

Only two myxophagan genera are found in North America: Sphaerius and Hydroscapha.

See also

Notes

  1. ^ † Denotes that the group is extinct

References

  1. ^ "Myxophaga". Tree of Life Web Project. 2007. Retrieved 2017-05-26.
  2. ^ Mesaros, Gabor (2013). "Sphaeriusidae (Coleoptera, Myxophaga): A new beetle family to the fauna of Serbia". Bulletin of the Natural History Museum (6): 71–74. doi:10.5937/bnhmb1306071m.
  3. ^ Kirejtshuk, A. G.; Poinar, G. (2006). "Haplochelidae, a new family of cretaceous beetles (Coleoptera: Myxophaga) from Burmese amber". Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Washington. 108: 155–164.
  4. ^ Ge, S. Q.; Friedrich, F.; Beutel, R. G. (2010). "On the systematic position and taxonomic rank of the extinct myxophagan dagger Haplochelus (Coleoptera)". Insect Systematics and Evolution. 41: 329–338. doi:10.1163/187631210X537385.
  5. ^ Kirejtshuk, A. G. (2009). "A new genus and species of Sphaeriusidae (Coleoptera, Myxophaga) from Lower Cretaceous Burmese amber" (PDF). Denisia. 26: 99–102.
  6. ^ a b Cai, C.; Short, A. E. Z.; Huang, D. (2012). "The First Skiff Beetle (Coleoptera: Myxophaga: Hydroscaphidae) from Early Cretaceous Jehol Biota". Journal of Paleontology. 86 (1): 116–9. doi:10.1666/11-050.1.
  7. ^ Beutel, R.; Leschen, R. (2005). "Morphology and Systematics (Archostemata, Adephaga, Myxophaga, Polyphaga partim)". Band 4 Part 38: Arthropoda, Hälfte: Insecta, Coleoptera, Beetles. Handbuch der Zoologie/Handbook of Zoology. 1. Walter de Gruyter. ISBN 3-11-017130-9.
  8. ^ Beutel & Leschen 2005, p. 43

External links

Amphizoa

Amphizoa is a genus of aquatic beetles in the suborder Adephaga, placed in its own monogeneric family, Amphizoidae. There are five known species of Amphizoa, three in western North America and two in eastern palearctic. They are sometimes referred to by the common name troutstream beetles.

Beetle

Beetles are a group of insects that form the order Coleoptera, in the superorder Endopterygota. Their front pair of wings are hardened into wing-cases, elytra, distinguishing them from most other insects. The Coleoptera, with about 400,000 species, is the largest of all orders, constituting almost 40% of described insects and 25% of all known animal life-forms; new species are discovered frequently. The largest of all families, the Curculionidae (weevils) with some 83,000 member species,

belongs to this order. Found in almost every habitat except the sea and the polar regions, they interact with their ecosystems in several ways: beetles often feed on plants and fungi, break down animal and plant debris, and eat other invertebrates. Some species are serious agricultural pests, such as the Colorado potato beetle, while others such as Coccinellidae (ladybirds or ladybugs) eat aphids, scale insects, thrips, and other plant-sucking insects that damage crops.

Beetles typically have a particularly hard exoskeleton including the elytra, though some such as the rove beetles have very short elytra while blister beetles have softer elytra. The general anatomy of a beetle is quite uniform and typical of insects, although there are several examples of novelty, such as adaptations in water beetles which trap air bubbles under the elytra for use while diving. Beetles are endopterygotes, which means that they undergo complete metamorphosis, with a series of conspicuous and relatively abrupt changes in body structure between hatching and becoming adult after a relatively immobile pupal stage. Some, such as stag beetles, have a marked sexual dimorphism, the males possessing enormously enlarged mandibles which they use to fight other males. Many beetles are aposematic, with bright colours and patterns warning of their toxicity, while others are harmless Batesian mimics of such insects. Many beetles, including those that live in sandy places, have effective camouflage.

Beetles are prominent in human culture, from the sacred scarabs of ancient Egypt to beetlewing art and use as pets or fighting insects for entertainment and gambling. Many beetle groups are brightly and attractively coloured making them objects of collection and decorative displays. Over 300 species are used as food, mostly as larvae; species widely consumed include mealworms and rhinoceros beetle larvae. However, the major impact of beetles on human life is as agricultural, forestry, and horticultural pests. Serious pests include the boll weevil of cotton, the Colorado potato beetle, the coconut hispine beetle, and the mountain pine beetle. Most beetles, however, do not cause economic damage and many, such as the lady beetles and dung beetles are beneficial by helping to control insect pests.

Claudiella

Claudiella ingens is a species of beetle in the family Torridincolidae, the only species in the genus Claudiella.

Delevea

Delevea is a genus of beetles in the family Torridincolidae, containing:

Delevea bertrandi Reichardt, 1976

Delevea naibensis Endrödy-Younga, 1997

Eype Mouth

Eype Mouth is a natural break in a line of sea cliffs on the Jurassic Coast World Heritage Site in west Dorset on the south coast of England. The small River Eype drains into the sea at this point. Eype means 'a steep place' in Old English. The village of Eype (divided into the settlements Lower and Higher Eype) lies just upstream of the rivermouth, which is reached by a single narrow lane which runs down through Lower Eype to a shingle beach with car park.

The coast to the west of the rivermouth is a noted site for rare beetles. Two species found here are unknown elsewhere in Great Britain:

Sphaerius acaroides lives in mud and at plant roots at the edge of standing freshwater pools on the site; this species is particularly noteworthy in that it is the only British representative of the suborder Myxophaga.

the weevil Sitona gemellatus occurs on the site, being found at the roots of leguminous plants (although this species has been recorded in similar habitat at Sidmouth, Devon, it has not been recorded from there recently.Other rare beetles found at this site include the tiger beetle Cicindela germanica, the ground beetle Drypta dentata and the weevil Baris analis.

Hydroscapha

Hydroscapha is a genus of beetles endemic to Europe and the United States. It contains these species:

Hydroscapha coomani Löbl, 1994

Hydroscapha crotchi Sharp, 1874

Hydroscapha granulum (Motschulsky, 1855)

Hydroscapha gyrinoides Aube

Hydroscapha hunanensis

Hydroscapha jaechi Löbl, 1994

Hydroscapha jumaloni Sato, 1972

Hydroscapha mauretanica Peyerimhoff, 1922

Hydroscapha monticola Löbl, 1994

Hydroscapha natans LeConte, 1874

Hydroscapha nepalensis Löbl, 1994

Hydroscapha reichardti Löbl, 1994

Hydroscapha saboureaui Paulian, 1949

Hydroscapha satoi Löbl, 1994

Hydroscapha sharpi Reitter, 1887

Hydroscapha substrigosa Champion, 1920

Hydroscapha takahashii Miwa, 1934

Hydroscapha turbinata Champion, 1925

Hydroscaphidae

The Hydroscaphidae are a small family of water beetles known commonly as skiff beetles. As of 2010, there are 23 species in the family. Several are recently described.

These beetles are small, most under 2 mm in length. They are tan to brown in color and the elytra are abbreviated, leaving several tapering tergites of the abdomen exposed. The wings are fringed with long setae. The larvae are fusiform, with a wide thorax and a narrowing abdomen.These beetles live on mats of algae with a thin layer of running water. This may be the accumulated algae lining the very edge of a stream of water. They tolerate a wide range of temperatures; they have been observed in hot springs and in icy snowmelt. The algae are their food source.The reproductive cycle is not well known. In at least one species, the female lays a single large egg on the algal mat.Hydroscaphid species have been reported from every continent except Antarctica.

Genera:

Hydroscapha

Scaphydra

Yara

Lamingtoniidae

Lamingtoniidae is a very small family of beetles, in the suborder Polyphaga. It contains the single genus Lamingtonium and the single species Lamingtonium binnaberrense.

Lepicerus

Lepicerus is a genus of Myxophagan beetles containing three described species in the monotypic family Lepiceridae.

List of subgroups of the order Coleoptera

This article classifies the subgroups of the order Coleoptera (beetles) down to the level of families, following the system in "Family-group names in Coleoptera (Insecta)", Bouchard, et. al. (2011), with common names from bugguide.net.

Order Coleoptera

Suborder †Protocoleoptera

Superfamily †Tshekardocoleoidea Rohdendorf, 1944

Family †Tshekardocoleidae Rohdendorf, 1944

Family †Labradorocoleidae Ponomarenko, 1969

Family †Oborocoleidae Kukalová, 1969

Superfamily †Permocupedoidea Martynov, 1933

Family †Permocupedidae Martynov, 1933

Family †Taldycupedidae Rohdendorf, 1961

Superfamily †Permosynoidea Tillyard, 1924

Family †Ademosynidae Ponomarenko, 1968

Family †Permosynidae Tillyard, 1924

Suborder Archostemata

Family Crowsoniellidae Iablokoff-Khnzorian, 1983

Family Cupedidae Laporte, 1836

Family Micromalthidae Barber, 1913 (telephone-pole beetle)

Family Ommatidae Sharp and Muir, 1912

Family Jurodidae Ponomarenko, 1985

Family †Triadocupedidae Ponomarenko, 1966

Family †Magnocoleidae Hong, 1998

Family †Obrieniidae Zherikhin and Gratshev, 1994

Suborder Myxophaga

Superfamily †Asiocoleoidea Rohdendorf, 1961

Family †Asiocoleidae Rohdendorf, 1961

Family †Tricoleidae Ponomarenko, 1969

Superfamily †Rhombocoleoidea Rohdendorf, 1961

Family †Rhombocoleidae Rohdendorf, 1961

Superfamily †Schizophoroidea Ponomarenko, 1968

Family †Schizophoridae Ponomarenko, 1968

Family †Catiniidae Ponomarenko, 1968

Family †Schizocoleidae Rohdendorf, 1961

Superfamily Lepiceroidea Hinton, 1936 (1882)

Family Lepiceridae Hinton, 1936 (1882)

Superfamily Sphaeriusoidea Erichson, 1845

Family Torridincolidae Steffan, 1964

Family Hydroscaphidae LeConte, 1874

Family Sphaeriusidae Erichson, 1845

Suborder Adephaga

Family †Tritarsidae Hong, 2002

Family Gyrinidae Latreille, 1810 (whirligig beetles)

Family Trachypachidae Thomson, 1857 (false ground beetles)

Family Rhysodidae Laporte, 1840

Family Carabidae Latreille, 1802 (ground beetles)

Family Haliplidae Aubé, 1836 (crawling water beetles)

Family †Triaplidae Ponomarenko, 1977

Family †Colymbotethidae Ponomarenko, 1994

Family †Parahygrobiidae Ponomarenko, 1977

Family †Coptoclavidae Ponomarenko, 1961

Family †Liadytidae Ponomarenko, 1977

Family Meruidae Spangler and Steiner, 2005

Family Noteridae Thomson, 1860 (burrowing water beetles)

Family Amphizoidae LeConte, 1853

Family Aspidytidae Ribera, Beutel, Balke and Vogler, 2002

Family Hygrobiidae Régimbart, 1879 (1837)

Family Dytiscidae Leach, 1815 (predaceous diving beetles)

Suborder Polyphaga

Infraorder Staphyliniformia

Superfamily Hydrophiloidea Latreille, 1802

Family Hydrophilidae Latreille, 1802 (water scavenger beetles)

Family Sphaeritidae Shuckard, 1839

Family Synteliidae Lewis, 1882

Family Histeridae Gyllenhal, 1808

Superfamily Staphylinoidea Latreille, 1802

Family Hydraenidae Mulsant, 1844

Family Ptiliidae Erichson, 1845

Family Agyrtidae Thomson, 1859

Family Leiodidae Fleming, 1821

Family Silphidae Latreille, 1806

Family Staphylinidae Latreille, 1802 (rove beetles)

Infraorder Scarabaeiformia

Superfamily Scarabaeoidea Latreille, 1802

Family Pleocomidae LeConte, 1861 (rain beetles)

Family Geotrupidae Latreille, 1802 (earth-boring scarab beetles)

Family Belohinidae Paulian, 1959

Family Passalidae Leach, 1815 (bess beetles)

Family Trogidae MacLeay, 1819 (hide beetles)

Family Glaresidae Kolbe, 1905

Family Diphyllostomatidae Holloway, 1972

Family Lucanidae Latreille, 1804 (stag beetles)

Family Ochodaeidae Mulsant and Rey, 1871 (sand-loving scarab beetles)

Family Hybosoridae Erichson, 1847

Family Glaphyridae MacLeay, 1819 (bumble bee scarab beetles)

Family Scarabaeidae Latreille, 1802 (scarab beetles)

Family †Coprinisphaeridae Genise, 2004

Family †Pallichnidae Genise, 2004

Infraorder Elateriformia

Superfamily Scirtoidea Fleming, 1821

Family Decliniidae Nikitsky, Lawrence, Kirejtshuk and Gratshev, 1994

Family Eucinetidae Lacordaire, 1857

Family Clambidae Fischer von Waldheim, 1821

Family Scirtidae Fleming, 1821

Family †Elodophthalmidae Kirejtshuk and Azar, 2008

Family †Mesocinetidae Kirejtshuk and Ponomarenko, 2010

Superfamily Dascilloidea Guérin-Méneville, 1843 (1834)

Family Dascillidae Guérin-Méneville, 1843 (1834)

Family Rhipiceridae Latreille, 1834

Superfamily Buprestoidea Leach, 1815

Family Schizopodidae LeConte, 1859

Family Buprestidae Leach, 1815

Superfamily Byrrhoidea Latreille, 1804

Family Byrrhidae Latreille, 1804

Family Elmidae Curtis, 1830

Family Dryopidae Billberg, 1820 (1817)

Family Lutrochidae Kasap and Crowson, 1975

Family Limnichidae Erichson, 1846

Family Heteroceridae MacLeay, 1825

Family Psephenidae Lacordaire, 1854

Family Cneoglossidae Champion, 1897

Family Ptilodactylidae Laporte, 1836

Family Podabrocephalidae Pic, 1930

Family Chelonariidae Blanchard, 1845

Family Eulichadidae Crowson, 1973

Family Callirhipidae Emden, 1924

Superfamily Elateroidea Leach, 1815

Family Rhinorhipidae Lawrence, 1988

Family Artematopodidae Lacordaire, 1857

Family Brachypsectridae LeConte and Horn, 1883

Family Cerophytidae Latreille, 1834

Family Eucnemidae Eschscholtz, 1829

Family Throscidae Laporte, 1840 nomen protectum

Family †Praelateriidae Dolin, 1973

Family Elateridae Leach, 1815 (click beetles)

Family Plastoceridae Crowson, 1972

Family Drilidae Blanchard, 1845

Family Omalisidae Lacordaire, 1857

Family †Berendtimiridae Winkler, 1987

Family Lycidae Laporte, 1836

Family Telegeusidae Leng, 1920

Family Phengodidae LeConte, 1861

Family Rhagophthalmidae Olivier, 1907

Family Lampyridae Rafinesque, 1815 (fireflies)

Family Omethidae LeConte, 1861

Family Cantharidae Imhoff, 1856 (1815) (soldier beetles)

Infraorder Bostrichiformia

Superfamily Derodontoidea LeConte, 1861

Family Derodontidae LeConte, 1861

Family Nosodendridae Erichson, 1846

Family Jacobsoniidae Heller, 1926

Superfamily Bostrichoidea Latreille, 1802

Family Dermestidae Latreille, 1804 (carpet beetles)

Family Endecatomidae LeConte, 1861

Family Bostrichidae Latreille, 1802

Family Ptinidae Latreille, 1802

Infraorder Cucujiformia

Superfamily Lymexyloidea Fleming, 1821

Family Lymexylidae Fleming, 1821

Superfamily Cleroidea Latreille, 1802

Family Phloiophilidae Kiesenwetter, 1863

Family Trogossitidae Latreille, 1802

Family Chaetosomatidae Crowson, 1952

Family Metaxinidae Kolibáč, 2004

Family Thanerocleridae Chapin, 1924

Family Cleridae Latreille, 1802 (checkered beetles)

Family Acanthocnemidae Crowson, 1964

Family Phycosecidae Crowson, 1952

Family Prionoceridae Lacordaire, 1857

Family Mauroniscidae Majer, 1995

Family Melyridae Leach, 1815 (soft-winged flower beetles)

Superfamily Cucujoidea Latreille, 1802

Family †Parandrexidae Kirejtshuk, 1994

Family †Sinisilvanidae Hong, 2002

Family Boganiidae Sen Gupta and Crowson, 1966

Family Byturidae Gistel, 1848

Family Helotidae Chapuis, 1876

Family Protocucujidae Crowson, 1954

Family Sphindidae Jacquelin du Val, 1860

Family Biphyllidae LeConte, 1861

Family Erotylidae Latreille, 1802

Family Monotomidae Laporte, 1840

Family Hobartiidae Sen Gupta and Crowson, 1966

Family Cryptophagidae Kirby, 1826

Family Agapythidae Sen Gupta and Crowson, 1969

Family Priasilphidae Crowson, 1973

Family Phloeostichidae Reitter, 1911

Family Silvanidae Kirby, 1837

Family Cucujidae Latreille, 1802

Family Myraboliidae Lawrence and Britton, 1991

Family Cavognathidae Sen Gupta and Crowson, 1966

Family Lamingtoniidae Sen Gupta and Crowson, 1969

Family Passandridae Blanchard, 1845

Family Phalacridae Leach, 1815

Family Propalticidae Crowson, 1952

Family Laemophloeidae Ganglbauer, 1899

Family Tasmosalpingidae Lawrence and Britton, 1991

Family Cyclaxyridae Gimmel, Leschen and Ślipiński, 2009

Family Kateretidae Kirby, 1837

Family Nitidulidae Latreille, 1802

Family Smicripidae Horn, 1880

Family Bothrideridae Erichson, 1845

Family Cerylonidae Billberg, 1820

Family Alexiidae Imhoff, 1856

Family Discolomatidae Horn, 1878

Family Endomychidae Leach, 1815

Family Coccinellidae Latreille, 1807 (ladybirds or lady beetles)

Family Corylophidae LeConte, 1852

Family Akalyptoischiidae Lord, Hartley, Lawrence, McHugh and Miller, 2010

Family Latridiidae Erichson, 1842

Superfamily Tenebrionoidea Latreille, 1802

Family Mycetophagidae Leach, 1815

Family Archeocrypticidae Kaszab, 1964

Family Pterogeniidae Crowson, 1953

Family Ciidae Leach, 1819

Family Tetratomidae Billberg, 1820

Family Melandryidae Leach, 1815

Family Mordellidae Latreille, 1802 (tumbling flower beetles)

Family Ripiphoridae Gemminger, 1870 (1855)

Family Zopheridae Solier, 1834

Family Ulodidae Pascoe, 1869

Family Promecheilidae Lacordaire, 1859

Family Chalcodryidae Watt, 1974

Family Trachelostenidae Lacordaire, 1859

Family Tenebrionidae Latreille, 1802 (darkling beetles)

Family Prostomidae Thomson, 1859

Family Synchroidae Lacordaire, 1859

Family Stenotrachelidae Thomson, 1859

Family Oedemeridae Latreille, 1810

Family Meloidae Gyllenhal, 1810 (blister beetles)

Family Mycteridae Oken, 1843 (palm beetles and flower beetles)

Family Boridae Thomson, 1859

Family Trictenotomidae Blanchard, 1845

Family Pythidae Solier, 1834

Family Pyrochroidae Latreille, 1806

Family Salpingidae Leach, 1815

Family Anthicidae Latreille, 1819

Family Aderidae Csiki, 1909

Family Scraptiidae Gistel, 1848

Clade Phytophaga

Superfamily Chrysomeloidea Latreille, 1802

Family Oxypeltidae Lacordaire, 1868

Family Vesperidae Mulsant, 1839

Family Disteniidae Thomson, 1861

Family Cerambycidae Latreille, 1802 (longhorn beetles)

Family Megalopodidae Latreille, 1802

Family Orsodacnidae Thomson, 1859

Family Chrysomelidae Latreille, 1802 (leaf beetles)

Superfamily Curculionoidea Latreille, 1802

Family Nemonychidae Bedel, 1882

Family Anthribidae Billberg, 1820

Family †Ulyanidae Zherikhin, 1993

Family Belidae Schönherr, 1826

Family Caridae Thompson, 1992

Family Attelabidae Billberg, 1820

Family Brentidae Billberg, 1820

Family Dryophthoridae Schönherr, 1825

Family Brachyceridae Billberg, 1820

Family Curculionidae Latreille, 1802 (snout beetles, weevils, and bark beetles)

Perimylopidae

Perimylopidae is a family of beetles, in the large suborder Polyphaga. It is now called Promecheilidae

Protocucujidae

Protocucujidae is a family of beetles, in the suborder Polyphaga.

Pterogeniidae

Pterogeniidae is a family of beetles, in the large suborder Polyphaga.

Rhysodidae

Rhysodidae (sometimes called wrinkled bark beetles) is a family of beetles, consisting of more than 350 species in about 20 genera.

These beetles are elongate, in size ranging from 5–8 mm, and color ranging from a reddish brown to black. Both the thorax and the elytra are deeply grooved lengthwise, thus giving these beetles their common name. The head is also grooved, and posteriorly constricted into a short but visible "neck". The 11-segment antennae are short, resembling a string of beads, while the mandibles lack cutting edges and are thus nonfunctional. The front legs are short and strongly built,

Adults and larvae live in moist rotten wood that is infested with slime moulds, which are believed to be their diet. Instead of using their mandibles to bite, they use the anterior edge of the mentum and swivel their heads to cut off pieces of food. Adults do not make burrows, instead just squeezing between the cell layers of the decomposed wood, generally leaving no visible trace of their passage, while larvae live in short tunnels.

They occur on all continents with forested areas, the richest fauna being found in New Guinea, Indonesia, the Philippines, and northern South America.

Classification remains controversial, with specialist Ross T. Bell arguing for placement as a tribe Rhysodini of Carabidae, while R. G. Beutel and others argue that larval characteristics indicate that rhysodids are their own family. Recent DNA analysis supports the placement of Rhysodidae within the family Carabidae.The following genera have generally been treated as members of the family Rhysodidae, but are now sometimes considered members of Carabidae instead.

Arrowina Bell & Bell, 1978 (Palearctic, Indomalaya)

Clinidium Kirby 1835

Dhysores Grouvelle 1903 (Africa)

Grouvellina Bell & Bell 1978 (Madagascar, Comoros)

Kaveinga Bell & Bell 1978 (Australasia)

Kupeus Bell & Bell 1982 (New Zealand)

Leoglymmius Bell & Bell, 1978 (Australia)

Medisores Bell & Bell, 1987 (South Africa)

Neodhysores Bell & Bell 1978 (South America)

Omoglymmius Ganglbauer, 1891

Plesioglymmius Bell & Bell, 1978

Rhysodes Germar 1822 (Paleac)

Rhyzodiastes Fairmaire 1895

Shyrodes Grouvelle, 1903 (Indomalaya)

Sloanoglymmius Bell & Bell, 1991 (Australia)

Srimara Bell & Bell, 1978 (Vietnam)

Tangarona Bell & Bell 1982 (New Zealand)

Xhosores Bell & Bell, 1978 (South Africa)

Yamatosa Bell & Bell, 1979

Sphaerius

Sphaerius is a genus of beetles, comprising 23 species, which are the only members of the family Sphaeriusidae. They are typically found along the edges of streams and rivers, where they feed on algae; they occur on all continents except Antarctica. Three species occur in the United States.

The overall form of the beetle is convex, glossy, dark brown or black with some markings possible. The head is prominent, with relatively large eyes set far apart, and capitate antennae. Total length ranges from 0.5–1.2 mm.

The beetles occur in a variety of damp environments, including mud, under stones, among plant roots and leaf litter, and in mosses in bogs. They store some air underneath their elytra.

Females produce a single large egg at a time.

The family used to be known as "Sphaeriidae", but the name was preoccupied by a family of freshwater clams. The name was inappropriately replaced with "Microsporidae" (by changing the genus name to Microsporus), but this act has been superseded by a return to the use of Sphaerius and a reformation of the family name as Sphaeriusidae. The position of the family within Coleoptera has also changed a number of times.

Torridincolidae

The Torridincolidae are a small family of beetles in the suborder Myxophaga. It contains these genera:

Claudiella Reichardt & Vanin, 1976

Delevea Reichardt, 1976

Iapir Py-Daniel, da Fonseca & Barbosa, 1993

Incoltorrida Steffan, 1973

Satonius Endrödy-Younga, 1997

Torridincola Steffan, 1964

Ytu Reichardt, 1973

Yara (beetle)

Yara is a genus of beetles in the family Hydroscaphidae, containing the following species:

Yara dybasi Reichardt & Hinton, 1976

Yara vanini Reichardt & Hinton, 1976

Ytu (beetle)

Ytu is a genus of beetles in the family Torridincolidae, containing these species:

Ytu angra Reichardt & Vanin, 1977

Ytu artemis Reichardt, 1973

Ytu athena Reichardt, 1973

Ytu brutus Spangler, 1980

Ytu cleideae Vanin, 1991

Ytu cupidus Reichardt, 1973

Ytu cuyaba Reichardt & Vanin, 1977

Ytu demeter Reichardt, 1973

Ytu godayi Reichardt & Vanin, 1977

Ytu hephaestus Reichardt, 1973

Ytu itati Reichardt & Vanin, 1977

Ytu mirandus Reichardt & Vanin, 1977

Ytu mirim Reichardt & Vanin, 1977

Ytu morpheus Reichardt, 1973

Ytu phebo Reichardt, 1973

Ytu reichardti Vanin, 1978

Ytu yaguar Reichardt & Vanin, 1977

Ytu ysypo Reichardt & Vanin, 1977

Ytu zeus Reichardt, 1973

Ytu artemis

Ytu artemis is a species of myxophagan beetle in the genus Ytu. It was discovered in 1973 and named after the Greek goddess Artemis.

Extant Coleoptera families

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