Myus

Myus (Ancient Greek: Μυοῦς), sometimes Myous or Myos, was an ancient Greek city in Caria. It was one of twelve major settlements of the Ionian League. The city was said to have been founded by Cyaretus (sometimes called Cydrelus), a son of Codrus.[1][2] Myus was located on a small peninsula at the coast of the Aegean Sea, but it now lies inland due the sediment deposited by the Maeander River over many centuries. The site of the city lies north of the modern village Avşar in the Söke district of Aydın Province, Turkey

Myus was synoikised with Miletus. Myus had both a temple of Athena and a temple of Herodotus and sources tell us that it was always secondary to Miletos. Instigated by Aristagoras of Miletus, the Ionian Revolt broke out here. It was the beginning of the Greco-Persian Wars.

Miletus Bay silting evolution map-en
Location of Myus at Maeander River's mouth.
Weihgeschenk des Hermonax
Ancient Greek votive offering to Apollo with dedicatory inscription in boustrophedon text, Myus, mid 6th century BC, Altes Museum, Berlin.

It was the smallest among the twelve Ionian cities, and in the days of Strabo the population was so reduced that they did not form a political community, but became incorporated with Miletus, whither in the end the Myusians transferred themselves, abandoning their own town altogether.[3] This last event happened, according to Pausanias, on account of the great number of flies which annoyed the inhabitants;[4] but it was more probably on account of the frequent inundations to which the place was exposed.[5] Myus was one of the three towns given to Themistocles by the Persian king.[6][7][8] During the Peloponnesian War the Athenians experienced a check near this place from the Carians.[9] Philip II of Macedonia, who had obtained possession of Myus, ceded it to the Magnesians.[10] The only edifice noticed by the ancients at Myus was a temple of Dionysus, built of white marble.[4]

Myus
Μυοῦς (in Ancient Greek)
Bafa lake3
Bafa Lake near Myus
Myus is located in Turkey
Myus
Shown within Turkey
Alternative nameMyous, Myos
LocationAvşar, Aydın Province, Turkey
RegionCaria
Coordinates37°35′44″N 27°25′46″E / 37.59556°N 27.42944°ECoordinates: 37°35′44″N 27°25′46″E / 37.59556°N 27.42944°E
TypeSettlement

References

  1. ^ Strabo, Geography, 14.1.3
  2. ^ Pausanias, Description of Greece, 7.2.10
  3. ^ Strabo. Geographica. xiv. p.636. Page numbers refer to those of Isaac Casaubon's edition.
  4. ^ a b Pausanias. Description of Greece. 7.2.7.
  5. ^ Vitruvius Pollio, The Ten Books on Architecture]] 4.1.
  6. ^ Thucydides. History of the Peloponnesian War. 1.138.
  7. ^ Diodorus Siculus. Bibliotheca historica (Historical Library). 11.57.
  8. ^ Plutarch Them. 29; Athen. 1.29; Nep. Them. 10.
  9. ^ Thucydides. History of the Peloponnesian War. 3.19.
  10. ^ Athen. 3.78.

 This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domainSmith, William, ed. (1854–1857). "Myus". Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography. London: John Murray.

Aydın Archaeological Museum

Aydın Archaeological Museum (Turkish: Aydın Arkeoloji Müzesi) is in Aydın, western Turkey. Established in 1959, it contains numerous statues, tombs, columns and stone carvings from the Hellenistic, Roman, Byzantine, Seljuk and Ottoman periods, unearthed in ancient cities such as Alinda, Alabanda, Amyzon, Harpasa, Magnesia on the Maeander, Mastaura, Myus, Nisa, Orthosia, Piginda, Pygela and Tralleis. The museum also has a section devoted to ancient coin finds.

Caloe

Caloe was a town in the Roman province of Asia. It is mentioned as Kaloe or Keloue in 3rd-century inscriptions, as Kalose in Hierocles's Synecdemos (660), and as Kalloe, Kaloe, and Kolone in Parthey's Notitiæ episcopatuum, in which it figures from the 6th to the 12fth or 13th century.

Cestrus

Cestrus was a city in the Roman province of Isauria, in Asia Minor. Its placing within Isauria is given by Hierocles, Georgius Cyprius, and Parthey's (Notitiae episcopatuum). While recognizing what the ancient sources said, Lequien supposed that the town, whose site has not been identified, took its name from the River Cestros and was thus in Pamphylia. Following Lequien's hypothesis, the 19th-century annual publication Gerarchia cattolica identified the town with "Ak-Sou", which Sophrone Pétridès called an odd mistake, since this is the name of the River Cestros, not of a city.

Coes of Mytilene

Coes was a Greek dignitary of Mytilene circa 515 BC. He supported King Darius Hystaspes of Persia in his Scythian expedition as commander of the Mytilenaeans. Coes dissuaded the king from breaking up his bridge of boats over the Danube, and so cutting off his own retreat. For this good counsel, he was appointed by Darius on his return as the new tyrant of Mytilene.In 499 BC, when the Ionians had been encouraged to revolt by Aristagoras, Coes, with several of the other tyrants, was seized by Aristagoras at Myus, where the Persian fleet that had been engaged at Naxos was lying. They were delivered up to the people of their cities. Most of them were allowed to go unhurt into exile other than Coes who was stoned to death by the Mytileneans.

De architectura

De architectura (On architecture, published as Ten Books on Architecture) is a treatise on architecture written by the Roman architect and military engineer Marcus Vitruvius Pollio and dedicated to his patron, the emperor Caesar Augustus, as a guide for building projects. As the only treatise on architecture to survive from antiquity, it has been regarded since the Renaissance as the first book on architectural theory, as well as a major source on the canon of classical architecture. It contains a variety of information on Greek and Roman buildings, as well as prescriptions for the planning and design of military camps, cities, and structures both large (aqueducts, buildings, baths, harbours) and small (machines, measuring devices, instruments). Since Vitruvius published before the development of cross vaulting, domes, concrete, and other innovations associated with Imperial Roman architecture, his ten books are not regarded as a source of information on these hallmarks of Roman building design and technology.

Dizak

Dizak (Armenian: Դիզակ), also known as Ktish after its main stronghold, was a medieval Armenian principality in the historical Artsakh and later one of the five melikdoms of Karabakh, which included the southern third of Khachen (present-day Nagorno-Karabakh) and from the 13th century also the canton of Baghk of Syunik. The founder of this principality was Esayi abu-Muse, in the 9th century. In the 16-18th centuries Dizak was ruled by the Armenian Melik-Avanian dynasty, a branch of the House of Syunik-Khachen. The seat of the princes of Dizak was the town of Togh (or Dogh) with the adjacent ancient fortress of Ktish. One of the last princes of Dizak, Esayi Melik-Avanian, was killed by Ibrahim Khalil Khan in 1781, after a long-lasting resistance in the fortress of Ktish.

Today the name "Dizak" is often used to refer to the province Hadrut of Nagorno-Karabakh Republic.

Drizipara

Drizipara (or Druzipara, Drousipara. Drusipara) now Karıştıran (Büyükkarıştıran) in Lüleburgaz district was a city and a residential episcopal see in the Roman province of Europa in the civil diocese of Thrace. It is now a titular see of the Catholic Church.

Ionia

Ionia (; Ancient Greek: Ἰωνία, Iōnía or Ἰωνίη, Iōníē) was an ancient region on the central part of the western coast of Anatolia in present-day Turkey, the region nearest İzmir, which was historically Smyrna. It consisted of the northernmost territories of the Ionian League of Greek settlements. Never a unified state, it was named after the Ionian tribe who, in the Archaic Period (600–480 BC), settled mainly the shores and islands of the Aegean Sea. Ionian states were identified by tradition and by their use of Eastern Greek.

Ionia proper comprised a narrow coastal strip from Phocaea in the north near the mouth of the river Hermus (now the Gediz), to Miletus in the south near the mouth of the river Maeander, and included the islands of Chios and Samos. It was bounded by Aeolia to the north, Lydia to the east and Caria to the south. The cities within the region figured large in the strife between the Persian Empire and the Greeks.

According to Greek tradition, the cities of Ionia were founded by colonists from the other side of the Aegean. Their settlement was connected with the legendary history of the Ionic people in Attica, which asserts that the colonists were led by Neleus and Androclus, sons of Codrus, the last king of Athens. In accordance with this view the "Ionic migration", as it was called by later chronologers, was dated by them one hundred and forty years after the Trojan War, or sixty years after the return of the Heracleidae into the Peloponnese.

Ionian League

The Ionian League (ancient Greek: Ἴωνες, Íōnes; κοινὸν Ἰώνων, koinón Iōnōn; or κοινὴ σύνοδος Ἰώνων, koinē sýnodos Iōnōn; Latin: commune consilium), also called the Panionic League, was a confederation formed at the end of the Meliac War in the mid-7th century BC comprising twelve Ionian cities (a dodecapolis, of which there were many others).

These were listed by Herodotus as

Miletus, Myus, and Priene, all in Caria (a region in Asia Minor) and speaking the same dialect;

Ephesus, Colophon, Lebedus, Teos, Clazomenae and Phocaea, in Lydia and-or the region known today as Ionia (both also in Asia Minor, Lydia extending inland much farther relative to Ionia), speaking another dialect;

Chios (island) and Erythrae (Asia Minor), with a common dialect; and

Samos (island), with its own dialect.After 650 BC Smyrna, an originally Aeolic city, was invited to diminish Aeolis and increase Ionia by joining the league, which it did.

One of our earliest historical sources, the Histories of Herodotus, and early inscriptions refer to the legally constituted body customarily translated by "league" as "the Ionians" in the special sense of the cities incorporated by it. One therefore reads of the cities, council or decisions "of the Ionians." Writers and documents of the Hellenistic Period explicitly use the term koinon ("common thing") or synodos ("synod") of the Ionians, and by anachronism apply it to the early league when they mention it.

The league was dissolved a few times and reconstituted a few times and in between its actual power varied. Under the Roman empire it was allowed to issue its own coinage under the name koinon Iōnōn on one side with the face of the emperor on the other.

List of ancient settlements in Turkey

Below is the list of ancient settlements in Turkey. There are innumerable ruins of ancient settlements spread all over the country. While some ruins date back to Neolithic times, most of them were settlements of Hittites, Phrygians, Lydians, Ionians, Urartians, and so on.

Lyrbe

Lyrbe (spelled Lyrba in the 1910 Catholic Encyclopedia; Ancient Greek: Λύρβη) was a city and episcopal see in the Roman province of Pamphylia Prima and is now a titular see.

Mandane (Cilicia)

Mandane (Ancient Greek: Μανδάνη) was a town on the coast of ancient Cilicia, between Celenderis, and Cape Pisidium or Posidium (modern Kızıl Burun), from which it was only 7 stadia distant. William Smith conjectured it to be the same place as the Myanda or Mysanda mentioned by Pliny the Elder; and if so, it must also be identical with the town of Myus (Μυούς) mentioned in the Periplus of Pseudo-Scylax between Nagidus and Celenderis. Modern scholarship does not accept the identity.Mandane is located near Akyaka in Asiatic Turkey.

Martuni Province

Martuni Province (Armenian: Մարտունի) is a province of the de facto Republic of Artsakh. The Republic has limited international recognition. It is de jure part of the Republic of Azerbaijan. The territory was formed from the Soviet-era raion of Martuni District within the former Nagorno-Karabakh Autonomous Oblast. The eastern part of that District in under the de facto control of the Republic of Azerbaijan. The territory of the province is considered by Azerbaijan to be a de jure part of the wider district of Khojavend.

Martuni Province consists of the branch of the former Oblast which juts out farthest to the east, almost reaches Stepanakert on the west, and goes a little past Karmir Shuka on the south. The western half has many hills and small mountains, full of small villages, while the eastern half is very flat, with fewer villages, and the larger regional center of Martuni. Historically, this area was also known as Myus Haband and Varand. Martuni Province has 35 rural communities and 1 urban community.

In 1991 the parliament of Azerbaijan, with the Law on Abolishment of Nagorno-Karabakh Autonomous Oblast, abolished Martuni District, incorporating its territory into the neighbouring Azerbaijani Khojavend District.

Myus (Cilicia)

Myus or Myous (Ancient Greek: Μυούς) was a town on the coast of ancient Cilicia, between Nagidus and Celenderis. William Smith conjectured it to be the same place as the Myanda or Mysanda mentioned by Pliny the Elder; and if so, also identical with the town of Mandane (Μανδάνη) mentioned in Stadiasmus Maris Magni as between Celenderis and Cape Pisidium or Posidium (modern Kızıl Burun), from which it was only 7 stadia distant. Modern scholarship tentatively accepts the identity with Myanda/Mysanda but rejects that of Mandane.Myus is tentatively located near Yenikaş in Asiatic Turkey.

Peraia

Peraia, and Peraea or Peræa (from Ancient Greek: ἡ περαία, hē peraia, "land across") in the Classical Antiquity referred to "a community's territory lying 'opposite', predominantly (but not exclusively) a mainland possession of an island state" (Karl-Wilhelm Welwei). Notable examples include:

the peraia of Mytilene, which already in the 8th and 7th centuries BC comprised a number of coastal towns from the mouth of the Hellespont to the southern end of the Bay of Adramyttium. It lost this territory to Athens after its failed rebellion in 427 BC against Athenian domination, but appears to have re-acquired a peraia by the mid-4th century BC.

the Rhodian Peraia, the possessions of Rhodes in southwestern Asia Minor between the 5th century BC and the 1st century BC. Originally comprising parts of coastal Caria, after the Treaty of Apamea this briefly expanded to cover most of Caria and Lycia.

the peraia of Samos, which established control in ca. 700 BC over the opposite Asian coast from Marathesium to Trogilium and the town of Thebes at Mycale. Possession of the settlements of Carium and Dryussa on Mycale was disputed with Priene until the 2nd century BC, when it was settled through the arbitration of Rhodes.

the peraia of Samothrace, established by the 5th century BC and stretching from Mesembria to the mouth of the Evros River on the coast of Thrace. It partly survived into the Roman period.

the peraia of Tenedos, originally south of Sigeum. It survived into the Roman period, but was very limited.

the peraia of Thasos, established on the coast of Thrace in the 8th century BC and expanded until it comprised the coast between the Strymon and Nestos rivers, as well as the colony of Stryme. It lost control following its failed uprising against Athenian hegemony in 464 BC, but recovered it after the defeat of Athens in the Peloponnesian War and retained it until the late 4th century BC, when the Macedonians took it over. In the 1st century BC, however, the Romans returned it to Thasos.

the city of Myus was disputed as a peraia between Miletus and Magnesia on the Maeander.

the Perachora peninsula in Greece, which took its name from its location across from Corinth.

Perateia was used in the late Middle Ages for the Crimean possessions of the Empire of Trebizond.

Phrygius

Phrygius a Neleid, was king of Miletus after Phobius, who fell in love with Pieria daughter of Pythes from Myus, at a festival of Artemis. He promises anything, and Pieria asks for peace between the two cities, which were at war. In this way, the war between Miletus and Myus stopped.

Priene

Priene (Ancient Greek: Πριήνη, romanized: Priēnē; Turkish: Prien) was an ancient Greek city of Ionia (and member of the Ionian League) at the base of an escarpment of Mycale, about 6 kilometres (3.7 mi) north of the then course of the Maeander (now called the Büyük Menderes or "Big Maeander") River, 67 kilometres (42 mi) from ancient Anthea, 15 kilometres (9.3 mi) from ancient Aneon and 25 kilometres (16 mi) from ancient Miletus. It was built on the sea coast, overlooking the ocean on steep slopes and terraces extending from sea level to a height of 380 metres (1,250 ft) above sea level at the top of the escarpment. Today, after several centuries of changes in the landscape, it is an inland site. It is located at a short distance west of the modern village Güllübahçe Turun in the Söke district of Aydın Province, Turkey.

Priene possessed a great deal of famous Hellenistic art and architecture. The city's original position on Mount Mycale has never been discovered; however, it is believed that it was a peninsula possessing two harbours. Priene never held a great deal of political importance due to the city's size, as it is believed around 4 to 5 thousand inhabitants occupied the region. The city was arranged into four districts, firstly the political district which consisted of the bouleuterion and the prytaneion, the cultural district containing the theatre, the commercial where the agora was located and finally the religious district which contained sanctuaries dedicated to Zeus and Demeter and most importantly the Temple of Athena.

Stratonicea (Lydia)

Stratonicea – (Greek: Στρατoνικεια, or Στρατονίκεια) also transliterated as Stratoniceia and Stratonikeia, earlier Indi, and later for a time Hadrianapolis – was an ancient city in the valley of the Caicus river, between Germe and Acrasus, in Lydia, Anatolia; its site is currently near the village of Siledik, in the district of Kırkağaç, Manisa Province, in the Aegean Region of Turkey.

Yenikaş

Yenikaş is a village in Aydıncık district of Mersin Province, Turkey. It is a coastal village on state highway D.400. Distance to Aydıncık is 4 kilometres (2.5 mi) and to Mersin is 174 kilometres (108 mi). According to Sir Francis Beaufort, the village was situated in an ancient settlement named Melanie by Strabo, but modern scholarship points to the site being that of Myus. The village was founded by once nomadic Karakeçili tribe of Turkmens. The population of the village was 1,091 as of 2012.

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