Mythical national championship

A mythical national championship (sometimes abbreviated MNC) is national championship recognition that is not explicitly competitive. This phrase has often been invoked in reference to American college football, because the NCAA does not sponsor a playoff-style tournament or recognize official national champions for the Football Bowl Subdivision. The relevant recognition before 1998 came from various entities, including coach polls and media ballots, which each voted to recognize their own national champions. The contrary term would be an undisputed national championship.

College football

If there are any Big Ten teams that shoot for a national championship, they're damn fools...You play to win the Big Ten championship, and if you win it and go to the Rose Bowl and win it, then you've had a great season. If they choose to vote you number one, then you're the national champion. But a national champion is a mythical national champion, and I think you guys ought to know that. It's mythical.

— Bo Schembechler of Michigan, July 1989[1]

"Mythical national champion" is a term that has been used since at least 1920[2] for a championship won by a NCAA Division I football team, especially for titles won before the Bowl Championship Series (BCS) system began in 1998. Before the BCS, polls in which coaches and/or sportswriters voted, such as the AP, UPI, and USA Today polls, awarded championships. This led to seasons in which two or even more teams could claim to have won the national championship.

The BCS attempted to eliminate uncertainty by ranking college teams and inviting the top two teams at the end of the regular season to play in a championship game. These teams were determined by the BCS ranking formula, which itself used a combination of human voter polls and computer rankings. The process of selecting the two best teams for the BCS championship game had nonetheless resulted in controversy, which reached a head in 2003 when the AP poll refused to vote the BCS champions (LSU) as their national champions. Instead, the AP voted USC as national champions for the 2003 season. This resulted in disputes between which team was the real champion, and as a result, the 2003 BCS Champion is not unanimous. As a result of this controversy, the AP removed itself from the BCS formula in 2004.

Since the 2014 season, the College Football Playoff—an association of Division I FBS collegiate conferences and independent schools, along with six bowl games—has arranged for the top four teams (based on a thirteen-member committee that seeds and selects the teams similarly to the Final Four) into two semifinal bowl games and the winners go on to compete in the CFP National Championship Game. It was intended to eliminate future instances of championship disputes, as the winner will always have defeated two top-4 teams in consecutive games, a feat which would normally in and of itself warrant top-ranking. This proved wishful thinking when undefeated UCF was not selected for the 2017 playoff and, upon winning their final game, promptly declared themselves national champions to widespread publicity (and controversy) and with one major national championship selector agreeing.

At lower levels of play in college football, mythical national champion crowns also continue to exist, separate from NCAA and NAIA championships, in the form of the black college football national championship. This is competed for by teams from historically black colleges and universities (HBCUs). In the present day, the winner of this crown at the NCAA Division I FCS level is generally considered to be the winner of the Celebration Bowl, DI FCS's only bowl game.

College basketball

The national championship of collegiate basketball that is officially recognized by the main governing body for collegiate athletics in the United States, the NCAA, has been awarded to the champion of an annual national post-season tournament run by the NCAA since 1939. Prior to the advent of national post-season college basketball tournaments, beginning with the NAIA national men's basketball championship in 1937, the National Invitation Tournament (NIT) in 1938[3] and the NCAA Tournament in 1939, virtually no third-party organizations selected basketball national champions.[4]

The Official NCAA Men's Basketball Records Book lists title selections of pre-tournament era teams by the Helms Athletic Foundation.[5] The Helms Foundation's Bill Schroeder named a national champion from 1901 to 1982, with his selections from 1901 to 1941 being named retroactively in 1943 and 1957.[4] The Helms champion, for the years in which the NIT and NCAA post-season tournaments were played, reflected the winners of the 1938 NIT and 1939 NIT, as well as the winners for all years of the NCAA Tournament except for 1939, 1940, 1944 and 1954.[6] Most recently, the retroactive end-of-year Premo-Porretta Power Poll has provided the first national rankings of college basketball teams for the 1895–96 through the 1947–48 seasons.[7] (No regular, recognized national polling took place prior to the establishment of the Associated Press Poll and the Coaches Poll for college basketball prior to the 1948–49 and 1950–51 seasons, respectively.[8]) The Premo-Porretta rankings were published in 2009 in the ESPN College Basketball Encyclopedia. As with the Helms selections, the Premo-Porretta poll recognized the 1938 and 1939 NIT Champions as national champions; in addition to 1939, the poll's national championship selections differed from the results of the NCAA Tournament in 1941, 1943, 1944, 1945, and 1947.[9]

During World War II, from 1943 to 1945, the NCAA, NIT and Madison Square Garden cooperated to host "mythical national championship games" between winners of each year's NCAA and NIT tournaments in order to benefit the American Red Cross' War Fund.[10] The series was described by Ray Meyer, coach of the losing 1945 DePaul team, as "the games for the national championship".[10] The NCAA champion prevailed in all three games.[11][12]

During the early years of the two tournaments, the NCAA and NIT competed against each other, giving rise to debate over their relative prowess. In 1939, the inaugural year of the NCAA tournament, the NIT was generally considered to be superior.[10] During the 1940s, the relative status of the two tournaments was unclear, and thus some years produced disputed national championship claims. Some contemporary sources claim superiority for the NIT during this time.[13] In 1943, in a shrewd competitive move the NCAA tournament began sharing Madison Square Garden with the NIT.[10] In 1945, following victories by the NCAA champions over the NIT champions in the Red Cross games, The New York Times indicated that many teams who could potentially get bids to enter either tournament would probably choose the NCAA tournament "because it involves stronger competition."[14] In 1950, City College of New York won both the NIT and the NCAA tournaments in the same season, coincidentally defeating Bradley University in the championship game of both tournaments, and thus united the titles.

After the fall-out from the 1951 gambling and point-shaving scandals, the NCAA tournament pulled out of Madison Square Garden.[10] With conference champions and the majority of the top-ranked teams participating in it, the NCAA tournament since then came to be regarded as the more important post-season tourney and the sole determiner of the national championship, although following the taint of the gambling scandals, the NIT was still considered a quality tournament for some time afterward.[15][16][17] The NCAA built on the momentum of three consecutive Red Cross "mythical national championship" game victories over the NIT, eventually outmaneuvering the NIT by adeptly avoiding permanent damage from the 1951 gambling and point-shaving scandals and by adding more teams.[10] As the NCAA Tournament steadily gained preeminence and became the sole source of naming the national champion, winners of the NCAA Tournament during those early years were given the same level of honor.[4]

Schools that claim pre-NCAA Tournament basketball championships

Many schools claim or recognize pre-tournament era national college basketball championships by virtue of being selected by third-party selectors, such as the Helms Athletic Foundation, including the University of Kansas,[18] Purdue University,[19] Stanford University,[20] the University of North Carolina,[21] the University of Pittsburgh,[22] the University of Wisconsin,[23] Syracuse University,[24] and Washington State University.[25] In addition, in some years teams won playoff series or tournaments played on the court for a national championship. For example, LSU claims the 1935 championship by virtue of winning the American Legion Bowl game against Pittsburgh in a match-up of regional powers.[26]

Three schools claim a national championship based on their NIT championships: DePaul (1945),[27] Utah (1947),[28] and San Francisco (1949).[29] Long Island also recognizes its selection as the 1939 national champion by the Helms Athletic Foundation.[30]

The following table is a partial list of schools that claim a national championship from the pre-NCAA Tournament era of college basketball. See also Helms Athletic Foundation Basketball National Champions. Not all schools recognize national championship honors bestowed by third-party selectors.

Year (pre-1939) School Source
1904 Hiram[31][32][33][34][35][36] 1904 Olympic Games college championship tournament
1908 Chicago[37][38] National Championship Playoff
1912 Wisconsin Helms Athletic Foundation
1914 Wisconsin Helms Athletic Foundation
1915 Illinois Helms Athletic Foundation
1916 Utah[39]
Wisconsin
AAU tournament
Helms Athletic Foundation
1917 Washington State Helms Athletic Foundation
1918 Syracuse Helms Athletic Foundation
1920 New York University[39]
Pennsylvania[40]
AAU tournament
National Championship Playoff
1922 Wabash[41][42][43][44][45][46][47][48][49]
Kansas
First National Collegiate Championship Tournament
Helms Athletic Foundation
1923 Kansas Helms Athletic Foundation
1924 North Carolina
Butler[39]
Helms Athletic Foundation
AAU tournament
1925 Princeton
Washburn[39]
Helms Athletic Foundation
AAU tournament
1926 Syracuse Helms Athletic Foundation
1927 Notre Dame Helms Athletic Foundation
1928 Pittsburgh Helms Athletic Foundation
1929 Butler
Montana State
Veteran Athletes of Philadelphia
Helms Athletic Foundation
1930 Pittsburgh[50] Naismith Basketball HOF Championship Game, Helms Athletic Foundation
1931 Northwestern Helms Athletic Foundation
1932 Purdue Helms Athletic Foundation
1934 Wyoming Helms Athletic Foundation
1935 LSU[51] American Legion Bowl Game
1936 Notre Dame Helms Athletic Foundation
1937 Stanford Helms Athletic Foundation
1938 Temple Helms Athletic Foundation, NIT

Black national basketball championships

In 1941, Southern University, coached by the famed football coach Ace Mumford, defeated North Carolina Central, 48–42, in the National Invitational Intercollegiate Basketball Tournament; this tournament was held because the NIT would not invite HBCUs at the time. NCCU was still designated national champions by the Associated Negro Press that year.[52] There would be several other attempts at creating HBCU national tournaments in the 1940s.[53][54] In late 1947, National Championships, Inc. announced that they would begin hosting a postseason football bowl game and basketball tournament for HBCUs;[55] the basketball tournament does not appear to have been held. Jet magazine began sponsoring HBCU basketball polls in 1974.[56] Dr. Cavil's Classic Cuts names champions for a "Major Division" (NCAA Division I)[57] and a "Mid-Major Division" (NCAA Division II, NAIA Division I, and NAIA Division II).[58]

The following table contains a list of men's black national champions.

Yearly national championship selections

Year School Source
1941 Southern[52] National Invitational Intercollegiate Basketball Tournament (def. North Carolina Central, 48–42)
North Carolina Central[52] Associated Negro Press
1942–1943 (no champions selected)
1944 Lincoln (PA)[53] Negro National Championship game (def. North Carolina Central, 57–52)
1945 (no champion selected)
1946 Langston[54] (unspecified "national tournament" championship game; def. Southern)
1947–1973 (no champions selected)
1974 Maryland Eastern Shore[56] Jet
1975 Kentucky State[59] Jet
1976 Alcorn State[60] Jet
1977 Kentucky State[61] Jet
1978 Winston–Salem State[62] Jet
1979 (no champion selected)
1980 Alcorn State[63] Jet
1981 Savannah State[64] Jet
1982 Xavier (LA)[65] Jet
1983 UDC[66] Jet
1984 Norfolk State[67] Jet
1985 Virginia Union[68] Jet
1986 Cheyney[69] Jet
1987 Norfolk State[70] Jet
2009 Morgan State (Major Division)[71]
Claflin (Mid-Major Division)[72]
Dr. Cavil's Classic Cuts
2010 Morgan State (Major Division)[73]
(unavailable) (Mid-Major Division)
Dr. Cavil's Classic Cuts
2011 (unavailable)
2012 Norfolk State[74] Black College Sports Page
Norfolk State (Major Division)[57]
Shaw (Mid-Major Division)[75]
Dr. Cavil's Classic Cuts
2013 Benedict College[76] Black College Sports Page
Southern (Major Division)[57]
Benedict College (Mid-Major Division)[75]
Dr. Cavil's Classic Cuts
2014 North Carolina Central[77] Black College Sports Page
North Carolina Central (Major Division)[78]
Wiley College (Mid-Major Division)[58]
Dr. Cavil's Classic Cuts
2015 Texas Southern (NCAA Division I)
Livingstone College (NCAA Division II)[79]
Black College Sports Page
Texas Southern (Major Division)[80]
Talladega College (Mid-Major Division)[81]
Dr. Cavil's Classic Cuts
2016 Hampton (NCAA Division I)
Virginia State (NCAA Division II)[82]
Black College Sports Page
2017 North Carolina Central (NCAA Division I)
Clark Atlanta (NCAA Division II)[83]
Black College Sports Page

National championships by school

School National championships Seasons
Norfolk State 3 1984, 1987, 2012
North Carolina Central 3 1941, 2014, 2017
Alcorn State 2 1976, 1980
Kentucky State 2 1975, 1977
Morgan State 2 2009, 2010
Southern 2 1941, 2013
Benedict College 1 2013
Cheyney 1 1986
Claflin 1 2009
Clark Atlanta 1 2017
Hampton 1 2016
Langston 1 1946
Lincoln (PA) 1 1944
Livingstone College 1 2015
Maryland Eastern Shore 1 1974
Savannah State 1 1981
Shaw 1 2012
Talladega College 1 2015
Texas Southern 1 2015
UDC 1 1983
Virginia State 1 2016
Virginia Union 1 1985
Wiley College 1 2014
Winston–Salem State 1 1978
Xavier (LA) 1 1982

The following table contains a list of women's black national champions.

Yearly national championship selections

Year School Source
1978 South Carolina State[62] Jet
1979–1981 (no champions selected)
1982 Claflin[65] Jet
1983 Norfolk State[66] Jet
1984 Dillard[67] Jet
1985 Hampton[68] Jet
1986 Alabama A&M[69] Jet
1987 Albany State[70] Jet
2007 Coppin State
North Carolina Central[84]
Black College Sports Page
2008 (unavailable)
2009 North Carolina A&T (Major Division)[85]
Langston (Mid-Major Division)[86]
Dr. Cavil's Classic Cuts
2010 North Carolina A&T (Major Division)[87]
(unavailable) (Mid-Major Division)
Dr. Cavil's Classic Cuts
2011 (unavailable)
2012 Shaw[88] Black College Sports Page
(unavailable) (Major Division)
Shaw (Mid-Major Division)[75]
Dr. Cavil's Classic Cuts
2013 Hampton[89] Black College Sports Page
Hampton (Major Division)[90]
Wiley College (Mid-Major Division)[75]
Dr. Cavil's Classic Cuts
2014 Hampton[91] Black College Sports Page
Hampton (Major Division)[92]
Wiley College (Mid-Major Division)[93]
Dr. Cavil's Classic Cuts
2015 Savannah State (NCAA Division I)
UDC (NCAA Division II)[79]
Black College Sports Page
Texas Southern (Major Division)[94]
UDC (Mid-Major Division)[95]
Dr. Cavil's Classic Cuts
2016 North Carolina A&T (NCAA Division I)
Virginia Union (NCAA Division II)[82]
Black College Sports Page
2017 Texas Southern (NCAA Division I)
Virginia Union (NCAA Division II)[83]
Black College Sports Page

National championships by school

School National championships Seasons
Hampton 3 1985, 2013, 2014
North Carolina A&T 3 2009, 2010, 2016
Texas Southern 2 2015, 2017
Virginia Union 2 2016, 2017
Wiley College 2 2013, 2014
Alabama A&M 1 1986
Albany State 1 1987
Claflin 1 1982
Coppin State 1 2007
Dillard 1 1984
Langston 1 2009
Norfolk State 1 1983
North Carolina Central 1 2007
Savannah State 1 2015
Shaw 1 2012
South Carolina State 1 1978
UDC 1 2015

College baseball

HBCUs first had a mythical black national champion named in 2002, by blackcollegebaseball.com. More recently, a black national champion has been named since 2015, by blackcollegenines.com. The latter names champions for a "Large School Division" (NCAA Division I) and a "Small School Division" (NCAA Division II, NCAA Division III, and the NAIA).[96]

Yearly national championship selections

Year School Source
2002 Bethune–Cookman[97] blackcollegebaseball.com
2003 Southern[97] blackcollegebaseball.com
2004 Bethune–Cookman[97] blackcollegebaseball.com
2005 North Carolina A&T
Southern[97]
blackcollegebaseball.com
2006 Prairie View A&M[97] blackcollegebaseball.com
2007 Bethune–Cookman[97] blackcollegebaseball.com
2008 Bethune–Cookman[97] blackcollegebaseball.com
2009 Bethune–Cookman[97] blackcollegebaseball.com
2010 Bethune–Cookman (NCAA Division I)
West Virginia State (NCAA Division II & NAIA)[97]
blackcollegebaseball.com
2011 Bethune–Cookman (NCAA Division I)
Edward Waters College (NCAA Division II & NAIA)[97]
blackcollegebaseball.com
2012[98] (unavailable) (NCAA Division I) *
(unavailable) (NCAA Division II & NAIA) *
blackcollegebaseball.com
2013–2014 (no champions selected)[98]
2015 Alabama State (Large School Division)[99]
Winston–Salem State (Small School Division)[100]
blackcollegenines.com
2016 Alabama State (Large School Division)[101][102]
West Virginia State (Small School Division)[101]
blackcollegenines.com
2017 Bethune–Cookman (Large School Division)
Winston–Salem State (Small School Division)[100]
blackcollegenines.com

Note: *—Alcorn State, St. Augustine's, and Stillman College are listed by a source as having been named black national champions by blackcollegebaseball.com, but the year(s) of the championships is not specified by the source;[96] the year could be 2012, since champions were reportedly named that year[98]

National championships by school

School National championships Seasons
Bethune–Cookman 8 2002, 2004, 2007, 2008, 2009, 2010, 2011, 2017
Alabama State 2 2015, 2016
Southern 2 2003, 2005
West Virginia State 2 2010, 2016
Winston–Salem State 2 2015, 2017
Edward Waters College 1 2011
North Carolina A&T 1 2005
Prairie View A&M 1 2006

High school sports

Because high school sports in the United States such as football and basketball are state-centered sports involving thousands of schools, it would be almost impossible to have a national championship playoff. A single-game playoff for football, however, was attempted in 1938 and 1939, particularly difficult at that time due to many states' prohibition of postseason games. Nearly all states crown several champions in different classifications, which are not uniform from state to state, based upon school enrollments.

Some publications and internet sites release nationwide rankings for high school sports based on polls or mathematical formulas which take into account various factors like average margin of victory and strength of schedule. Schools that finish atop these rankings, particularly the USA Today poll, often claim to be national champions, and the press calls them "mythical national champions".[103]

National Football League

In the earliest days of the National Football League, the NFL championship was determined by a formula and by the votes of the NFL owners. In three instances, 1920, 1921 and 1925, this led to disputed titles. In 1932, two teams tied atop the standings led to a one-game playoff for the championship, which was made permanent the next year. There has been some sort of NFL playoff ever since, and as the league grew, so too did the tournament, which eventually took form as the single-elimination tournament it is today.

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1922 Rose Bowl

The 1922 Rose Bowl was a college football bowl game played on January 2, 1922, between the Washington & Jefferson Presidents (W&J) and the California Golden Bears. It holds several distinctions including being the only scoreless Rose Bowl Game, the first tie in a Rose Bowl, the first African-American quarterback to play in the Rose Bowl (Charles Fremont West from Washington & Jefferson), the first freshman to play in a Rose Bowl (Herb Kopf of Washington and Jefferson), and Hal Erickson (W&J) became the only man ever to play in two Rose Bowls (1919 and 1922), with two teams (Great Lakes Navy and W&J), without losing. It was also the last to be played at Tournament Park and to be officially known as the Tournament East-West Football Game, and with only 450 students at the time, Washington & Jefferson College was the smallest school to ever play in a Rose Bowl.

1940 Boston College Eagles football team

The 1940 Boston College Eagles represented Boston College in the 1940 college football season. Playing as an independent, the team was led by head coach Frank Leahy in his second year, and played their home games at Fenway Park in Boston and Alumni Field in Chestnut Hill, Massachusetts. They won all ten games in the regular season, were the highest-scoring team in the country, and took the Lambert Trophy winner, awarded to the best team in the East. With its victory on New Year's Day in the Sugar Bowl over the undefeated SEC champion Tennessee, the BC Eagles were widely acclaimed as national champions. Minnesota and Stanford also have viable claims to the national championship.

From 1936 to 1964, the final Associated Press poll ranking college football teams was taken at the end of the regular season, not after the post-season bowl games. In 1940, it was published on December 2, and listed undefeated Minnesota (8–0) first with its thrilling home win by an extra point 7–6 over No. 3 Michigan (7–1). Stanford (10–0) was ranked second, Tennessee (10–0) fourth, and Boston College (10–0) was fifth.

Neither Minnesota nor Michigan played in a post season bowl game, and Stanford defeated No. 7 Nebraska (8–2) in the Rose Bowl. Tennessee outscored its regular season opponents 319–26, soundly beating such football opponents as Alabama, Florida, LSU, Kentucky, Virginia, and Duke. Despite where the AP rated teams at the end of the regular season, BC’s post season win over Tennessee was widely deemed the best win of any team in the 1940 season. The NCAA had no role in determining a national football champion in that era; it did not sponsor a play-off style tournament or recognize an official national champion. For post-season play at that time the national championship, called the Mythical National Championship (MNC) had national championship team(s) independently declared based on the merits of the case made by proponents in the newspapers, magazines and radio outlets that devoted enormous coverage to college football.Boston College, Minnesota and Stanford were all deemed “national champions” by various media outlets. A leading neutral authority concluded that “…BC should be considered a co-MNC. And when you look at their coach and players (5 college football Hall of Fame players in contrast to three for both Minnesota and Stanford) you have to think BC would have had a least as good a chance as Minnesota or Stanford to win a playoff in 1940.”

1990 Georgia Tech vs. Virginia football game

The 1990 Georgia Tech vs. Virginia football game is an American college football game played on November 3, 1990 between the Georgia Tech Yellow Jackets and the Virginia Cavaliers. Georgia Tech won by a score of 41–38 over top-ranked Virginia. The game concluded with a 37-yard field goal by Scott Sisson with seven seconds remaining. Georgia Tech went on to claim the Atlantic Coast Conference (ACC) championship and a share of the national championship.

Bethune–Cookman Wildcats football

The Bethune–Cookman Wildcats football team represents Bethune–Cookman University in the sport of college football. The Wildcats compete in the Division I Football Championship Subdivision (FCS) of the National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) and the south division of the Mid-Eastern Athletic Conference (MEAC). They play their home games at Daytona Stadium. The Wildcats have won two black college football national championships and seven MEAC titles in the history of their football program.

Christ the King Regional High School

Christ the King Regional High School is a co-educational, college preparatory, Catholic high school for grades 9-12 located in Middle Village, Queens, New York, United States and established in 1962. It is located within the Roman Catholic Diocese of Brooklyn. The school is located next to the Middle Village–Metropolitan Avenue subway station (M train).

Coaches Poll

The Coaches Poll is a weekly ranking of the top 25 NCAA Division I Football Bowl Subdivision (FBS) college football, Division I college basketball, and Division I college baseball teams. The football version of the poll has been known officially as the Amway Coaches Poll since 2014.

The football rankings are compiled by the Amway Board of Coaches which is made up of 62 head coaches at Division I FBS institutions. All coaches are members of the American Football Coaches Association (AFCA). The basketball rankings are compiled by the USA Today Sports Board of Coaches which is made up of 32 head coaches at Division I institutions. All are members of the National Association of Basketball Coaches (NABC). The baseball rankings are compiled by the USA Today Sports Board of Coaches which is made up of 31 head coaches at Division I institutions. All are members of the American Baseball Coaches Association (ABCA).

The football Coaches Poll was an element of the Bowl Championship Series (BCS) rankings, a voting system used from 1998 to 2013 to determine the teams to play in the BCS National Championship Game.

College football national championships in NCAA Division I FBS

A national championship in the highest level of college football in the United States, currently the NCAA Division I Football Bowl Subdivision (FBS), is a designation awarded annually by various organizations to their selection of the best college football team. Division I FBS football is the only National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) sport for which the NCAA does not sanction a yearly championship event. As such, it is sometimes unofficially referred to as a "mythical national championship".Due to the lack of an official NCAA title, determining the nation's top college football team has often engendered controversy. A championship team is independently declared by multiple individuals and organizations, often referred to as "selectors". These choices are not always unanimous. In 1969 even the President of the United States Richard Nixon declared a national champion by announcing, ahead of the season-ending game between #1 Texas and #2 Arkansas, that the winner of that game would receive a plaque from the President himself, commemorating that team as the year's national champion. Texas went on to win that game, 15–14.While the NCAA has never officially endorsed a championship team, it has documented the choices of some selectors in its official NCAA Football Bowl Subdivision Records publication. In addition, various analysts have independently published their own choices for each season. These opinions can often diverge with others as well as individual schools' claims to national titles, which may or may not correlate to the selections published elsewhere. Currently, two of the most widely recognized national champion selectors are the Associated Press, which conducts a poll of sportswriters, and the Coaches Poll, a survey of active members of the American Football Coaches Association.

Since 1992, various consortia of major bowl games have aimed to invite the top two teams at the end of the regular season (as determined by internal rankings, or aggregates of the major polls and other statistics) to compete in what is intended to be the de facto national championship game. The current iteration of this practice, the College Football Playoff, selects four teams to participate in national semi-finals hosted by two of six partner bowl games, with their winners advancing to the College Football Playoff National Championship.

Dave Grayson

David Lee Grayson (June 6, 1939 – July 29, 2017) was an American football defensive back in the American Football League (AFL) and the National Football League (NFL) for the Kansas City Chiefs and Oakland Raiders. He played college football at the University of Oregon.

FWAA-NFF Grantland Rice Super 16 Poll

The FWAA-NFF Grantland Rice Super 16 poll is a weekly ranking of the top 16 college football teams in the NCAA Football Bowl Subdivision beginning with the 2014 season. It is named in part for sports writer Grantland Rice. The 36 poll voters include 26 members of the Football Writers Association of America, with the remaining ten voters each coming from the National Football Foundation or College Football Hall of Fame.The final poll is issued at the end of the regular season, but before bowl games. The poll joins the AP Poll, Coaches Poll and others as periodic snapshot rankings of college football teams. Prior to the 2014 season, these polls were used in part to determine which two teams would play for the national title under the Bowl Championship Series and its predecessors. The new College Football Playoff, which also begins in 2014, does not use poll data to choose its participants. After every College Football Playoff championship game, the FWAA/NFF selects a national champion, and awards it the MacArthur Bowl.

Harris Interactive College Football Poll

The Harris Interactive College Football Poll was a weekly ranking of the top 25 NCAA Division I Football Bowl Subdivision college football teams. The rankings were compiled by Harris Interactive, a market research company that specializes in Internet research.

The poll was created in the summer of 2005 to replace the AP Poll in the BCS formula. The AP had decided it no longer wanted to be a part of the formula used by the BCS rankings to determine who plays in the BCS National Championship Game. Unlike the other two seasonal polls, the AP Poll and the Coaches Poll, the Harris Poll did not release a preseason poll; in fact, it did not come out until the last half of October, several weeks into the season. Also, the Harris Poll did not release a post-bowl game poll or crown a national champion; the final Harris Poll was released along with the final BCS rankings.

The Harris Interactive Poll was composed of former players, coaches, administrators, and current and former media who submitted votes for the top 25 teams each week. The panel was designed to be a statistically valid representation of all 11 FBS Conferences and independent institutions.

Henry Kean

Henry Arthur Kean (1894 – December 12, 1955) was an American college football coach best known for his tenure as head coach at Kentucky State University from 1931 to 1942. At Kentucky State, Kean's teams won four black college football national championships and ten straight Midwestern Athletic Association championships. His lifetime coaching record was an impressive 166–33–9, with a winning percentage of .819.

List of NCAA college football rankings

The AP Poll and Coaches Poll are the two major polls used annually within the highest level of college football to determine the national championship. Division I FBS football is the only National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) sport for which the NCAA does not sanction a yearly championship event. As such, it is sometimes unofficially referred to as a "mythical national championship".These polling systems began with the introduction of the AP poll in 1936, followed by the Coaches' Poll in 1950.

Currently, two widely recognized national champion selectors are the Associated Press, which conducts a poll of sportswriters, and the Coaches' Poll, a survey of active members of the American Football Coaches Association.

Until the 1968 college football season, the final AP Poll of the season was released following the end of the regular season, with the exception of the 1965 season.

MNC

MNC may refer to:

Manchu language

Media Nusantara Citra, Indonesian media group

MNC Vision

MNCTV

MNC Trijaya FM radio

MNC News, TV

MNC World News, TV

MNC Channel, TV

Music Channel, , TV, previously MNC Music

Mobile Network Code

Mongolian News Channel

Mouvement National Congolais

Multinational corporation

Museo Nacional de las Culturas, a museum in Mexico City, Mexico

Mythical national championship

Major League Baseball Manager of the Year Award

In Major League Baseball, the Manager of the Year Award is an honor given annually since 1983 to the best managers in the American League (AL) and the National League (NL). The winner is voted on by 30 members of the Baseball Writers' Association of America (BBWAA). Each places a vote for first, second, and third place among the managers of each league. The manager with the highest score in each league wins the award.Several managers have won the award in a season when they led their team to 100 or more wins. Lou Piniella won 116 games with the Seattle Mariners in 2001, the most by a winning manager, and Joe Torre won 114 with the New York Yankees in 1998. Sparky Anderson and Tony La Russa finished with identical 104–58 records in 1984 and 1988, respectively. Three National League managers, including Dusty Baker, Whitey Herzog, and Larry Dierker, have exceeded the century mark as well. Baker's San Francisco Giants won 103 games in 1993; Dierker's 1998 Houston Astros won 102 and Herzog led the Cardinals to 101 wins in the award's third season.In 1991, Bobby Cox became the first manager to win the award in both leagues, winning with the Atlanta Braves and having previously won with the Toronto Blue Jays in 1985. La Russa, Piniella, Jim Leyland, Bob Melvin, Davey Johnson, and Joe Maddon have since won the award in both leagues. Cox and La Russa have won the most awards, with four. Baker, Leyland, Piniella, Showalter and Maddon have won three times. In 2005, Cox became the first manager to win the award in consecutive years. Bob Melvin and Brian Snitker are the most recent winners.

Because of the 1994–95 Major League Baseball strike cut the season short and cancelled the post-season, the BBWAA writers effectively created a de facto mythical national championship (similar to college football) by naming managers of the unofficial league champions (lead the leagues in winning percentage) (Buck Showalter and Felipe Alou) as Managers of the Year. Two franchises, the New York Mets and the Milwaukee Brewers, have not had a manager win the award.

Only six managers have won the award while leading a team that finished outside the top two spots in its division. Ted Williams was the first, after leading the "expansion" Washington Senators to a third-place finish (and, at 86-76, their only winning season) in the American League East, in 1969. Buck Rodgers won the award in 1987 with the third-place Expos. Tony Peña and Showalter won the award with third-place teams in back-to-back years: Peña with the Royals in 2003, and Showalter with the Rangers in 2004. Joe Girardi is the only manager to win the award with a fourth-place team (2006 Florida Marlins); he is also the only manager to win the award after fielding a team with a losing record.

Maryland Terrapins men's soccer

The Maryland Terrapins men's soccer team represents the University of Maryland in National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) college soccer competition. The program has won four NCAA Division I College Cup national championships (1968, 2005, 2008, 2018). Maryland won nineteen Atlantic Coast Conference (ACC) regular season championships (1953–68, 1971, 2012, 2013) and six ACC tournament championships (1996, 2002, 2008, 2010, 2012, 2013) before joining the Big Ten Conference on July 1, 2014. The Terps won the 2014 and 2016 Big Ten Conference men's soccer championships and the 2014 and 2015 men's soccer tournament titles.

NAIA Coaches' Poll

The NAIA Coaches' Poll typically refers to a weekly ranking of the top 25 National Association of Intercollegiate Athletics (NAIA) college football and college basketball teams, though other NAIA polls exist as well. The poll is voted upon by a panel of head coaches representing each of the conferences and independents.

Philadelphia Quakers (AFL)

Not to be confused with the defunct Philadelphia Quakers team of the National Hockey League, the Philadelphia Quakers baseball team who became the Philadelphia Phillies in 1890 or the University of Pennsylvania athletics teams, the Pennsylvania Quakers.

The Philadelphia Quakers were a professional American football team that competed in the first American Football League in 1926 and won the league’s only championship.

Undisputed national championship

An undisputed national championship is a national championship that is recognized unanimously by all relevant entities. This phrase has recently been asserted in reference to American college football, especially referring to the winners of the CFP National Championship Game, which has since the 2014 season been intended to determine a national champion. Its validity in regards to the CFP Playoff's champion is hotly contested.

The term "undisputed national championship" is meant to be the opposite of the "mythical national championship" which was awarded separately, and often controversially, by several different polling agencies, resulting in many controversial split titles.

Wilson Matthews

Wilson David Matthews ((1921-07-18)July 18, 1921 – (2002-05-12)May 12, 2002) was an American football coach. He became a high school coaching legend in the state of Arkansas after winning 10 state championships and producing a 33-win streak in 11 years at Little Rock Central High School. He later became an assistant to Frank Broyles at the University of Arkansas.

Born and raised in rural Atkins, Arkansas, Matthews attended local Atkins High School, where he played varsity football under coach Raymond Burnett and was a two-time All-State selection. Matthews went on to play at Arkansas Tech University, where he was an All-AIC honoree from 1940–41. He continued his playing career at the University of Arkansas for one year under George Cole. In 1943, Matthews was drafted for military service and assigned to the Monticello A&M V-12 Program, where he played with the Monticello Marine-Navy team. He earned his bachelor's degree and his master's in education from Arkansas. Matthews also served his country in the U.S. Marine Corps during World War II.

In 1944 Matthews became head coach at Rogers High School in Rogers, Arkansas. After a single season, finished with a 7–3 record, Matthews left Rogers for the Little Rock High School, where he became an assistant to his former high school coach Raymond Burnett. As Burnett moved on to coach Arkansas Tech University, Matthews was named head coach, taking over one of the premier high school football programs in the nations. The Little Rock Central Tigers had won the mythical national championship in 1946.

Matthew's first Tiger teams went 12–0–1 in 1947 and 9–1–1 in 1948. His next two teams finished 10–1 and 10–2. In 1951, his team was 9–3 but a one-point loss to North Little Rock that season was the last defeat a Matthews-coached Central team had against competition from Arkansas. The Tigers were undefeated in the state the next six years. Matthews led the Tigers to unbeaten seasons in 1956 and 1957, and left the school with a 33-game winning streak. His 1957 team won the schools second mythical national championship.

Matthews joined the University of Arkansas Razorbacks in January 1958, coaching the defensive ends and linebackers at Arkansas before taking administrative duties in 1969. He continued to coach the freshmen until being named assistant athletic director in 1973. As a varsity coach, Matthews coached two All-Americans and eight All-Southwest Conference players. During his tenure the Hogs appeared in eight bowl games. Matthews served as an assistant and then associate athletic director until 1992 when he assumed the title of associate athletic director emeritus. Matthews was inducted to the Arkansas Sports Hall of Fame in 1971.

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