Myndus

Myndus (/ˈmɪndəs/) or Myndos (Greek: Μύνδος) was an ancient Dorian colony of Troezen, on the coast of Caria in Asia Minor, (Turkey), sited on the Bodrum Peninsula, a few miles northwest of Halicarnassus. The site is now occupied by the modern village of Gümüslük.

Myndus
Μύνδος
Myndos
Myndos' Rabbit Island in modern Gümüslük
Myndus is located in Turkey
Myndus
Shown within Turkey
LocationGümüslük, Muğla Province, Turkey
RegionCaria
Coordinates37°3′11″N 27°14′0″E / 37.05306°N 27.23333°ECoordinates: 37°3′11″N 27°14′0″E / 37.05306°N 27.23333°E

History

Myndos was protected by strong walls, and had a good harbor. (Paus. ii. 30. § 8; Strabo xiv. p. 658; Arrian, Anab. i. 20, ii. 5.) Otherwise, the place is not of much importance in ancient history. Both Pliny (v. 29) and Stephanus of Byzantium (s. v.) mention Palaemyndus as an ancient Carian settlement near to Myndus, which seems to have become deserted after Dorian Mynduse was founded. (Comp. Strab. xiii. p. 611). Mela (i. 16) and Pliny (l. c.) also speak of Neapolis in the same peninsula and as no other authors mention such a place in that part of the country, it had been supposed that Myndus (the Dorian colony) and Neapolis were the same place. Pliny, however, mentions both Myndus and Neapolis as two different towns, and modern scholars differentiate the two.[1]

The cynic philosopher Diogenes of Sinope visited Myndos and noticed how large the city gates were, relative to the town; he cynically remarked; "Oh men of Myndos, I urge you to shut the city gates, as your town might exit from these!". Sections of the town walls and gate have been restored with financial assistance from private companies.[2]

Myndian ships are mentioned in the expedition of Anaxagoras against Naxos. (Herod. v. 33.) Herodotus relates the story of how a captain from Myndus, Scylax, was found to have left no guards on his ship while a Persian force was preparing to attack the island of Naxos. The Persian commander, Megabates, flew into a rage and had him put in stocks, at which point Aristagoras, a tyrant from Miletus helping several Naxian oligarchs to retake Naxos, discovered what had happened to his guest-friend Scylax. Pleading with Megabates to no avail for Scylax, he released him anyway, incurring the Persian commander's wrath. The consequence of this falling out was that, according to Herodotus, Megabates warned the Naxians of what was afoot, ruining the expedition and in turn Aristagoras who, with nowhere to go, stirred up the Ionian Revolt. This is a classic example of Ionian αταξιη (lack of discipline, disorder, licentiousness), a charge commonly levelled at them, especially in the 5th century by Athens.

At a later time, when Alexander the Great besieged Halicarnassus, he was anxious first to make himself master of Myndus; but when he attempted to take it by surprise, the Myndians, with the aid of reinforcements from Halicarnassus repulsed him with some loss. (Arrian, l. c.; comp. Hecat. Fragm. 229; Polyb. xvi. 15, 21; Scylax, p. 38; Ptol. v. 2. § 9; Liv. xxxvii. 15; Hierocl. p. 687.) Athenaeus (i. 32) states that the wine grown in the district of Myndus was good for digestion.

Remains of the city are visible in and around Gümüslük and in the adjacent waters; it is supposed that some unrecorded earthquake caused seafront sections of the ancient town to be submerged.[3] As a result, much of the land and offshore areas are protected from interference and development.

Ecclesiastical history

Myndus was an episcopal see of Caria, a suffragan of Stauropolis (Aphrodisias). The Notitiæ episcopatuum allude to it as late as the 12th or 13th century. However, only four of its bishops are known: Archelaus, who attended the First Council of Ephesus (431); Alphius, who assisted at the Council of Chalcedon (451); John who was present at the Third Council of Constantinople (680); and another John who went to the Second Council of Nicaea (787).[4]

The bishopric is included in the Catholic Church's list of titular sees.[5]

Notes

  1. ^ Richard Talbert, ed. (2000). Barrington Atlas of the Greek and Roman World. Princeton University Press. p. 61, and directory notes accompanying.
  2. ^ "MUĞLA Port Of Myndos". pointsfromturkey.com. Archived from the original on 2008-06-05. Retrieved 26 Mar 2009.
  3. ^ "Gümüslük". Bodrumpages.com. 2000–2004. Retrieved 26 Mar 2009.
  4. ^ Sophrone Pétridès, "Myndus" The Catholic Encyclopedia, 1911. full text
  5. ^ Annuario Pontificio 2013 (Libreria Editrice Vaticana, 2013, ISBN 978-88-209-9070-1), p. 931

References

 This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domainSmith, William, ed. (1854–1857). "Myndus". Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography. London: John Murray.

External links

Alexander of Myndus

Alexander Greek: Ἀλέξανδρος) of Myndus in Caria was an ancient Greek writer who some believe lived during the 1st century AD but this date is uncertain. He wrote on diverse topics, including zoology and divination. His works, which are now lost, must have been considered very valuable by the ancients, since they refer to them very frequently; fragments of his work are preserved in various later authors.

The titles of Alexander's works are: A History of Beasts (Κτηνῶν Ἱστορία), a long fragment of which, belonging to the second book, is quoted by Athenaeus. This work is probably the same as that which in other passages is called On Animals (Περὶ Ζώων), and of which Athenaeus likewise quotes the second book. The treatise On Birds (Περὶ Πτηνῶν) was a separate work, and the second book of it is quoted by Athenaeus. Diogenes Laërtius mentions one "Alexon of Myndus" as the author of a work on myths, of which he quotes the ninth book. This author being otherwise unknown, the French scholar Gilles Ménage proposed to read "Alexander" instead of "Alexon". But everything is uncertain, and the conjecture is thought by other scholars to be improbable.It is possible that the illustrations of birds in the Vienna Dioscurides, which appear to be based on illustrations from an older, different treatise, as they don't relate directly to the treatise they illustrate, are derived from illustrations from the lost treatise on birds of Alexander.

Anthas

In Greek mythology, Anthas (Ἅνθας), also Anthes (Ἅνθης), was a son of Poseidon and Alcyone, and brother of Hyperes. The brothers were eponymous founders and first kings of the cities Hyperea and Anthea in a region they reigned over; later on these two cities were merged into the historical Troezen. Anthas was father of at least two sons, Aëtius and Dius, of whom Aëtius was the successor to both his father and uncle, and further co-ruled with Pittheus and Troezen. The descendants of Anthas through Aëtius reputedly founded colonies in Caria: Halicarnassus and Myndus, and accordingly the people of Halicarnassus were referred to by the poetic epithet Antheades 'descendants of Anthas'. Alternately, Halicarnassus was founded by Anthas himself. Anthas also was the presumed eponym of Anthedon, over which he was said to have reigned, and of Anthana in Laconia.

Apollonius of Myndus

Apollonius (Ancient Greek: Απολλώνιος) of Myndus lived at the time of Alexander the Great, that is, the 4th century BCE, and was particularly skilled in explaining horoscopes. He professed to have learned his art from the Chaldeans. His statements respecting the comets, which Seneca has preserved, are sufficient to show that his works were of great importance for astronomy. Whether he is the same as Apollonius, a grammarian of Myndus, who is mentioned by Stephanus of Byzantium, is uncertain.

Bargylia

Bargylia (; Ancient Greek: Βαργυλία), was a city on the coast of ancient Caria in southwestern Anatolia (modern-day Turkey) between Iasos and Myndus. Bargylia's location corresponds to the modern Turkish town of Boğaziçi in Muğla Province.

The city was said to have been founded by Bellerophon in honour of his companion Bargylos (Greek: Βάργυλος), who had been killed by a kick from the winged horse Pegasus. Near Bargylia was the Temple of Artemis Cindyas. Strabo reports the local belief that rain would fall around the temple but never touch it. Artemis Cindyas and Pegasus appear on coinage of Bargylia.

In 201/200 BC during the Cretan War King Philip V of Macedon wintered his fleet in Bargylia when he was blockaded by the Pergamene and Rhodian fleets.Protarchus the Epicurean philosopher, the mentor of Demetrius Lacon, was a native of Bargylia.

On a headland next to the harbour at Bargylia there once stood a large tomb monument. Dating from the Hellenistic period (between 200-150 BC), the monument was dedicated to the sea monster Scylla. The over life-size figure of Scylla, along with a group of deferential and expectant hounds, was originally located at the apex of the building. The remains of this sculptural group, along with other parts of the stone structure, can be found in the British Museum's collection.There are currently reasonably extensive ruins at Bargylia, including the remnants of a temple, a theatre, a large defensive wall and a palaestra.

Caria

Caria (; from Greek: Καρία, Karia, Turkish: Karya) was a region of western Anatolia extending along the coast from mid-Ionia (Mycale) south to Lycia and east to Phrygia. The Ionian and Dorian Greeks colonized the west of it and joined the Carian population in forming Greek-dominated states there. The inhabitants of Caria, known as Carians, had arrived there before the Ionian and Dorian Greeks. They were described by Herodotus as being of Minoan Greek descent, while the Carians themselves maintained that they were Anatolian mainlanders intensely engaged in seafaring and were akin to the Mysians and the Lydians. The Carians did speak an Anatolian language, known as Carian, which does not necessarily reflect their geographic origin, as Anatolian once may have been widespread. Also closely associated with the Carians were the Leleges, which could be an earlier name for Carians or for a people who had preceded them in the region and continued to exist as part of their society in a reputedly second-class status.

Caryanda

Caryanda or Karyanda (Ancient Greek: Καρύανδα) was a city on the coast of ancient Caria in southwestern Anatolia. Stephanus of Byzantium describes it as a city and harbour (λίμην) near Myndus and Cos. But λιμήν, in the text of Stephanus, is an emendation or alteration: the manuscripts have λίμνη ('lake'). Strabo places Caryanda between Myndus and Bargylia, and he describes it, according to the common text, as "a lake, and island of the same name with it;" and thus the texts of Stephanus, who has got his information from Strabo, agree with the texts of Strabo. Pliny simply mentions the island Caryanda with a town; but he is in that passage only enumerating islands. In another passage he mentions Caryanda as a place on the mainland, and Pomponius Mela does also. Scylax of Caryanda, one of the most famous mariners and explorers of ancient times, was a native of Caryanda. He lived in the late 6th and early 5th centuries BCE and served the Persian king Darius I.Originally, Caryanda was located on an island of the same name, but was relocated to a site on a bay on the north coast of the Bodrum Peninsula near Göl, in what is today the Turkish tourist resort town of Turkbuku. Caryanda was approximately 19 km north of the Dorian Greek city of Halicarnassus, the dominant city of the peninsula.

Caryanda was a member of the Athenian dominated Delian League during the 5th century BCE.

Epigenes of Byzantium

Epigenes of Byzantium (Greek: Έπιγένης ὁ Βυζάντιος; unknown-circa 200 BC) was a Greek astrologer. He seems to have been an earlier supporter of astrology, which, though derided by many Greek intellectuals, came to be accepted after Alexander the Great conquered major parts of the Near East.Epigenes' claims to have been educated by the Chaldeans comes from the writings of Seneca. Pliny the Elder writes that Epigenes attests to the fact that the Chaldeans preserved astral observations in inscriptions upon brick tiles (coctilibus laterculis) extending to a period of 720 years. Pliny calls Epigenes a writer of first-rate authority (gravis auctor imprimis).It is unclear when Epigenes lived - he may have lived about the time of Augustus; some conjecture that he lived centuries earlier - but he is known to have refined the study of his chosen field, defining Saturn, for example, as "cold and windy." Along with Apollonius of Myndus and Artemidorus of Parium, he boasted of having been instructed by the Chaldean priest-astrologers, with whom Greece had contacts ever since the ports of Egypt opened to Greek ships after 640 BC.The 55-km lunar crater Epigenes is named after him.

Eusebius (disambiguation)

Eusebius (AD 263 – 339; also called Eusebius of Caesarea and Eusebius Pamphili) was a Roman historian, exegete and Christian polemicist.

Eusebius (; Greek Εὐσέβιος "pious" from eu (εὖ) "well" and sebein (σέβειν) "to respect") may also refer to:

Eusebius of Esztergom, Hungarian priest, hermit, founder of the Order of Saint Paul the First Hermit

Eusebius (praepositus sacri cubiculi), under Constantius II

Eusebius (consul 347) (died c. 350), Roman consul in 347

Eusebius (consul 359), Roman consul in 359

Eusebius of Alexandria (6th century), Christian author

Eusebius of Angers (died 1081), bishop of Angers

Saint Eusebius of Cremona (died c. 423)

Eusebius of Dorylaeum (5th century), bishop of Dorylaeum, opponent of Nestorianism and Monophysitism

Eusebius of Emesa (300–360), bishop of Emesa

Eusebius of Laodicea (died 268), bishop of Laodicea

Eusebius of Myndus (4th century), Neoplatonist philosopher

Eusebius of Nicomedia (died 341), bishop of Berytus, Nicomedia and Constantinople, leader of Arianism

Saint Eusebius of Rome (died 357), priest and martyr

Saint Eusebius of Samosata (died 4th-century), bishop of Samosata

Saint Eusebius of Vercelli (283–371), bishop of Vercelli, opponent of Arianism

Saint Eusebius (bishop of Milan) (died 462), archbishop of Milan

Saint Eusebius the Hermit (4th century), solitary monk of Syria

Pope Eusebius (died 310), Pope in 309 or 310

Eusebius, bishop of Paris until his death in 555

Eusebius of Thessalonika (6th or 7th century), bishop of Thessalonika during the time of Pope Gregory the Great

Hwaetberht (died c. 740s), Abbot of Monkwearmouth-Jarrow Priory, who wrote under the pen-name of Eusebius

Eusebius, one of the personae of Robert SchumannEusebius is also the name of:

Jerome (347–420), Christian scholar and church father, whose full name was Eusebius Sophronius Hieronymus

Karl Eusebius of Liechtenstein (1611–1684), the second prince of Liechtenstein

Eusebius of Myndus

Eusebius of Myndus (Greek: Εὐσέβιος) was a 4th-century philosopher, a distinguished Neoplatonist. He is described by Eunapius as one of the links in the "Golden Chain" of Neoplatonism.

He was a pupil of Aedesius of Pergamum. He devoted himself principally to logic and ventured to criticize the magical and theurgic side of the doctrine. By this he exasperated the later Emperor Julian, who preferred the mysticism of Maximus and Chrysanthius.

Stobaeus collected a number of ethical dicta of one Eusebius, who may perhaps be identical with the Neoplatonist.

Haplaxius crudus

Haplaxius crudus is a planthopper species in the genus Haplaxius.

H. crudus is the vector of the coconut lethal yellowing.

Neapolis (Caria)

Neapolis (Ancient Greek: Νεάπολις), was a coastal town of ancient Caria, near Myndus, to which it have been the successor settlement. Some scholars place it at Karyanda.

Oecleini

Oecleini is planthopper tribe in the subfamily Cixiinae.

Old Myndus, Virginia

Old Myndus is an unincorporated community in Nelson County, Virginia, United States.

Myndus is at the head of Davis Creek on 29.

It is predominantly a small farming community at the confluence of Route 29 and Route 623, 4 miles north of Lovingston. There was once a two-lane Highway between the post office and general store.

Now most things are closed. The old sawmill is currently used for hay storage and the old peach packing shed is now a workshop. All the farmland is currently in hay.

Orontobates

Orontobates (in Greek Ὀρoντoβάτης. Old Persian Aurandabad, lived 4th century BC) was a Persian, who married the daughter of Pixodarus, the usurping satrap of Caria, and was sent by the king of Persia to succeed him. On the approach of Alexander the Great of Macedon (334 BC) Orontobates and Memnon of Rhodes entrenched themselves in Halicarnassus. But at last, despairing of defending it, they set fire to the town, and under cover of the conflagration crossed over to Cos, whither they had previously removed their treasures. In addition to the island of Cos, Orontobates, retained control of the citadel at Salmacis, and the towns Myndus, Caunus, Thera and Callipolis together with Triopium.

Next year, while at Soli, Cilicia, Alexander learnt that Orontobates had been defeated in a great battle by Ptolemy and Asander. It is natural to infer that the places which Orontobates held did not long hold out after his defeat.An officer of the name of Orontobates was present in the army of Darius III at the battle of Gaugamela (331 BC), being one of the commanders of the troops drawn from the shores of the Persian Gulf. Whether he was the same or a different person from the preceding, we have no means of knowing. We are not told that the latter was killed as well as defeated.

It is likely that Alexander the Great knew Orontobates intimately as there was a princess between the two. In his youth Alexander wanted to marry Ada II, the daughter of Pixodarus but this was negated by his father. Incidentally Orontobates married a daughter of Pixodarus, who was probably the same as Ada II. Thus the relation between the two may have been far more complex than what Justin or even Plutarch knew.

Palaemyndus

Palaemyndus or Palaia Myndos (Ancient Greek: Παλαιάμυνδος or Παλαιὰ Μύνδος) was a town of ancient Caria, near Myndus, which was its successor settlement. Palaemyndus seems to have been the ancient place of the Carians which became deserted after the establishment of the Dorian Myndus.Its site is located near Bozdağ, Asiatic Turkey.

Panormus (Halicarnassus)

Panormus or Panormos (Ancient Greek: Πάνορμος) was a small port town of ancient Caria, on the peninsula of Halicarnassus, 80 stadia to the northeast of Myndus. It is no doubt the same port which Thucydides calls Πάνορμος τῆς Μιλησίας.Its site is located near the modern Paşa Liman.

Siege of Halicarnassus

The Siege of Halicarnassus was fought between Alexander the Great and the Achaemenid Persian Empire in 334 BC. Alexander, who had no navy, was constantly being threatened by the Persian navy. It continuously attempted to provoke an engagement with Alexander, who would not oblige them. Eventually, the Persian fleet sailed to Halicarnassus, in order to establish a new defense. Ada of Caria, the former queen of Halicarnassus, had been driven from her throne by her younger brother Pixodarus of Caria. When Pixodarus died, Persian King Darius had appointed Orontobates satrap of Caria, which included Halicarnassus in its jurisdiction. On the arrival of Alexander in 334 BC, Ada, who was in possession of the fortress of Alinda, surrendered the fortress to him.

Orontobates and Memnon of Rhodes entrenched themselves in Halicarnassus. Alexander had sent spies to meet with dissidents inside the city, who had promised to open the gates and allow Alexander to enter. When his spies arrived, however, the dissidents were nowhere to be found. A small battle resulted, and Alexander's army managed to break through the city walls. Memnon, however, now deployed his catapults, and Alexander's army fell back. Memnon then deployed his infantry, and shortly before Alexander would have received his first defeat, his infantry managed to break through the city walls, surprising the Persian forces. Memnon, realizing the city was lost, set fire to it and withdrew with his army. Strong winds caused the fire to destroy much of the city.

Alexander committed the government of Caria to Ada; and she, in turn, formally adopted Alexander as her son, ensuring that the rule of Caria passed unconditionally to him upon her eventual death. During her husband's tenure as satrap, Ada had been loved by the people of Caria. By putting Ada, who felt very favorably towards Alexander, on the throne, he ensured that the government of Caria, as well as its people, remained loyal to him.

Syangela

Syangela (Ancient Greek: Συάγγελα) was a town of ancient Caria. It was a polis (city-state) and a member of the Delian League, appearing in tribute lists of ancient Athens. It, along with Myndus, avoided synoecism into Halicarnassus when Mausolus united other ancient cities into Halicarnassus.Its site is located near Kaplan Dağ, Asiatic Turkey.

Termerus

In Greek mythology, Termerus (Ancient Greek: Τέρμερος) was a bandit who was killed by Heracles. The episode is referenced in Plutarch's Life of Theseus, in description of Theseus' method of slaying his assailants by returning "the same sort of violence that they offered to him," as Heracles killed Termerus by “breaking his skull in pieces (whence, they say, comes the proverb of 'a Termerian mischief'), for it seems Termerus killed passengers that he met by running with his head against them.” According to Stephanus of Byzantium, Termerus was the eponym of the city Termera in Lycia. A scholiast on Euripides relates that Termera was founded by Termerus and took its name after him. The same source informs that Termerus and Lycus, two Lelegians "of beastly nature", were said to be notorious robbers that raided Caria and also sailed as far as the island Kos for the same purpose; the saying "Termerian mischief" was accordingly inspired by their deeds.According to the dictionary Suda, however, the proverbial expression "Termerian mischief" was due to a fortified dungeon located in Caria near Mount Termerion lying between Myndus and Halicarnassus.

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