Mutasarrıf

In the Ottoman Empire, a mutasarrıf was an administrative authority of any of certain sanjaks, who were appointed directly by the Sultan.[1]

CUINET(1895) 4.017 Vilayet of Hüdavendigâr
1895 map showing the Hüdavendigâr Eyalet, divided into Sanjaks, showing the separate Mutasarrifate of Biga and the Mutasarrifate of Izmit

History

This administrative unit was sometimes independent (e.g., Mount Lebanon Mutasarrifate or Cyprus) and sometimes was part of a vilayet (province), administered by a vali, and contained nahiye (communes), each administered by a kaymakam.[2] This rank was established in 1864 against the new Law of Villayets instead of rank of mutesellim which was abolished in 1842.[3]

"This small political unit was governed by a non-Lebanese Ottoman Christian subject and given the protection of European powers. The religious communities of the district were represented by a council that dealt directly with the governor. This system provided peace and prosperity until its abolition."[4]

The mutassarifates of the Ottoman Empire included:

See also

References

  1. ^ "Definition of Mutessarif". Free Online Dictionary. Retrieved 28 May 2013.
  2. ^ p. 21, A Reign of Terror Archived 2006-11-28 at the Wayback Machine, Master's thesis, Uğur Ü. Üngör, University of Amsterdam, June 2005.
  3. ^ Benedict, Peter (1974). Ula: An Anatolian Town. p. 85.
  4. ^ A History of the modern middle east Cleveland and Buntin p.84
  5. ^ Rogan, E.L. Frontiers of the State in the Late Ottoman Empire: Transjordan, 1850-1921. Cambridge University Press. p55.

External links

150 personae non gratae of Turkey

The 150 personae non gratae of Turkey (Turkish: Yüzellilikler, lit. 'Hundred-and-fiftyers') is a list of high-ranking personages of the Ottoman Empire who were exiled from the Republic of Turkey shortly after the end of the Turkish War of Independence with the Armistice of Mudanya on 11 October 1922. The Sultanate was abolished by the Grand National Assembly of Turkey in Ankara on 1 November 1922, and the last Ottoman Sultan, Mehmed VI, was declared persona non grata. Leaving Istanbul aboard the British warship HMS Malaya on 17 November 1922, he went into exile and died in Sanremo, Italy, on 16 May 1926.

The list was created on 23 April 1924 by the Grand National Assembly of Turkey, and revised on 1 June 1924. By targeting the former Imperial ruling-elite, it reaffirmed the political and cultural break between the Empire and the Republic. The preliminary list contained 600 individuals.

Ali Alizoti

Ali Nezvad Alizoti (1858-? in Gjirokastër

), son of Bey Naim Alizoti, was an Albanian politician of the late nineteenth and early twentieth century. He studied in Istanbul and commenced administrative training in Salonica. In 1906 he was appointed Mutasarrıf of Hinis.

Ali Pasha of Ioannina

Ali Pasha (1740 – 24 January 1822), variously referred to as of Tepelena or of Janina/Yannina/Ioannina, or the Lion of Yannina, was an Ottoman Albanian ruler who served as pasha of a large part of western Rumelia, the Ottoman Empire's European territories, which was referred to as the Pashalik of Yanina. His court was in Ioannina, and the territory he governed incorporated most of Epirus and the western parts of Thessaly and Greek Macedonia. Ali had three sons: Muhtar Pasha, who served in the 1809 war against the Russians, Veli Pasha, who became Pasha of the Morea Eyalet and Salih Pasha, governor of Vlore.Ali first appears in historical accounts as the leader of a band of brigands who became involved in many confrontations with Ottoman state officials in Albania and Epirus. He joined the administrative-military apparatus of the Ottoman Empire, holding various posts until 1788 when he was appointed pasha, ruler of the sanjak of Ioannina. His diplomatic and administrative skills, his interest in modernist ideas and concepts, his popular piety, his religious neutrality, his suppression of banditry, his vengefulness and harshness in imposing law and order, and his looting practices towards persons and communities in order to increase his proceeds caused both the admiration and the criticism of his contemporaries, as well as an ongoing controversy among historians regarding his personality. Finally falling afoul of the Ottoman central government, Ali Pasha was declared a rebel in 1820 and was killed in 1822 at the age of 81 or 82. In Western literature, Ali Pasha became the personification of an "oriental despot".

Battle of Novšiće

The Battle of Novšiće (Serbian: Boj na Novšiću/Бој на Новшићу; Bitka na Novšićima/Битка на Новшићима, Albanian: Beteja e Nokshiqit)) was a battle for control over Plav and Gusinje fought on 4 December 1879 between the forces of Principality of Montenegro led by Marko Miljanov and local pro-Ottoman forces which included irregulars of the League of Prizren, both commanded by Ali Pasha, the kaymekam of Gusinje. The League of Prizren consisted of the local Albanians and Bosniaks from Plav and Gusinje in Scutari Vilayet and irregulars from Kosovo Vilayet.This battle followed the Montenegrin–Ottoman War (1876–78). It happened because the Ottoman Empire avoided to provide conditions for peaceful cession of Plav and Gusinje to Montenegro, as agreed in the Treaty of Berlin (1878). To straighten their position at Congress of Berlin and later to avoid fulfillment of their obligations from the Treaty of Berlin, the Ottomans unofficially supported the League of Prizren which mobilized the pro-Ottoman irregulars. They easily mobilized 14,000–15,000 forces, because Plav and Gusinje were predominantly populated by the pro-Ottoman Muslims and Albanians who opposed this cession to the predominantly Christian populated Montenegro. They paid all the income of their waqif to the chieftains of neighboring Albanian tribes who belonged to the League of Prizren to support them with their forces. The League of Prizren forces gathered in Plav and Gusinje where they were put under the command of the Ottoman kaymakam of Gusinje, Ali Pasha.The Montenegrin forces of four battalions with 4,000–6,000 men were positioned along the demarcation line near villages Velika and Murino. Until the end of November 1879 they were under the command of voivode Petrović, who strictly respected instructions of the Montenegrin government to employ static and defensive tactics. At the beginning of December 1879 Montenegrin Prince Nicholas appointed Marko Miljanov, instead of Petrović. On 4 December 1879 one skirmish in the village Velika evolved into the battle when the Montenegrin forces advanced into Ottoman territory. Two battalions commanded by Miljanov quickly advanced without securing their flanks. The League of Prizren forces ambushed and surrounded them near the village of Novšiće. After several hours of fighting additional two Montenegrin battalions commanded by Vuković arrived and released forces under Miljanov from the encirclement and secured their retreat. Both sides suffered significant casualties. About a month later, in the subsequent battle, the Montenegrin forces near Murino near Plav defeated the League of Prizren forces.

In 1880 the Ottomans ceded seaport Ulcinj to Montenegro, instead of the two towns of Plav and Gusinje. Since the Ottomans completely lost control over the League of Prizren, they disestablished it and crushed their forces in April 1881. Ali Pasha of Gusinje was promoted by the Ottomans to the position of mutasarrıf of the Sanjak of İpek and awarded the title of beylerbey. After a fierce disagreement with Prince Nikola in 1882, Miljanov decided to retire from public life to his native Medun. In 1912 Montenegro annexed Plav and Gusinje.

Halil Rifat Pasha

Halil Rifat Pasha (Modern Turkish: Halil Rıfat Paşa; 1820–9 November 1901) was an Ottoman statesman and a Grand Vizier for six years between 1895 until his death in 1901, during the reign of Abdul Hamid II.

Izzet Ahmed Pasha

Izzet Ahmed Pasha (1798 – 20 February 1876), also known as Ahmed Izzet Pasha or Hacı Izzet Pasha or Hakkı Paşazâde Izzet Pasha, was an Ottoman statesman who held a lengthy series of provincial governorships from 1841 to 1870. He was also a vizier (made on 20 September 1845).

Early in his career, Izzet Ahmed Pasha was first kapıcıbaşı (master of ceremonies) at the imperial palace in Constantinople (modern Istanbul) and later the voivode of the Sanjak of Sivas. He was then made a ferik (Lieutenant General) in the Ottoman army. After this, he served as the Ottoman governor of:

Sidon Eyalet (December 1841 – July 1842)

Adana Eyalet (March 1843 – March 1844)

Bolu Sanjak (March 1844 – September 1845)

Diyarbekir Eyalet (September 1845 – October 1846)

Erzurum Eyalet (November 1846 – November 1847)

Ioannina Eyalet (March–September 1848, January 1855 – January 1856)

Tripolitania (September 1848 – August 1852)

Damascus Eyalet (1856–1857)

Trabzon Eyalet (August 1858 – August 1860)

Jeddah Eyalet (October 1861 – September 1864)

Konya Vilayet (August 1865 – June 1867)

Hüdavendigâr Vilayet (November 1868 – April 1870)Izzet Ahmed Pasha was the son of Hakkı Mehmed Pasha (1747–1811), a prominent bureaucrat, vizier, and statesman of the time, and reportedly counted the 16th-century statesman Sokollu Mehmed Pasha as among his ancestors. While posted in Baghdad, he married the daughter of Ali Rıza Pasha, Baghdad's governor. When his father-in-law was dismissed from the governorship of Baghdad, the decree that dismissed him cited Izzet Ahmed Pasha as a source of complaints against alleged abuses of his father-in-law's administration, most likely pointing to a fallout or disagreement between the two, or a political plot against Ali Rıza Pasha by his son-in-law.With his wife, Izzet Ahmed Pasha himself had three sons: Aziz Pasha (1835–1903), also a serial provincial governor; Hakkı Pasha (died 1877), a mutasarrıf of Bihać; and Süleyman Bey.Izzet Ahmed Pasha retired from public office in 1870. He died six years later on 20 February 1876 and was buried in Haydarpaşa Cemetery in Istanbul.

Kara Mahmud Pasha

Kara Mahmud Pasha (Turkish: Kara Mahmud Paşa, fl. 1749–22 September 1796) was a hereditary Ottoman governor (mutasarrıf) of the Sanjak of Scutari (known in historiography as Pashalik of Scutari), belonging to the Ottoman Albanian Bushati family (Buşatlı).

Karak revolt

The Karak revolt was an uprising against Ottoman authority in the Transjordanian town of Al-Karak, which erupted on 4 December 1910. The revolt came after Sami Pasha, the governor of Damascus, wanted to apply the same measures of conscription, taxation, and disarmament to the inhabitants of Al-Karak that previously provoked the Hauran Druze Rebellion.Al-Karak rose in revolt days after the arrival of an Ottoman census team, and insurgency quickly spread to neighboring towns of Ma'an and Tafila and a number of stations along the Hejaz Railway. Sami Pasha's forces ended the revolt with a random massacre, hundreds of people were imprisoned and ten revolt leaders were executed. The brutal suppression of the revolt had greatly angered the Karakis and is thought to have contributed to their support of the 1916 Great Arab Revolt.

Kırklareli Museum

Kırklareli Museum (Turkish: Kırklareli Müzesi) is a national museum in Kırklareli, Turkey, exhibiting natural history specimens, ethnographical items related to the region's history of cultural life, and archaeological artifacts found in and around the city. The director of the museum is Derya Balkan.

Mazraat es-Siyad

Mazraat es-Siyad (also transliterated Mazraet es-Siyed; Arabic: مزرعة السياد‎ pronounced [Mazraʿat Assiyad]) is a small town in the highlands of the Jbeil District in the Mount Lebanon Governorate, Lebanon. The town is 58 kilometres (36 mi) away from Beirut and stands at an elevation of 1,250 meters above sea level.

Mount Lebanon

Mount Lebanon (Arabic: جَبَل لُبْنَان‎, jabal lubnān, Lebanese Arabic pronunciation [ˈʒɛbəl lɪbˈneːn]; Syriac: ܛܘܪ ܠܒܢܢ‎, ṭūr levnon, Western Syriac pronunciation: [tˤur livˈnɔn]) is a mountain range in Lebanon. It averages above 2,500 m (8,200 ft) in elevation.

Mount Lebanon Mutasarrifate

The Mount Lebanon Mutasarrifate (Arabic: متصرفية جبل لبنان‎; Turkish: Cebel-i Lübnan Mutasarrıflığı) was one of the Ottoman Empire's subdivisions following the Tanzimat reform. After 1861 there existed an autonomous Mount Lebanon with a Christian mutasarrıf, which had been created as a homeland for the Maronites under European diplomatic pressure following the 1860 massacres.

Mustafa Zihni Pasha

Mustafa Zihni Pasha (1838 – 1911) was an Ottoman high official of ethnic Kurdish background, who held a number of ministerial posts. He was also a founding member of the nationalist Kürt Teali Cemiyeti society.

Mütesellim

Mütesellim or mutesellim was an Ottoman gubernatorial title used to describe mainly the head of a nahiye, but also other positions within the Ottoman hierarchy, depending on the context. Mostly this title was used for civil governors of individual towns, who managed tax collection and maintained public order. In order to reduce conflicts between mütesellims, in some cases one mütesellim was appointed by the sanjak-bey as lieutenant governor in charge for the whole sanjak. The Ottoman Empire abolished the position of mütesellim in 1842. This position was often connected with conflicts between various parties who saw it as possibility to increase their personal wealth. In the period between 1842—1864 local military governors assisted by local administration were in charge for tax collection and control of the population instead of mütesellims. After 1864 and the creation of the vilayet system, the office of mütesellim was replaced with new position of mutasarrıf.

Namık Kemal Dungeon

Namık Kemal Dungeon (Turkish: Namık Kemal Zindanı) is a historical building in Famagusta, Cyprus, known for being the abode of influential Turkish writer Namık Kemal between 1873 and 1876.

The site of the building was originally part of the Palazzo del Provveditore (Venetian Palace), the building as it currently stands was built during the Ottoman era. The building has two floors, with its lower floor carrying displaying pre-Ottoman architecture and its upper floor being distinctly Ottoman in style. Archaeologist Tuncer Bağışkan has identified the pre-Ottoman style as Lusignan. The building is in an L-shape and whilst the lower floor is made of ashlar, the upper floor was built using the Baghdadi technique.On 5 April 1873, when Namık Kemal's play Vatan yahut Silistre was played in the Gedik Pasha Theater in Constantinople, he was seen as a potential revolutionary and a threat by Sultan Abdülaziz and exiled to Cyprus. At first, he was imprisoned in a small cell in the lower floor. Afterwards, with the permission of Veyis Pasha, the mutasarrıf of Cyprus, he was transferred to the room at the upper floor. When Abdülaziz was dethroned, Namık Kemal was pardoned by Murad V on 3 June 1876 and returned to Constantinople on 29 June 1876. Namık Kemal penned his plays Gülnihal and Akif Bey in the dungeon. He wrote extensive notes on Famagusta, giving an extremely negative view of the city, and described his initial small cell as too dark and a place unsuitable for living.The dungeon was reportedly used by the British authorities during the First World War.At the beginning of 1993, the Department of Antiquities of Northern Cyprus started work on the restoration of the dungeon and appropriate arrangements to allow its use as a museum. In six months, the work was complete and the dungeon was opened as a museum. The museum contains many belongings of Namık Kemal and documents relating to him.

Ottoman Syria

Ottoman Syria refers to divisions of the Ottoman Empire within the Levant, usually defined as the region east of the Mediterranean Sea, west of the Euphrates River, north of the Arabian Desert and south of the Taurus Mountains.Ottoman Syria became organized by the Ottomans upon conquest from the Mamluks in the early 16th century as a single eyalets (province) of Damascus Eyalet. In 1534, the Aleppo Eyalet was split into a separate administration. The Tripoli Eyalet was formed out of Damascus province in 1579 and later the Adana Eyalet was split from Aleppo. In 1660, the Eyalet of Safed was established and shortly afterwards renamed Sidon Eyalet; in 1667, the Mount Lebanon Emirate was given special autonomous status within the Sidon province, but was abolished in 1841 and reconfigured in 1861 as the Mount Lebanon Mutasarrifate. The Syrian eyalets were later transformed into the Syria Vilayet, the Aleppo Vilayet and the Beirut Vilayet, following the 1864 Tanzimat reforms. Finally, in 1872, the Mutasarrifate of Jerusalem was split from the Syria Vilayet into an autonomous administration with special status.

Shoubak revolts

The Shoubak revolts were a series of uprisings against Ottoman authority in the Transjordanian town of Shoubak that took place in 1900 and 1905. The second uprising started after the Ottoman forces started to put women of the town into forced labor, considered to be a deliberate act of punishment against the inhabitants of Shoubak who were frequently insubordinate. Shoubak rose in revolt and managed to rally the neighboring Bedouins with them; the perpetuators were brutally punished by military force through an Ottoman expedition sent from Al-Karak, just north of Shoubak.

Tahir Pasha Mahmud Bey-zade

Tahir Pasha Mahmud Bey-zade (Turkish: Tahir Paşa Mahmud Bey-zâde, Serbian: Тахир-паша Махмудбеговић; fl. 1711–18) was an Ottoman governor (mutasarrıf), the sanjak-bey of Dukakin (or İpek). In 1711, he and his nephew Ahmed fought at the Moldavian battlefield. In 1717 to 18, he was appointed by the government to deal with the rebellious Serb rayah in the Sanjak of Vučitrn (see Uprising in Vučitrn).

Zagan Pasha Mosque

Zagan Pasha Mosque (Turkish: Zağnospaşa Camii) is a historic mosque in Balıkesir, northwest Turkey. It is known as the place, where Mustafa Kemal Atatürk delivered his famous "Balıkesir Khutbah" in 1923.

The mosque was built in 1461 by Zagan Pasha (fl. 1446–1462 or 1469), an Ottoman military commander and Grand Vizier of Albanian origin. Located in the city center, at Mustafa Fakıh neighborhood, it is part of a complex consisting of a tomb and a hammam. The mosque and the tomb, broke down in 1897, were rebuilt in 1908 by the Mutasarrıf (Governor) Ömer Ali Bey.It is the biggest mosque in Balıkesir. The square-plan mosque is constructed in ashlar masonry. It has one main dome surrounded by four side domes, which are separated by vaults. Entrance to the mosque is through double-winged wooden doors in the north, west and east. On three sides of the mosque, in front of the doors, there is a porch with an inclined lead-coated timber roof supported by two square marble columns. The mosque has no narthex. The minaret is situated on the northwest corner of the building. It was donated by Hacı Hafız Efendi of Arabacıoğulları, a notable family in Balıkesir. In the courtyard, two shadirvans and a tomb are situated. Outside of the courtyard's northwest corner, there is a third shadirvan of pentagon plan. A sundial is attached on a table sitting on a short thick column at the south of the courtyard.During his visit to Balıkesir on February 7, 1923, shortly after the end of the Turkish War of Independence (May 19, 1919 – October 11, 1922), Mustafa Kemal Atatürk, then known as Gazi Mustafa Kemal Pasha, delivered a khutbah in the mosque, which became famous as the "Balıkesir Khutbah".

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