Mustang

Mustang is the free-roaming horse of the American west that first descended from horses brought to the Americas by the Spanish. Mustangs are often referred to as wild horses, but because they are descended from once-domesticated horses, they are properly defined as feral horses. The original mustangs were Colonial Spanish horses, but many other breeds and types of horses contributed to the modern mustang, now resulting in varying phenotypes. Some free-roaming horses are relatively unchanged from the original Spanish stock, most strongly represented in the most isolated populations.

In 1971, the United States Congress recognized that "wild free-roaming horses and burros are living symbols of the historic and pioneer spirit of the West, which continue to contribute to the diversity of life forms within the Nation and enrich the lives of the American people."[1] The free-roaming horse population is managed and protected by the Bureau of Land Management (BLM). Controversy surrounds the sharing of land and resources by mustangs with the livestock of the ranching industry, and also with the methods by which the BLM manages their population numbers. The most common method of population management used is rounding up excess population and offering them to adoption by private individuals. There are inadequate numbers of adopters, so many once free-roaming horses now live in temporary and long-term holding areas with concerns that the animals may be sold for horse meat. Additional debate centers on the question of whether mustangs—and horses in general—are a native species or an introduced invasive species in the lands they occupy.

Mustang
Mustanggelding
Mustang adopted from the BLM
Arizona 2004 Mustangs
Free-roaming mustangs
Country of originNorth America
Traits
Distinguishing featuresSmall, compact, good bone, very hardy

Etymology and usage

Mustangs are known as wild horses but, unlike Przewalski's horse, possibly the only extant wild horse,[a] the mustang descended from domesticated horses.[4]

According to the Oxford English Dictionary (OED), the English word "mustang" comes from two essentially synonymous Spanish words, mestengo (or mesteño) and mostrenco. Both words referred to horses and cattle defined as "wild having no master."[b] Mesteño was derived from mesta, associations of graziers, and one of their jobs was to deal with strayed cattle. The OED states that the origin of mostrenco is "obscure,"[6] The Spanish word in turn may possibly originate from the Latin expression mixta, referring to beasts of uncertain ownership, which were distributed by ranchers' associations called mestas in Spain in the Middle Ages.[7]

"Mustangers" were usually cowboys in the US and vaqueros or mesteñeros in Mexico who caught, broke, and drove free-ranging horses to market in the Spanish, and still later American, territories of what is now Northern Mexico, Texas, New Mexico and California. They caught the horses that roamed the Great Plains and the San Joaquin Valley of California, and later in the Great Basin, from the 18th century to the early 20th century.[8][9]

Characteristics and ancestry

Horsescd1l-095
Mustang mare and foal with stallion

The original mustangs were Colonial Spanish horses, but many other breeds and types of horses contributed to the modern mustang, resulting in varying phenotypes. Mustangs of all body types are described as surefooted and having good endurance. They may be of any coat color.[10] Throughout all the Herd Management Areas managed by the Bureau of Land Management, light riding horse type predominates, though a few horses with draft horse characteristics also exist, mostly kept separate from other mustangs and confined to specific areas.[11] Some herds show the signs of the introduction of Thoroughbred or other light racehorse-types into herds, a process that also led in part to the creation of the American Quarter Horse.[12]

The mustang of the modern west has several different breeding populations today which are genetically isolated from one another and thus have distinct traits traceable to particular herds. Genetic contributions to today's free-roaming mustang herds include assorted ranch horses that escaped to or were turned out on the public lands, and stray horses used by the United States Cavalry.[c] For example, in Idaho some Herd Management Areas (HMA) contain animals with known descent from Thoroughbred and Quarter Horse stallions turned out with feral herds.[15] The herds located in two HMAs in central Nevada produce Curly Horses.[16][17] Others, such as certain bands in Wyoming, have characteristics consistent with gaited horse breeds.[18]

Many herds were analyzed for Spanish blood group polymorphism {commonly known as "blood markers") and microsatellite DNA loci[19]. Blood marker analysis verified a few to have significant Spanish ancestry, namely the Cerbat Mustang, Pryor Mountain Mustang, and some horses from the Sulphur Springs HMA.[20] The Kiger Mustang is also said to have been found to have Spanish blood[11] and subsequent microsatellite DNA confirmed the Spanish ancestry of the Pryor Mountain Mustang.[21]

The now-defunct American Mustang Association developed a breed standard for those mustangs that carry morphological traits associated with the early Spanish horses. These include a well-proportioned body with a clean, refined head with wide forehead and small muzzle. The facial profile may be straight or slightly convex. Withers are moderate in height, and the shoulder is to be "long and sloping." The standard considers a very short back, deep girth and muscular coupling over the loins as desirable. The croup is rounded, neither too flat nor goose-rumped. The tail is low-set. The legs are to be straight and sound. Hooves are round and dense.[10] Dun color dilution and primitive markings are particularly common among horses of Spanish type.[22]

Horses in several other HMAs exhibit Spanish horse traits, such as dun coloration and primitive markings.[d] Other genetic herd studies, such as one done in 2002 on the bands in the Challis, Idaho area, show a blend of Spanish, North American gaited horse, draft horse and pony influences.[27]

Mustang Utah 2005 2
Mustangs in Utah

Height varies across the west, but most are small, generally 14 to 15 hands (56 to 60 inches, 142 to 152 cm), and not taller than 16 hands (64 inches, 163 cm), even in herds with draft or Thoroughbred ancestry.[e] Some breeders of domestic horses consider the mustang herds of the west to be inbred and of inferior quality. However, supporters of the mustang argue that the animals are merely small due to their harsh living conditions and that natural selection has eliminated many traits that lead to weakness or inferiority.

History

Prehistory

The taxonomic horse family "Equidae" evolved in North America 55 million years ago.[29] By the late Pleistocene era, there were two species of the family remaining there, the caballine (stout legged) and stilt-legged, which recent DNA studies have indicated represent different genera; "Equus" and "Haringtonhippus," respectively. Haringtonhippus went extinct, and Equus was extirpated from the Americas at the end of the last ice age,[30][31] possibly due to a changing climate or the impact of newly arrived human hunters.[32] Thus at the beginning of the Columbian Exchange, there were no equids in the Americas.[33][f]

Return 1493–1600

Horses first returned to the Americas with the conquistadors, beginning with Columbus, who imported horses from Spain to the West Indies on his second voyage in 1493.[35] Domesticated horses came to the mainland with the arrival of Cortés in 1519.[36] By 1525, Cortés had imported enough horses to create a nucleus of horse-breeding in Mexico.[37]

One hypothesis held that horse populations north of Mexico originated in the mid-1500s with the expeditions of Narváez, de Soto or Coronado, but it has been refuted.[38][39] Horse breeding in sufficient numbers to establish a self-sustaining population developed in what today is the southwestern United States starting in 1598 when Juan de Oñate founded Santa Fe de Nuevo México. From 75 horses in his original expedition, he expanded his herd to 800, and from there the horse population increased rapidly.[39]

Final Dispersal Map
Dispersal of horses, 1600-1775[40]

While the Spanish also brought horses to Florida in the 16th century,[41] the Choctaw and Chickasaw horses of what is now the southeastern United States are believed to be descended from western mustangs that moved east, and thus Spanish horses in Florida did not influence the mustang.[39]

17th and 18th century dispersal

Native American people readily integrated use of the horse into their cultures. They quickly adopted the horse as a primary means of transportation. Horses replaced the dog as a pack animal and changed Native cultures in terms of warfare, trade, and even diet—the ability to run down bison allowed some people to abandon agriculture for hunting from horseback.[42]

Santa Fe became a major trading center in the 1600s.[43] Although Spanish laws prohibited Native Americans from riding horses, the Spanish used Native people as servants, and some were tasked to care for livestock, thus learning horse-handling skills.[40] Oñates' colonists also lost many of their horses.[44] Some wandered off because the Spanish generally did not keep them in fenced enclosures,[45] and Native people in the area captured some of these estrays.[46] Other horses were traded by Oñates' settlers for food, women or other goods.[39] Initially, horses obtained by Native people were simply eaten, along with any cattle that were captured or stolen.[47] But as individuals with horse-handling skills fled Spanish control, sometimes with a few trained horses, the local tribes began using horses for riding and as pack animals. By 1659, settlements reported being raided for horses, and in the 1660s the "Apache"[g] were trading human captives for horses.[48] The Pueblo Revolt of 1680 also resulted in large numbers of horses coming into the hands of Native people, the largest one-time influx in history.[46]

From the Pueblo people, horses were traded to the Apache, Navajo and Utes. The Comanche acquired horses and provided them to the Shoshone.[49] The Eastern Shoshone and Southern Utes became traders who distributed horses and horse culture from New Mexico to the northern plains.[50] West of the Continental Divide, horses distribution moved north quite rapidly along the western slopes of the Rocky Mountains, skirting desert regions[43] such as the Great Basin and the western Colorado Plateau.[50][h] Horses reached what today is southern Idaho by 1690.[40] The Northern Shoshone people in the Snake River valley had horses in 1700.[51][i] By 1730, they reached the Columbia Basin and were east of the Continental divide in the northern Great Plains.[40] The Blackfeet people of Alberta had horses by 1750.[52] The Nez Perce people in particular became master horse breeders, and developed one of the first distinctly American breeds, the Appaloosa. Most other tribes did not practice extensive amounts of selective breeding, though they sought out desirable horses through acquisition and quickly weeded out those with undesirable traits. By 1769, most Plain Indians had horses.[51][53]

In this period, Spanish Missions were also a source of estray and stolen livestock, particularly in what today is Texas and California.[54] The Spanish brought horses to California for use at their missions and ranches, where permanent settlements were established in 1769.[53] Horse numbers grew rapidly, with a population of 24,000 horses reported by 1800.[55] By 1805, there were so many horses in California that people began to simply kill unwanted animals to reduce overpopulation.[56] However, due to the barriers presented by mountain ranges and deserts, the California population did not significantly influence horse numbers elsewhere at the time.[53][j] Horses in California were described as being of "exceptional quality."[56]

In the upper Mississippi basin and Great Lakes regions, the French were another source of horses. Although horse trading with native people was prohibited, there were individuals willing to indulge in illegal dealing, and as early as 1675, the Illinois people had horses. Animals identified as "Canadian," "French", or "Norman" were located in the Great Lakes region, with a 1782 census at Fort Detroit listing over 1000 animals.[58] By 1770, Spanish horses were found in that area,[40] and there was a clear zone from Ontario and Saskatchewan to St. Louis where Canadian-type horses, particularly the smaller varieties, crossbred with mustangs of Spanish ancestry. French-Canadian horses were also allowed to roam freely, and moved west, particularly influencing horse herds in the northern plains and inland northwest.[58]

Comancheria
Comanche territory, 1850, region roughly corresponds to the location of the greatest numbers of feral horses in 1800

Although horses were brought from Mexico to Texas as early as 1542, a stable population did not exist until 1686, when Alonso de León's expedition arrived with 700 horses. From there, later groups brought up thousands more, deliberately leaving some horses and cattle to fend for themselves at various locations, while others strayed.[59] By 1787, these animals had multiplied to the point that a roundup gathered nearly 8,000 "free-roaming mustangs and cattle."[60] West-central Texas, between the Rio Grande River and Palo Duro Canyon, was said to have the most concentrated population of feral horses in the Americas.[52] Throughout the west, horses escaped human control and formed feral herds, and by the late 1700s, the largest numbers were found in what today are the states of Texas, Oklahoma, Colorado, and New Mexico.[52]

19th century

An early 19th century reference to mustangs by American sources came from Zebulon Pike in 1808, who noted passing herds of "mustangs or wild horses." In 1821, Stephen Austin noted in his journal that he had seen about 150 mustangs.[6][k]

Estimates of when the peak population of mustangs occurred and total numbers vary widely between sources. No comprehensive census of feral horse numbers was ever performed until the time of the Wild and Free-Roaming Horses and Burros Act of 1971 and any earlier estimates, particularly prior to the 20th century, are speculative.[61] Some sources simply state that "millions" of mustangs once roamed western North America.[62][63] In 1959, geographer Tom L. McKnight[l] suggested that the population peaked in the late 1700s or early 1800s, and the "best guesses apparently lie between two and five million".[52] Historian J. Frank Dobie hypothesized that the population peaked around the end of the Mexican–American War in 1848, stating, "My own guess is that at no time were there more than a million mustangs in Texas and no more than a million others scattered over the remainder of the West."[65] J. Edward de Steiguer[m] questioned Dobie's lower guess as still being too high.[67]

In 1839, the numbers of mustangs in Texas had been augmented by animals abandoned by Mexican settlers who had been ordered to leave the Nueces Strip.[68][69][n] Ulysses Grant, in his memoir, recalled seeing in 1846 an immense herd between the Nueces and Rio Grande rivers in Texas. "As far as the eye could reach to our right, the herd extended. To the left, it extended equally. There was no estimating the number of animals in it; I have no idea that they could all have been corralled in the state of Rhode Island, or Delaware, at one time."[72] When the area was finally ceded to the U.S. in 1848, these horses and others in the surrounding areas were rounded up and trailed north and east,[73] resulting in the near elimination of mustangs in that area by 1860.[70]

Farther west, the first known sighting of a free-roaming horse in the Great Basin was by John Bidwell near the Humboldt Sinks in 1841. Although Fremont noted thousands of horses in California,[74] the only horse sign he spoke of in the Great Basin, which he named, was tracks around Pyramid Lake, and the natives he encountered there were horseless.[75][o] In 1861, another party saw seven free-roaming horses near the Stillwater Range.[77] For the most part, free-roaming horse herds in the interior of Nevada were established in the latter part of the 1800s from escaped settlers' horses.[74][78][79]

20th century

In the early 1900s, thousands of free-roaming horses were rounded up for use in the Spanish–American War[80] and World War I.[81]

By 1920, Bob Brislawn, who worked as a packer for the U.S. government, recognized that the original mustangs were disappearing, and made efforts to preserve them, ultimately establishing the Spanish Mustang Registry.[82] In 1934, J. Frank Dobie stated that there were just "a few wild [feral] horses in Nevada, Wyoming and other Western states" and that "only a trace of Spanish blood is left in most of them"[83] remaining. Other sources agree that by that time, only "pockets" of mustangs that retained Colonial Spanish Horse type remained.[84]

By 1930, the vast majority of free-roaming horses were found west of Continental Divide, with an estimated population between 50,000–150,000.[85] They were almost completely confined to the remaining General Land Office (GLO)-administered public lands and National Forest rangelands in the 11 Western States.[86] In 1934, the Taylor Grazing Act established the United States Grazing Service to manage livestock grazing on public lands, and in 1946, the GLO was combined with the Grazing Service to form the Bureau of Land Management (BLM),[87] which, along with the Forest Service, was committed to removing feral horses from the lands they administered.

By the 1950s, the mustang population dropped to an estimated 25,000 horses.[88] Abuses linked to certain capture methods, including hunting from airplanes and poisoning water holes, led to the first federal free-roaming horse protection law in 1959.[89] This statute, titled "Use of aircraft or motor vehicles to hunt certain wild horses or burros; pollution of watering holes"[90] popularly known as the "Wild Horse Annie Act", prohibited the use of motor vehicles for capturing free-roaming horses and burros.[91] Protection was increased further by the Wild and Free-Roaming Horses and Burros Act of 1971 (WFRHABA).[92]

The Wild and Free-Roaming Horses and Burros Act of 1971 provided for protection of certain previously established herds of horses and burros. It mandated the BLM to oversee the protection and management of free-roaming herds on lands it administered, and gave U.S. Forest Service similar authority on National Forest lands.[61] A few free-ranging horses are also managed by the United States Fish and Wildlife Service,[93] and National Park Service.[94] and the National Park Service.[94] but for the most part they are not subject to management under the Act.[95] A census completed in conjunction with passage of the Act found that there were approximately 17,300 horses (25,300 combined population of horses and burros) on the BLM-administered lands and 2,039 on National Forests.[96]

Mustangs today

2006 NV Proof
Nevada's State Quarter, featuring the mustang

The BLM has established Herd Management Areas to determine where horses will be sustained as free-roaming populations.[97] The BLM has established "Appropriate Management Levels" (AML) for each HMA, totaling 26,000 bureau-wide,[98][99] but the on-range mustang population in August 2017 was estimated to be over 72,000 horses.[100] More than half of all free-roaming mustangs in North America are found in Nevada (which features the horses on its State Quarter), with other significant populations in California, Oregon, Utah, Montana, and Wyoming.[101][p] Another 45,000 horses are in holding facilities.[100]

Land use controversies

Controversy surrounds the role horses have in the ecosystem as well as their rank in the prioritized use of public lands, particularly in relation to livestock. There are multiple viewpoints. Some supporters of Mustangs on public lands asserts that, while not native, mustangs are a "culturally significant" part of the American West, and acknowledge some form of population control is needed.[102] Another viewpoint is that mustangs reinhabited an ecological niche vacated when horses went extinct in North America 10,000 years ago,[103] with a variant characterization that horses are a reintroduced native species that should be legally classified as "wild" rather than "feral" and managed as wildlife. The "native species" argument centers on the premise that the horses that went extinct 10,000 years ago evolved in North America and are genetically the same species as was reintroduced,[104][105] as opposed to whether horses developed an ecomorphotype adapted to the ecosystem as it changed in the intervening 10,000 years.[102]

The Wildlife Society views mustangs as an introduced species stating: "Since native North American horses went extinct, the western United States has become more arid...notably changing the ecosystem and ecological roles horses and burros play." and that they draw resources and attention away from true native species.[106] A 2013 report by the National Academy of Science also challenged the idea of horses being a reintroduced native species stating: "the complex of animals and vegetation has changed since horses were extirpated from North America." It also stated that the distinction between native or non-native was not the issue, but rather the "priority that BLM gives to free-ranging horses and burros on federal lands, relative to other uses."[107]

Mustang advocates favor that the BLM rank mustangs higher in priority than it currently does, arguing that too little forage is allocated to mustangs as opposed to cattle and sheep.[108] Ranchers and those who depend on the livestock industry favor a lower priority, arguing essentially that their livelihoods and rural economies are threatened because they depend upon the public land forage for their livestock.[109]

The debate as to what degree mustangs and cattle compete for forage is multifaceted. Horses are adapted by evolution to inhabit an ecological niche characterized by poor quality vegetation.[110] Advocates assert that most current mustang herds live in arid areas which cattle cannot fully utilize due to the lack of water sources.[111] Mustangs can cover vast distances to find food and water;[112] advocates assert that horses range 5–10 times as far as cattle to find forage, finding it in more inaccessible areas.[108] In addition, horses are "hindgut fermenters", meaning that they digest nutrients by means of the cecum rather than by a multi-chambered stomach.[113] While this means that they extract less energy from a given amount of forage, it also means that they can digest food faster and make up the difference in efficiency by increasing their consumption rate. In practical effect, by eating greater quantities, horses can obtain adequate nutrition from poorer forage than can ruminants such as cattle, and so can survive in areas where cattle will starve.[110]

However, while the BLM rates horses by animal unit (AUM) to eat the same amount of forage as a cow-calf pair, 1.0, studies of horse grazing patterns indicate that horses probably consume forage at a rate closer to 1.5 AUM.[114] Modern rangeland management also recommends removing all livestock[q] during the growing season to maximize re-growth of the forage. Year-round grazing by any non-native ungulate will degrade it,[115] particularly horses whose incisors allow them to graze plants very close to the ground, inhibiting recovery.[106]

Management and adoption

The Bureau of Land Management (BLM) was tasked by Congress with protecting, managing, and controlling free-roaming horses and burros under the authority of the Wild and Free-Roaming Horses and Burros Act of 1971 to ensure that healthy herds thrive on healthy rangelands under the 1976 Federal Land Policy and Management Act.[116] Difficulty arises because mustang herd sizes can multiply rapidly, increasing up to and possibly by over 20% every year, so population control presents a challenge. When unmanaged, population numbers can outstrip forage available, leading to starvation.[117]

There are few predators in the modern era capable of preying on healthy adult mustangs,[118] and for the most part, predators capable of limiting the growth of feral mustang herd sizes are not found in the same habitat as most modern feral herds.[119] Although wolves and mountain lions are two species known to prey on horses and in theory could control population growth,[119] in practice, predation is not a viable population control mechanism. Wolves were historically rare in, and currently do not inhabit, the Great Basin,[120] where the vast majority of mustangs roam. While they are documented to prey on feral horses in Alberta, Canada, there is no known documentation of wolf predation on free-roaming horses in the United States.[119] Mountain lions have been documented to prey on feral horses in the U.S., but in limited areas and small numbers,[118] and mostly foals.[119]

One of the BLM's key mandates under the 1971 law and amendments is to maintain AML of wild horses and burros in areas of public rangelands where they are managed by the federal government.[121] Control of the population to within AML is achieved through a capture program. There are strict guidelines for techniques used to round up mustangs. One method uses a tamed horse, called a "Judas horse", which has been trained to lead wild horses into a pen or corral. Once the mustangs are herded into an area near the holding pen, the Judas horse is released. Its job is then to move to the head of the herd and lead them into a confined area.[122]

Since 1978, captured horses have been offered for adoption to individuals or groups willing and able to provide humane, long-term care after payment of an adoption fee; the base fee is $125. Adopted horses are still protected under the Act, for one year after adoption, at which point the adopter can obtain title to the horse. Horses that could not be adopted were to be humanely euthanized.[116][123]Instead of euthanizing excess horses, the BLM began keeping them in "long term holding," an expensive alternative[124] that can cost taxpayers up to $50,000 per horse over its lifetime.[100] On December 8, 2004, a rider amending the Wild and Free Roaming Horse and Burro Act was attached to an appropriation bill before the United States Congress by former Senator Conrad Burns. This modified the adoption program to also allow the unlimited sale of captured horses that are "more than 10 years of age", or that were "offered unsuccessfully for adoption at least three times." Since 1978, there had been specific language in the Act forbidding the BLM from selling the horses to those would take them to slaughter, but the Burns Amendment removed that language.[116][125] In order to prevent horses being sold to slaughter, the BLM has implemented policies limiting sales and requiring buyers to certify they will not take the horses to slaughter.[61]In 2017, the Trump administration began pushing Congress to remove barriers to implementing both the option to euthanize and sell excess horses.[126]

Despite such means as the Extreme Mustang Makeover, a promotional competition that gives trainers 100 days to gentle and train 100 mustangs, which are then adopted through an auction, to try increase the number of horses adopted,[127] adoption numbers do not come close to finding homes for the excess horses. Ten thousand foals were expected to be born on range in 2017,[100] whereas only 2500 horses were expected to be adopted. Alternatives to roundups for on range population control include fertility control, either by PZP injection or spaying mares,[126] culling and natural regulation.[128]

Captured horses are freeze branded on the left side of the neck by the BLM, using the International Alpha Angle System, a system of angles and alpha-symbols that cannot be altered. The brands begin with a symbol indicating the registering organization, in this case the U.S. Government, then two stacked figures indicating the individual horse's year of birth, then the individual registration number. Captured horses kept in sanctuaries are also marked on the left hip with four inch-high Arabic numerals that are also the last four digits of the freeze brand on the neck.[129]

See also

Notes

  1. ^ Recent studies suggest the Przewalski may have been briefly domesticated millennia ago.[2][3]
  2. ^ Another source defines mostrenco as "wild, stray, ownerless".[5]
  3. ^ Examples include the Herd Management Areas in California and Idaho.[13][14]
  4. ^ See, e.g. High Rock[23] and Carter Reservoir HMAs, California,[24] Twin Peaks HMA, Ca/NV,[25] Black Mountain HMA, ID,[26]
  5. ^ Some horses in the Pryor range are said to be under 14 hands (56 inches, 142 cm),[22] Horses estimated at up to 16 hands (64 inches, 163 cm) are found at HMA such as Devils Garden Wild Horse Territory, California,[28] and Challis HMA, Idaho.[27]
  6. ^ There also is a hypothesis that Equus was not extirpated from North America and that the Plains Indians had domesticated them prior to the arrival of the Europeans.[34]
  7. ^ "Apache" was a Pueblo word meaning "enemy," and some early accounts referred to all hostile tribes generically as "Apaches" regardless of which tribe was involved.[47]
  8. ^ Horses did not arrive in the Great Basin until the 1850s.[50]
  9. ^ The Western Shoshone occupied the interior of the Great Basin, and did not have access to horses until after 1850.[50]
  10. ^ It was there and the southern Great Plains where Dobie stated the "Spanish horses found vast American ranges corresponding in climate and soil to the arid lands of Spain, northern Africa and Arabia in which they originated".[57]
  11. ^ The OED cites Sources Mississ. III. 273 for Pike, and "Journal, 5 Sept." for Austin in Texas State Hist. Assoc Q. (1904) VII. 300.[6]
  12. ^ Tom L. McKnight c. 1929–2004, PhD Wisconsin 1955, professor of geography, UCLA.[64]
  13. ^ "Ed" de Steiguer PhD, professor at the University of Arizona.[66]
  14. ^ The area was also known as the "Wild Horse Desert"[70] or "Mustang Desert".[71]
  15. ^ Although for the most part, the Native Americans in the Great Basin Desert did not have horses, the Bannocks were an offshoot of the Northern Paiute in southern Oregon and northwest Oregon[50] that developed a horse culture. They may have the tribe that attacked a member of the Ogden party at the Humboldt Sinks in 1829.[76]
  16. ^ A few hundred free-roaming horses survive in Alberta and British Columbia
  17. ^ "livestock" in this context includes sheep, cattle and horses.[115]

References

  1. ^ "The Wild and Free-Roaming Horses and Burros Act of 1971, as amended" (PDF). Archived (PDF) from the original on May 29, 2013. Retrieved April 26, 2012.
  2. ^ "When Is "Wild" Actually "Feral"?". The Last Wild Horse: The Return of Takhi to Mongolia Bio Feature. American Museum of Natural History. Retrieved May 25, 2015.
  3. ^ "Ancient DNA upends the horse family tree". Science | AAAS. 2018-02-22. Retrieved 2018-06-20.
  4. ^ "When Is "Wild" Actually "Feral"?". The Last Wild Horse: The Return of Takhi to Mongolia Bio Feature. American Museum of Natural History. Archived from the original on May 7, 2015. Retrieved May 25, 2015.
  5. ^ Corominas, J. and J.A. Pascual 1981 Diccionario crítico etimológico castellano e hispánico Madrid: Gredos s.v. "mostrenco"
  6. ^ a b c Simpson, prepared by J.A. (1989). "Mustang" - The Oxford English dictionary (2. ed.). Oxford: Clarendon Press. p. 139. ISBN 978-0198612223.
  7. ^ "Online Etymology Dictionary". etymonline.com. Archived from the original on 5 June 2015. Retrieved 21 May 2015.
  8. ^ C. Allan Jones, Texas Roots: Agriculture and Rural Life Before the Civil War, Texas A&M University Press, 2005, pp. 74–75
  9. ^ Frank Forrest Latta, Joaquín Murrieta and His Horse Gangs, Bear State Books, Santa Cruz, 1980, p. 84
  10. ^ a b Hendricks, Bonnie L. (2007). International encyclopedia of horse breeds (Pbk. ed.). Norman: University of Oklahoma Press. pp. 18–19, 301–303. ISBN 9780806138848. Archived from the original on 28 December 2012. Retrieved 29 May 2015.
  11. ^ a b "Breeds of Livestock - Mustang (Horse)". Department of Animal Science - Oklahoma State University. May 7, 2002. Archived from the original on 11 May 2015. Retrieved 29 May 2015.
  12. ^ Twombly, Matthew; Baptista, Fernando G (March 2014). "Return of a Native". National Geographic. Archived from the original on May 20, 2015. Retrieved June 11, 2015.
  13. ^ "California–Wild Horses & Burros". Bureau of Land Management. Archived from the original on 15 June 2015. Retrieved 1 June 2015.
  14. ^ "Idaho's Wild Horse Program". Bureau of Land Management. Archived from the original on 16 June 2015. Retrieved 1 June 2015.
  15. ^ "Idaho's Wild Horse Program". Bureau of Land Management. Archived from the original on 19 June 2015. Retrieved 1 June 2015.
  16. ^ "ROCKY HILLS HMA". blm.gov. 9 January 2008. Archived from the original on 20 June 2015. Retrieved 14 June 2015.
  17. ^ "CALLAGHAN HMA". blm.gov. 9 January 2008. Archived from the original on 20 June 2015. Retrieved 14 June 2015.
  18. ^ "dividebasin". blm.gov. 5 March 2013. Archived from the original on 19 June 2015. Retrieved 4 June 2015.
  19. ^ National Research Council (2013). "5". Genetic Diversity in Free-Ranging Horse and Burro Populations (Report). Washington D.C.: The National Academies Press. pp. 144–45. Archived from the original on 2017-12-01.
  20. ^ National Research Council (2013). "5". Genetic Diversity in Free-Ranging Horse and Burro Populations (Report). Washington D.C.: The National Academies Press. p. 152. Archived from the original on 2017-12-01.
  21. ^ Cothran, E. Gus. "Genetic Analysis of the Pryor Mountains HMA, MT" (PDF). Department of Veterinary Integrative Bioscience Texas A&M University. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2015-09-23.
  22. ^ a b Pomeranz, Lynne; Massingham, Rhonda (2006). Among wild horses a portrait of the Pryor Mountain mustangs. North Adams, MA: Storey Publishing. p. 26. ISBN 9781612122137.
  23. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2016-03-04. Retrieved 2016-05-08.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)
  24. ^ "Carter Reservoir Herd Management Area (CA-269)". Bureau of Land Management. Archived from the original on 16 June 2015. Retrieved 4 June 2015.
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Sources

Further reading

Fender Mustang

The Fender Mustang is a solid body electric guitar produced by the Fender Musical Instruments Corporation. It was introduced in 1964 as the basis of a major redesign of Fender's student models, the Musicmaster and Duo-Sonic. It was produced until 1982 and reissued in 1990.

In the 1990s, the Mustang attained cult status largely as a result of its use by a number of alternative rock bands. Early examples are generally seen as the most collectible of all the short-scale Fender guitars.

The Mustang features two single-coil pickups, an unusual pickup switching configuration, and a unique vibrato system. It was originally available in two scale lengths (24 or 22.5 in).

Ford Mustang

The Ford Mustang is an American car manufactured by Ford. It was originally based on the platform of the second generation North American Ford Falcon, a compact car. The original 1962 Ford Mustang I two-seater concept car had evolved into the 1963 Mustang II four-seater concept car which Ford used to pretest how the public would take interest in the first production Mustang. The 1963 Mustang II concept car was designed with a variation of the production model's front and rear ends with a roof that was 2.7 inches shorter. Introduced early on April 17, 1964 (16 days after the Plymouth Barracuda), and thus dubbed as a "1964½" by Mustang fans, the 1965 Mustang was the automaker's most successful launch since the Model A. The Mustang has undergone several transformations to its current sixth generation.

The Mustang created the "pony car" class of American muscle cars, affordable sporty coupes with long hoods and short rear decks, and gave rise to competitors such as the Chevrolet Camaro, Pontiac Firebird, AMC Javelin, Chrysler's revamped Plymouth Barracuda, and the second generation Dodge Challenger. The Mustang is also credited for inspiring the designs of coupés such as the Toyota Celica and Ford Capri, which were imported to the United States.

As of August 2018, over 10 million Mustangs have been produced in the U.S.The Ford Mustang began production five months before the normal start of the 1965 production year. The early production versions are often referred to as "1964½ models" but all Mustangs were advertised, VIN coded and titled by Ford as 1965 models, though minor design updates in August 1964 at the "formal" start of the 1965 production year contribute to tracking 1964½ production data separately from 1965 data (see data below). with production beginning in Dearborn, Michigan, on March 9, 1964; the new car was introduced to the public on April 17, 1964 at the New York World's Fair.Executive stylist John Najjar, who was a fan of the World War II P-51 Mustang fighter plane, is credited by Ford to have suggested the name. Najjar co-designed the first prototype of the Ford Mustang known as Ford Mustang I in 1961, working jointly with fellow Ford stylist Philip T. Clark. The Mustang I made its formal debut at the United States Grand Prix in Watkins Glen, New York, on October 7, 1962, where test driver and contemporary Formula One race driver Dan Gurney lapped the track in a demonstration using the second "race" prototype. His lap times were only slightly off the pace of the F1 race cars.

An alternative view was that Robert J. Eggert, Ford Division market research manager, first suggested the Mustang name. Eggert, a breeder of quarterhorses, received a birthday present from his wife of the book, The Mustangs by J. Frank Dobie in 1960. Later, the book's title gave him the idea of adding the "Mustang" name for Ford's new concept car. The designer preferred Cougar (early styling bucks can be seen wearing a Cougar grille emblem) or Torino (an advertising campaign using the Torino name was actually prepared), while Henry Ford II wanted T-bird II. As the person responsible for Ford's research on potential names, Eggert added "Mustang" to the list to be tested by focus groups; "Mustang," by a wide margin, came out on top under the heading: "Suitability as Name for the Special Car." The name could not be used in Germany, however, because it was owned by Krupp, which had manufactured trucks between 1951 and 1964 with the name Mustang. Ford refused to buy the name for about US$10,000 from Krupp at the time. Kreidler, a manufacturer of mopeds, also used the name, so Mustang was sold in Germany as the "T-5" until December 1978.

Mustangs grew larger and heavier with each model year until, in response to the 1971–1973 models, Ford returned the car to its original size and concept for 1974. It has since seen several platform generations and designs. Although some other pony cars have seen a revival, the Mustang is the only original model to remain in uninterrupted production over five decades of development and revision.

Ford Mustang (fifth generation)

The fifth-generation Ford Mustang (S197) is a pony car that was manufactured by Ford from 2004 to 2014, at the Flat Rock Assembly Plant in Flat Rock, Michigan. The fifth generation began with the 2005 model year, and received a facelift for the 2010 model year. Originally designed by Sid Ramnarace through late 2001 and finalized in mid-2002, the fifth-generation Mustang's design was previewed by two preproduction concept cars that debuted at the 2003 North American International Auto Show. Development began on the S-197 program in 1999 under chief engineer Hau Thai-Tang, shortly after the 1998 launch of "New Edge" SN-95 facelift. From the second half of 1999, design work commenced under Ford design chief, J Mays, and concluded in July 2002 with the design freeze. There have been several variants of the fifth-generation Ford Mustang that include the Mustang GT/California Special, Shelby Mustang, Bullitt Mustang, and Boss 302 Mustang

Ford Mustang (first generation)

The first-generation Ford Mustang was manufactured by Ford from March 1964 until 1973. The introduction of the Mustang created a new class of automobile known as the pony car. The Mustang’s styling, with its long hood and short deck, proved wildly popular and inspired a host of competition.

It was initially introduced on April 17, 1964, as a hardtop and convertible with the fastback version put on sale in August 1964. At the time of its introduction, the Mustang, sharing its underpinnings with the Falcon, was slotted into a compact car segment.

With each revision, the Mustang saw an increase in overall dimensions and in engine power. The 1971 model saw a drastic redesign to its predecessors. After an initial surge, sales were steadily declining, as Ford began working on a new generation Mustang. With the onset of the 1973 oil crisis, Ford was prepared, having already designed the smaller Mustang II for the 1974 model year. This new car had no common components with preceding models.

Ford Mustang (fourth generation)

The fourth generation Ford Mustang was an automobile produced by the American manufacturer Ford for the 1994 through 2004 model years. For 1994 the Ford Mustang underwent its first major redesign in fifteen years, being introduced in November 1993 and launching on December 9, 1993. The design, code named "SN-95" by Ford, was based on an updated version of the Fox platform, the final Ford vehicle underpinned with this platform. It featured styling by Bud Magaldi that incorporated some stylistic elements from the classic Mustangs. A convertible returned, but the previous notchback and hatchback bodystyles were discontinued in favor of a single fastback coupe bodystyle.

Prior to the redesigned Mustang's launch, a two-seater show car was designed by Darrell Behmer and Bud Magali. Called the Mustang Mach III, it was shown at the 1993 North American International Auto Show in Detroit and hinted at what the new production Mustang would look like. The Mach III featured a supercharged 4.6 L DOHC V8 with 450 hp (336 kW; 456 PS). While this engine was not put into production, it hinted to the future use of Ford's Modular V8 in the Mustang, including the eventual use of a supercharged 4.6 L V8.

Ford Mustang (sixth generation)

The sixth generation Ford Mustang (S550) is the current iteration of the Mustang pony car manufactured by Ford. In departure from prior Mustang models, the sixth generation Mustang includes fully independent rear suspension on all models, as well as an optional 2.3L EcoBoost turbocharged and direct injected four cylinder engine. The new Mustang was introduced as a 2015 model year vehicle, marking the fiftieth anniversary of the Ford Mustang, which was revealed as a 1965 model year vehicle on April 17, 1964.

The sixth generation is also the first Ford Mustang to be marketed and sold globally, and represented the first time that factory right hand drive Mustangs were produced in addition to the left hand drive models. This is part of the "One Ford" business plan, which also applies to the Fiesta, Focus, Fusion/Mondeo, Escape/Kuga, Edge, Ford Transit Connect, and Ford Transit, as well as other models.

Ford Mustang (third generation)

The third-generation Mustang was produced by Ford from 1978 until 1993. Built on Ford’s Fox platform (and thus commonly referred to as the "Fox" or "Foxbody" Mustang), it evolved through a number of sub-models, trim levels, and drivetrain combinations during its production life. It underwent updates for 1987, and for a time seemed destined for replacement with a front-wheel drive Mazda platform. However, company executives were swayed by consumer opinion and the rear-wheel drive Mustang stayed, while the front wheel drive version was renamed the Ford Probe. Enthusiasts group the generation into two segments: the 1979–1986 cars, with their quad headlight arrangement, and the 1987–1993 cars, with their aerodynamic composite headlamps and front fascia styling. Production ended with the introduction of the fourth-generation Mustang (SN-95) for the 1994 model year.

Ford Mustang SVT Cobra

The Ford SVT Mustang Cobra (also known as SVT Mustang Cobra, SVT Cobra, or simply as Cobra) is a muscle car/pony car model that was built in model years 1993 through 2004 by Ford Motor Company's Special Vehicle Team division (or SVT, for short). The SVT Cobra was a high-performance version of the Ford Mustang, considered as top-of-the-line as it was positioned above the Mustang GT and Mach 1 models during its era of production. On three occasions, the race-ready, street-legal SVT Cobra R variant was produced in limited numbers. The SVT Cobra was succeeded by the 2007 Shelby GT500.

John Wood Group

John Wood Group PLC is a multinational energy services company with headquarters in Aberdeen, Scotland. It is listed on the London Stock Exchange and is a constituent of the FTSE 250 Index.

Kamaz

JSC KAMAZ (Russian: Камский Автомобильный Завод – КАМАЗ, romanized: Kamskiy Avtomobilny Zavod, lit. 'Kama Automobile Plant') is a Russian brand of trucks and engines manufacturer located in Naberezhnye Chelny, Russian Federation. It is famous for its cab over trucks. KAMAZ is a portmanteau which stands for a factory on Kama River.

KAMAZ opened in 1976. Today, heavy duty models are exported to many areas of the world including the CIS, Latin America, the Middle East, and Africa. KAMAZ is the largest truck producer in Russia and the CIS with its factory producing 43,000 trucks a year (2014). Reinforced KAMAZ trucks are used by the Russian military.KAMAZ trucks have won the Dakar Rally a record sixteen times, most in the truck category by any manufacturer.

Kangaroo court

A kangaroo court is a court that ignores recognized standards of law or justice, and often carries little or no official standing in the territory within which it resides. The term may also apply to a court held by a legitimate judicial authority who intentionally disregards the court's legal or ethical obligations. The defendants in such courts are often denied access to legal representation and in some cases, proper defence.

Prejudicial bias of the decision-maker or from political decree are among the most publicized causes of kangaroo courts. Such proceedings are often held to give the appearance of a fair and just trial, even though the verdict was already decided before the trial actually began.

A kangaroo court could also develop when the structure and operation of the forum result in an inferior brand of adjudication. A common example of this is when institutional disputants ("repeat players") have excessive and unfair structural advantages over individual disputants ("one-shot players").

Mustang (film)

Mustang is a 2015 internationally co-produced drama film directed by Turkish-French film director Deniz Gamze Ergüven in her feature debut. The film is set in a remote Turkish village and depicts the lives of five young orphaned sisters and challenges they face growing up as girls in a conservative society. The event that triggers the family backlash against the five sisters at the beginning of the film is based on Ergüven's personal life.It premiered at the Directors' Fortnight section of the 2015 Cannes Film Festival where it won the Europa Cinemas Label Award. The film was selected as France's submission, and was nominated for, the Best Foreign Language Film at the 88th Academy Awards. It was also nominated for a Golden Globe Award for Best Foreign Language Film. It received nine nominations at the 41st César Awards, and won four, for Best First Feature Film, Best Original Screenplay, Best Editing and Best Original Music. Mustang has received widespread critical praise.

Mustang Ranch

The Mustang Ranch, is a brothel in Storey County, Nevada, about 15 miles (24 km) east of Reno. It is currently located at 1011 Wild Horse Canyon Dr Sparks, NV 89434.

Under owner Joe Conforte, it became Nevada's first licensed brothel in 1971, eventually leading to the legalization of brothel prostitution in 10 of 17 counties in the state. It became Nevada's largest brothel with 166 acres (67 ha), and the most profitable.The Mustang Ranch was forfeited to the federal government in 1999 following Conforte's convictions for tax fraud, racketeering and other crimes. It was auctioned off and reopened in 2005, 5 miles (8.0 km) to the east under the same name but different ownership.

North American F-82 Twin Mustang

The North American F-82 Twin Mustang is the last American piston-engine fighter ordered into production by the United States Air Force. Based on the P-51 Mustang, the F-82 was originally designed as a long-range escort fighter in World War II. The war ended well before the first production units were operational.

In the postwar era, Strategic Air Command used the planes as a long-range escort fighter. Radar-equipped F-82s were used extensively by the Air Defense Command as replacements for the Northrop P-61 Black Widow as all-weather day/night interceptors. During the Korean War, Japan-based F-82s were among the first USAF aircraft to operate over Korea. The first three North Korean aircraft destroyed by U.S. forces were shot down by F-82s, the first being a North-Korean Yak-11 downed over Gimpo Airfield by the USAF 68th Fighter Squadron.

North American P-51 Mustang

The North American Aviation P-51 Mustang is an American long-range, single-seat fighter and fighter-bomber used during World War II and the Korean War, among other conflicts. The Mustang was designed in 1940 by North American Aviation (NAA) in response to a requirement of the British Purchasing Commission. The Purchasing Commission approached North American Aviation to build Curtiss P-40 fighters under license for the Royal Air Force (RAF). Rather than build an old design from another company, North American Aviation proposed the design and production of a more modern fighter. The prototype NA-73X airframe was rolled out on 9 September 1940, 102 days after the contract was signed, and first flew on 26 October.The Mustang was designed to use the Allison V-1710 engine (which had limited high-altitude performance in its earlier variants). The aircraft was first flown operationally by the RAF as a tactical-reconnaissance aircraft and fighter-bomber (Mustang Mk I). Replacing the Allison with a Rolls-Royce Merlin resulted in the P-51B/C (Mustang Mk III) model and transformed the aircraft's performance at altitudes above 15,000 ft (4,600 m) (without sacrificing range), allowing it to compete with the Luftwaffe's fighters. The definitive version, the P-51D, was powered by the Packard V-1650-7, a license-built version of the two-speed two-stage-supercharged Merlin 66, and was armed with six .50 caliber (12.7 mm) M2/AN Browning machine guns.From late 1943, P-51Bs and Cs (supplemented by P-51Ds from mid-1944) were used by the USAAF's Eighth Air Force to escort bombers in raids over Germany, while the RAF's Second Tactical Air Force and the USAAF's Ninth Air Force used the Merlin-powered Mustangs as fighter-bombers, roles in which the Mustang helped ensure Allied air superiority in 1944. The P-51 was also used by Allied air forces in the North African, Mediterranean, Italian and Pacific theaters. During World War II, Mustang pilots claimed to have destroyed 4,950 enemy aircraft.At the start of the Korean War, the Mustang, by then redesignated F-51, was the main fighter of the United Nations until jet fighters, including North American's F-86, took over this role; the Mustang then became a specialized fighter-bomber. Despite the advent of jet fighters, the Mustang remained in service with some air forces until the early 1980s. After the Korean War, Mustangs became popular civilian warbirds and air racing aircraft.

North American P-51 Mustang variants

Over twenty variants of the North American P-51 Mustang fighter were produced from 1940, when it first flew, to after the Second World War, some of which were employed also in the Korean War and in several other conflicts. Numerous examples of the aircraft survive to this day, often as heavily modified air racers.

Pony car

Pony car is an American car classification for affordable, compact, highly styled coupés or convertibles with a sporty or performance-oriented image. Common characteristics include rear-wheel drive, a long hood, a short decklid, a wide range of options to individualize each car and use of mass-produced parts shared with other models.

The popularity of pony cars is largely due to the launch of the Ford Mustang in 1964. Currently produced pony cars are the Chevrolet Camaro, Dodge Challenger and Ford Mustang.

Shelby Mustang

The Shelby Mustang is a high performance variant of the Ford Mustang which was built by Shelby American from 1965 to 1968, and from 1969 to 1970 by Ford. Following the introduction of the fifth generation Ford Mustang in 2005, the Shelby nameplate was revived as a new high-performance model, this time designed and built by Ford.

Upper Mustang

Mustang (from the Tibetan möntang (Wylie: smon-thang), Nepali: मुस्तांग Mustāṃg "fertile plain"), formerly Kingdom of Lo, is a remote and isolated region of the Nepalese Himalayas. The Upper Mustang was a restricted demilitarized area until 1992 which makes it one of the most preserved regions in the world, with a majority of the population still speaking traditional Tibetic languages. Tibetan culture has been preserved by the relative isolation of the region from the outside world.

The Upper Mustang comprise the northern two-thirds of Mustang District of Dhawalagiri Zone, Nepal. The southern third of the district is called Thak and is the homeland of the Thakali, who speak the Thakali language, and whose culture combines Tibetan and Nepalese elements. Life in Mustang revolves around tourism, animal husbandry and trade.

Mustang's status as a kingdom ended in 2008 when its suzerain Kingdom of Nepal became a republic. The influence of the outside world, especially China, is growing and contributing to rapid change in the lives of Mustang's people. The development works are increasing there day by day with the higher pace.

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