Must-carry

In cable television, governments apply a must-carry regulation stating that locally licensed television stations must be carried on a cable provider's system.

North America

Canada

Under current CRTC rules, the lowest tier of service on all Canadian television providers may not be priced higher than $25 per-month, and must include all local Canadian broadcast television channels, local legislative and educational services, and all specialty services that have 9(1)(h) must-carry status.[1]

In the mid-to-late 1970s, the CRTC implemented a rule that a cable system must carry a broadcast television station at no cost to the broadcaster so long as the transmitter emitted an equivalent isotropically radiated power of at least 5 watts. This CRTC rule may have changed over the years, but in principle, a broadcast television station transmitting at 1 kW EIRP must be carried. The status of terrestrial digital only channels with respect to the must-carry requirement is untested as, unlike the U.S., some television stations in Canada did not operate digital signals until the August 2011 and the digital broadcasters that were active prior to then were merely high definition simulcasts of those stations' existing analog signals in major centres such as Toronto and Vancouver with no additional digital subchannels offered due to broadcasters opting not to carry any due to CRTC rules that require subchannels to be licensed separately.

CITY-TV in Toronto (according to its own website and annual reports) owes its financial success as an independent station to this CRTC must-carry rule. It is assumed that this must-carry rule was aimed at smaller television stations in Ontario and Quebec, many of which are not carried by satellite television providers.

For many years, the Canadian must-carry rules created very little friction between terrestrial broadcasters and cable systems, as providers are allowed to more aggressively implement other digital telecommunications services (like cable internet services and IP telephony) with less overall regulation than their U.S. counterparts. However, in 2008, Canada's two largest commercial television networks, CTV and Global, began to demand that the CRTC permit them to charge a fee for cable carriage, even alleging that some smaller market stations would be forced to cease operations if this was not allowed.

United States

In the United States, the Federal Communications Commission (FCC) regulates this area of business and public policy pursuant to 47 U.S.C. Part II.[2] These rules were upheld in a 5-4 decision by the Supreme Court of the United States in 1997 in the case Turner Broadcasting v. FCC (95-992).

Although cable television service providers routinely carried local affiliates of the major broadcast networks, independent stations and affiliates of minor networks were sometimes not carried, on the premise it would allow cable providers to instead carry non-local programming which they believed would attract more customers to their service.

Many cable operators were also equity owners in these cable channels, especially Tele-Communications Inc., then the nation's largest multiple system operator (MSO), and had moved to replace local channels with equity-owned programming (at the time, TCI held a large stake in Discovery Communications). This pressure was especially strong on cable systems with limited bandwidth for channels.

The smaller local broadcasters argued that by hampering their access to this increasing segment of the local television audience, this posed a threat to the viability of free-to-view broadcast television, which they argued was a worthy public good.

Local broadcast stations also argued cable systems were attempting to serve as a "gatekeeper" in competing unfairly for advertising revenue. Some affiliates of major networks also feared that non-local affiliates might negotiate to provide television programming to local cable services to expand their advertising market, taking away this audience from local stations, with similar adverse impact on free broadcast television.

Although cable providers argued that such regulation would impose an undue burden on their flexibility in selecting which services would be most appealing to their customers, the current "must-carry" rules were enacted by the United States Congress in 1992 (via the Cable Television Protection and Competition Act), and the U.S. Supreme Court upheld the rules in rejecting the arguments of the cable industry and programmers in the majority decision authored by Justice Anthony Kennedy. That decision also held that MSOs were functioning as a vertically integrated monopoly.

A side effect of the must-carry rules is that a broadcast station cannot charge a cable television provider license fees for the program content retransmitted on the cable network under the rule. But note that must-carry is an option of the station and the station may, in lieu of must-carry, negotiate license fees as part of a retransmission consent agreement.

Applicability

There are a few exceptions to must-carry, most notably:

  • Must-carry is the default assumption even if a station does not make a formal request [see US Code Title 47, Section 76.64(f)3 ].
  • Must-carry may be applied only if the television station does not want to be carried under the retransmission consent provisions. This applies only to non-commercial educational (NCE) stations. Station operators are allowed to demand payment from cable operators, or negotiate private agreements for carriage, or threaten revocation against the cable operator (see Sinclair, Time Warner Cable). Must-carry is a privilege given to television stations, not a cable company. A cable company cannot use must-carry to demand the right to carry an over-the-air station against the station's wishes.
  • A station is not entitled to distribution under must-carry legislation until a certain time after it provides usable signal to the headend for the cable or satellite provider; the station must pay the expense of leased lines to reach providers such as Colorado-based Dish Network or California-based DirecTV.
  • Foreign signals, such as Windsor, Ontario stations CBET-DT and CICO, or McAllen, Texas's CW affiliate (XHRIO-TV), are not required to be carried, but are often carried on border-area cable systems close to the foreign stations.
  • Most low-power broadcast stations are not required to be carried, although often in these cases they are bundled to be carried as part of a retransmission consent agreement with a full-power sister station.

Digital must-carry

Digital must-carry (also incorrectly called "dual must-carry") is the requirement that cable companies carry either the analog (over a hybrid analog/digital cable system) or digital (over a digital-only pay television system like AT&T U-verse or Verizon FiOS) signal. They must still meet the every-subscriber/television receiver laws, i.e. "Pursuant to Section 614(b)(7) and 615(h), the operator of a cable system is required to ensure that signals carried in fulfillment of the must-carry requirements are provided to EVERY subscriber of the system," of local stations. This has been opposed by numerous cable networks, which might be bumped off of digital cable were this to happen, and promoted by television stations and the National Association of Broadcasters, whom it would benefit by passing their high definition or digital multicast signals through to their cable viewers. In June 2006, the FCC was poised to pass new digital must-carry rules, but the item was pulled before a vote actually took place, apparently due to insufficient support for the chairman's position.

In September 2007, the Commission approved a regulation that requires cable systems to carry the analog signals if the cable system uses both types of transmission. The FCC left the decision to also retransmit the digital signal up to the cable provider. Digital-only operators are not required to provide an analog signal for their customers (AT&T U-verse, Verizon FiOS). Small cable operators were allowed to request a waiver. The regulation ended three years after the date of the digital television transition (which occurred on June 12, 2009), and applies only to stations not opting for retransmission consent.

Cable operators (analog and digital) that transmit more than 12 channels need only provide a maximum 1/3 of their total channel size to this must-carry requirement. Thus with about 150 channels available to a 1 GHz operator, they are only required to support up to 50 analog channels (42 for 850 MHz, 36 for 750 MHz). Cable providers that decide to scale back their analog selection merely need provide written notification on their bill (or equivalent) for 30 days prior to their change. Customers already using digital cable set-top boxes will usually be unaffected (if anything after the change, they may get a large number of additional channels because each analog channel can be replaced by 2-51 digital channels). The requirement only applies to must-carry stations; most metro providers carry many more analog stations by choice, not law.

Other networks

A variation of "must-carry" also applies to DBS services like DirecTV and Dish Network, as first mandated by the Satellite Home Viewer Act. These providers are not required to carry local stations in every metropolitan area in which they provide service, but must carry all of an area's local stations if they carry any at all. Sometimes, these will be placed on spot beams: narrowly directed satellite signals targeted to an area of no more than a few hundred miles diameter, in order to allow the transponder frequencies to be re-used in other markets. In some cases, stations of lower perceived importance are placed on "side satellites" which require a second antenna. This practice has raised some controversy within the industry, leading to the requirement that the satellite provider offer to install any extra dish antenna hardware for free and place a notice to this effect in place of any missing channels.

Retransmission consent

If a broadcaster elects retransmission consent, there is no obligation for the cable system to carry the signal.[3] This option allows broadcasters who own stations, including those affiliated with major networks such as CBS, NBC and ABC or Fox to request cash or other compensation from cable or satellite providers for signals. These networks have usually attempted to gain further distribution of cable services and/or co-owned low-power television stations in which they also hold an equity position rather than direct cash compensation, which cable systems have almost universally balked at paying. In some cases, these channels have been temporarily removed from distribution by systems who felt broadcasters were asking too steep a price for their signal. Examples include the removal of all CBS-owned local stations as well as MTV, VH1 and Nickelodeon from Dish Network for two days in 2004, the removal of ABC-owned stations from Time Warner Cable for a little under a day in 2000, and the removal of all Hearst Television local stations from Time Warner for more than a week in 2012.[4]

In August 2013, Time Warner Cable and CBS Corporation reached an impasse in negotiations over retransmission fees, forcing a one-month blackout of CBS-owned broadcast and cable networks similar to the 2004 Dish Network blackout. It was the longest such blackout to date, and has produced calls for Congress to revisit the issue of retransmission consent. TWC had offered affected customers a $20 credit on their bill for the inconvenience, but the blackout caused at least one class-action lawsuit against the cable operator, and others are pending.[5]

In the U.S., retransmission consent has often been chosen over must-carry by the major commercial television networks. Under the present rules, a new agreement is negotiated every three years, and stations must choose must-carry or retransmission consent for each cable system they wish their signal to be carried on. Non-commercial stations (such as local PBS stations) may not seek retransmission consent and may only invoke must-carry status.[6]

See also

Mexico

Before 2013, there was no regulation on the obligation to offer national network signals in pay TV companies. The scheme used consisted of allowing free negotiation between the operators of open television and restricted television. Open-TV companies (Televisa and TV Azteca) had been negotiating with pay-TV companies to offer their television signals on national networks. However, the national network channels were offered together, and without option, alongside restricted TV channels. In addition, regional and local channels were not broadcast on restricted TV companies except individual agreements. This caused that few companies had the same channels in all the cities where they operated. This mechanism was designed considering that, in the event of anti-competitive situations, the competent authority would intervene to correct and punish anticompetitive misconduct and conduct.

On March 22, 2013, the Mexican government announced a series of reforms to Mexican television broadcasting laws. The constitutional reform incorporated the must-carry and must-offer figures, consisting of the obligation of "Paid television" providers to retransmit the "Open TV" (Free-to-air channels) signals and the latter, to make available such signal, free of charge.

Applicability

According to Telecommunications and Broadcasting Federal Law (in Spanish, "Ley Federal de Telecomunicaciones y Radiodifusión"), this is the list of restrictions and rules about must-carry; being the next:

  • Las Estrellas, Channel 5, Azteca 7 and Azteca 13 had their own national coverage beyond 50%; so the channel signals must be carry without conditions or restrictions.
  • The elements declared preponderant economic agent will not be able to accede to the rule of gratuitousness; and they will not even be able to recover it as an additional cost.
  • In the scenario where there are two channels of the same television signal, it must be transmitted the most favorable to the population where it transmits.
  • The restricted Television Dealers must block content from live public events that are not broadcast by the Open-TV enterprise.
  • The retransmission of the broadcast signals shall be made to the highest possible quality and may not be advertised in such a way as to generate a false and artificial advantage in the signals.
  • The channels that are broadcast by multitasking must be also carry and offer, considering the most-view channels.
  • The Free-charge and agreement would end when there were conditions of competition in restricted television; which would renegotiate the price. The institute would determine the price if there was no consensus between involved parts.
  • The elements declared preponderant economic agent will not be able to accede to broadcast more than 50% of the broadcast channels in the city where are assigned.
  • The payment for royalties of copyright on television channels should not involve additional costs for pay-TV consumers.
  • The open television signals to be retransmitted are placed together in the pay television services at the beginning of the programming channel alignment. Pay television companies must accommodate the channels respecting the order and numerical identity in terms of the allocation of broadcast television virtual channels.
  • The Pay television companies must to order in the referred form the broadcast signals of stations that have not obtained authorization to multiprogram, As well as multiprogrammed broadcast signals with a larger audience, regardless of the secondary number with which they count.

Reactions and conflicts

This new law provoked complaints from television companies TV Azteca and Televisa, who argued copyright infringement and royalties for the transmission of channels. In addition, Televisa requested a right of amparo to declare that the Institute did not have constitutional power to decide on the television channels. This controversy was solved when the President of Mexico announced the filing of a constitutional controversy before the Supreme Court, to reaffirm the regulatory powers of the Institute; Which gave him legal and judicial power to make decisions on the matter.

The same Telecommunications and Broadcasting Federal Law (in Spanish, "Ley Federal de Telecomunicaciones y Radiodifusión") also declared every TV Channel broadcast in the zone must be offered by the Cable TV enterprises, according to the city or state where works in free of charge.

Europe

Czech Republic

In the Czech Republic, all television stations that have a terrestrial licence (analog or digital) are required to be placed in the lowest (cheapest) offer of all cable, IPTV and satellite companies.

Must-carry regulations are applied to:

  • All channels of Czech Television - ČT1, ČT2, ČT24 and ČT4 (sport)
  • All channels of TV Prima - Prima, Prima Cool and R1 TV
  • Two of three channels of TV Nova - Nova and Nova Cinema
  • New digital television stations - TV Barrandov and Z1
  • Future television stations TV7 (regional news) and RTA (regional television)
  • Carriage of TV Pohoda and Febio TV was also mandated by must-carry regulations; however, as investments for these channels were pulled, these channels never commenced broadcasting.

Ireland

In Ireland, cable, multichannel multipoint distribution services and satellite providers have Comreg regulated "must-carry" stations. For cable companies, this covers RTÉ One, RTÉ Two, TV3 and TG4.

The same rules apply to digital MMDS systems. Analogue MMDS companies are required to carry only TV3 due to serious bandwidth limitations.

Netherlands

Asia

India

The Indian government has applied a must-carry rule for public broadcaster channels from Doordarshan by Cable, DTH and IPTV network. Cable TV operators must offer National (DD1), DD News, Loksabha, Rajyasabha and Regional channels to all subscribers. In addition, DD Bharti and DD Urdu must also be carried in their appropriate tiers.

Philippines

The National Telecommunications Commission (NTC) requires pay-TV operators to carry licensed free-to-air stations on their all their packages. The rule particularly forbids pay-TV operators from excluding such stations to places which ordinarily cannot receive a decent broadcast signal.[7]

Thailand

In Thailand, all terrestrial television channels are required to be carried on satellite and cable television platform as free-to-air channels and required to be placed on same EPG number as terrestrial platform. Must-carry rule was applied to the analog terrestrial television channels and was dropped in 2014 replacing by digital terrestrial television channels. Thailand's National Broadcasting and Telecommunication Commission (NBTC) said the must-carry rule will be used to guarantee Thais' basic right to watch free-TV programs via any platform such as antennas and cable and satellite receivers.[8]

References

  1. ^ "CRTC rules cable companies must offer pick-and-pay channels, $25 basic package". CBC News. Retrieved 19 March 2015.
  2. ^ See 47 USC § 531 - § 537 for relevant sections of the Communications Act of 1934, and FCC regulations promulgated pursuant to the Act at 47 CFR 76.56: Signal carriage obligations
  3. ^ "47CFR76.64: Retransmission consent" (PDF). gpo.gov. Retrieved 11 April 2018.
  4. ^ Tampa Bay Times: "Hearst dispute with Bright House pulls WMOR-Ch. 32 and digital THIS TV off Tampa Bay cable system", July 10, 2012. Archived December 14, 2013, at the Wayback Machine
  5. ^ "CBS, Time Warner Cable Reach Carriage Deal". hollywoodreporter.com. Retrieved 11 April 2018.
  6. ^ "Cable Carriage of Broadcast Stations". fcc.gov. 9 December 2015. Retrieved 11 April 2018.
  7. ^ "What is the so-called "Must-Carry Rule"?". BATASnatin Philippine Law Library. Libayan & Associates. Retrieved 20 October 2017.
  8. ^ "Must-carry rule will not threaten copyrights: NBTC - The Nation". Nation Multimedia Group Public Company Limited, Nationmultimedia.com. Retrieved 18 August 2016.

External links

613 commandments

The tradition that 613 commandments (Hebrew: תרי"ג מצוות, taryag mitzvot, "613 mitzvot") is the number of mitzvot in the Torah, began in the 3rd century CE, when Rabbi Simlai mentioned it in a sermon that is recorded in Talmud Makkot 23b.Although there have been a lot of attempts to codify and enumerate the commandments contained in the Torah, the most traditional enumeration is Maimonides'. The 613 commandments include "positive commandments", to perform an act (mitzvot aseh), and "negative commandments", to abstain from certain acts (mitzvot lo taaseh). The negative commandments number 365, which coincides with the number of days in the solar year, and the positive commandments number 248, a number ascribed to the number of bones and main organs in the human body (Babylonian Talmud, Makkot 23b–24a). Though the number 613 is mentioned in the Talmud, its real significance increased in later medieval rabbinic literature, including many works listing or arranged by the mitzvot. Three types of negative commandments fall under the self-sacrificial principle yehareg ve'al ya'avor, meaning "One should let oneself be killed rather than violate it". These are murder, idolatry, and forbidden sexual relations.The 613 mitzvot have been divided also into three general categories: mishpatim; edot; and chukim. Mishpatim ("laws") include commandments that are deemed to be self-evident, such as not to murder and not to steal. Edot ("testimonies") commemorate important events in Jewish history. For example, the Shabbat is said to testify to the story that Hashem created the world in six days and rested on the seventh day and declared it holy. Chukim ("decrees") are commandments with no known rationale, and are perceived as pure manifestations of the Divine will.Many of the mitzvot cannot be observed now, following the destruction of the Second Temple, although they still retain religious significance. According to one standard reckoning, there are 77 positive and 194 negative commandments that can be observed today, of which there are 26 commands that apply only within the Land of Israel. Furthermore, there are some time-related commandments from which women are exempt (examples include shofar, sukkah, lulav, tzitzit and tefillin). Some depend on the special status of a person in Judaism (such as kohanim), while others apply only to men or only to women.

AMI-audio

AMI-audio is a Canadian 24-hour English language non-profit audio broadcast television service. AMI-audio offers a variety of compelling stories and engaging original content to Canadians who are blind, partially sighted or otherwise print restricted.AMI-audio produces two daily live programs, hosted by seasoned broadcast professionals. Each show features news of the day, technology insights, current events, lifestyle issues, health as well as information directly affecting the blind and partially sighted community. AMI-audio also records and curates a selection of feature articles from top publications read by a team of professional narrators. It is owned by Accessible Media Inc. (formerly known as the National Broadcast Reading Service—the organization was renamed following the launch of its sister television channel).

AMI-audio is licensed by the Canadian Radio-television and Telecommunications Commission (CRTC), and went on the air in 1990 as VoicePrint. The CRTC licensed AMI-audio as a "must-carry" service in 2001, meaning all digital cable and satellite providers must carry the service. AMI-audio is primarily accessed on the secondary audio program (SAP) of CBC News Network, while some providers carry the service on a separate channel through digital cable. The service is also available on the Internet, through ami.ca.

On March 5, 2012, VoicePrint was renamed AMI-audio. The re-branding is part of a new promotional effort by AMI to unify its services under a single brand for easier cross-promotion with AMI-tv and ami.ca.

Barbados Civil Aviation Department

The Barbados Civil Aviation Department (BCAD) is the civil aviation authority of Barbados. It has its headquarters on the property of Sir Grantley Adams International Airport in Christ Church. The department is headed by the Director of Civil Aviation, who is supported by one Technical Officer, five Inspectors, a Chief Aeronautical Information Service Officer, a Chief Air Traffic Control Officer and other support staff. It is governed under the Civil Aviation Act of 2004. The department was created to advise the Ministry of International Business and International Transport, who is responsible for the regulation and control of all aspects of civil aviation in Barbados. BCAD cooperates with other regional authorities in the Caribbean under the bloc known as the Caribbean Aviation Safety and Security Oversight System (CASSOS)Aircraft registered in Barbados must carry the identification mark "8P-". The Barbados Civil Aviation allows three categories for aircraft registration in the country:

(i) the Government,

(ii) a citizen of Barbados, or

(iii) a body incorporated under the Companies Act, or in a Commonwealth country; or a Contracting State and having its principal place of business in Barbados, or in another Commonwealth country, or Contracting State.

Buckskin (horse)

Buckskin is a hair coat color of horses, referring to a color that resembles certain shades of tanned deerskin. Similar colors in some breeds of dogs are also called buckskin. The horse has a tan or gold colored coat with black points (mane, tail, and lower legs). Buckskin occurs as a result of the cream dilution gene acting on a bay horse. Therefore, a buckskin has the Extension, or "black base coat" (E) gene, the agouti gene (A) gene (see bay for more on the agouti gene), which restricts the black base coat to the points, and one copy of the cream gene (CCr), which lightens the red/brown color of the bay coat to a tan/gold.

Buckskins should not be confused with dun-colored horses, which have the dun dilution gene, not the cream gene. Duns always have primitive markings (shoulder blade stripes, dorsal stripe, zebra stripes on legs, webbing). However, it is possible for a horse to carry both dilution genes; these are called "buckskin duns" or sometimes "dunskins." Also, bay horses without any dun gene may have a faint dorsal stripe, which sometimes is darkened in a buckskin without a dun gene being present. Additional primitive striping beyond just a dorsal stripe is a sure sign of the dun gene.

A buckskin horse can occur in any number of different breeds. At least one parent must carry the cream gene, and not all breeds do. Since 1963, the American Buckskin Registry Association (ABRA) has been keeping track of horses with this coat color, and although Buckskin is sometimes classified as a color breed, due to its genetic makeup that depends on having one, not two copies of the dilution allele, coat color cannot ever be a consistent true-breeding trait.

ETS-VIII

JAXA Engineering Test Satellite ETS-VIII (Kiku 8) is the eighth technology test satellite in a series which started with ETS-1 in 1975 by NASDA. It was launched with the H-2A on December 18, 2006.

ETS-VIII was developed by JAXA in cooperation with NICT and NTT.

The aim of ETS-VIII is to enable satellite communications with small terminals. Unlike the Iridium satellites for mobile communication, ETS-VIII is positioned at GEO.

However to fulfill the task the satellite must carry two very large antennas. It was the first use of the 204 configuration (four strap-on boosters) of the H-IIA launch vehicle.

Government-access television

Government-access television (GATV) is a type of specialty television channel created by government entities (generally local governments) and broadcast over cable TV systems or, in some cases, over-the-air broadcast television stations. GATV programming generally deals with public affairs, board meetings (i.e. city council, county commission, and school board), explanation of government services, and other public-service related programming such as public service announcements and longer public information films.

In the United States, laws regarding GATV are contained in the US Code, title 47, section 531 (47 U.S.C. § 531), and are enforced by the Federal Communications Commission. Since cable systems are privately owned entities (unlike broadcast television), the must-carry requirement for GATV channels is often drawn out in local franchising agreements for the municipality or county it operates in.

GATV is often associated with public-access television, such as with the term PEG channels.

Hungry grass

In Irish mythology, hungry grass (Irish: féar gortach; also known as fairy grass) is a patch of cursed grass. Anyone walking on it was doomed to perpetual and insatiable hunger.

Harvey suggests that the hungry grass is cursed by the proximity of an unshriven corpse (the fear gorta). William Carleton's stories suggest that faeries plant the hungry grass. According to Harvey this myth may relate to beliefs formed in the Irish Potato Famine of the 1840s. In Margaret McDougall's letters the phrase "hungry grass" is - by analogy to the myth - used to describe hunger pains.An alternative version of the hungry grass story relates that anyone walking through it is struck by temporary hunger; to safely cross through one must carry a bit of food to eat along the way (such as a sandwich or several crackers), and some beer.

Ion Life

Ion Life is an American digital broadcast television network that is owned by Ion Media.

Originally from its February 2007 launch, Ion Life had primarily featured lifestyle programming, consisting of shows pertaining to subjects such as health and wellness, cooking, home decor and travel. In 2019 with expanded cable carriage, Ion Media switched the network's schedule to match the main format of Ion Television, featuring day-long marathons of one series per day, along with a late-night block of paid programming.

Ion Life is carried mainly as a digital multicast service on Ion Media Networks-owned stations as well as select Ion Television affiliates (and is primarily placed on the third subchannel); its base national feed is also available on select cable and satellite providers. In a few select markets, Ion Life has main channel placement, allowing it must-carry coverage on local cable and satellite services.

Jordan River Off-Highway Vehicle State Recreation Area

Jordan River Off-Highway Vehicle State Recreation Area is a Utah State Park located in Salt Lake City, Utah, USA. The park is dedicated to recreation with off highway vehicles. It consists of four separate tracks, with tabletops and banked turns, and is open from approximately early April to approximately mid-October. Off-highway motorcycle (OHM) riders have access to two motocross tracks. The novice and grand-prix tracks are open to both OHMs and all-terrain vehicles.

All riders must wear a helmet and all machines must be currently registered. Before riding here, or on any public land, youth from 8–16 years old (and until they get a driver license) must take and pass the state-required youth off-highway vehicle (OHV) education program; children under the age of eight may not operate an OHV on public land in Utah. Youth must carry their safety certificate while riding.

Non-commercial educational

The term non-commercial educational (NCE) applies to a radio station or TV station that does not accept on-air advertisements (TV ads or radio ads), as defined in the United States by the Federal Communications Commission (FCC). NCE stations do not pay broadcast license fees for their non-profit uses of the radio spectrum. Stations which are almost always operated as NCE include public broadcasting, community radio, and college radio, as well as many religious broadcasting stations.

Omni Television

Omni Television (corporately styled as OMNI Television) is a Canadian television system and specialty channel that is owned by the Rogers Media subsidiary of Rogers Communications. It currently consists of all six of Canada's conventional multicultural television stations, which are located in Ontario (two stations), British Columbia, Alberta (two stations), and an affiliate in Quebec. In addition, Rogers also briefly operated religious television stations in the Vancouver and Winnipeg television markets under the "Omni" brand before divesting them in 2008.

In September 2017, Omni began to be distributed throughout the remainder of the country, as a group of specialty channels with mandatory carriage, corresponding to the four general regions where it operates. This group is licensed under the blanket name Omni Regional; Rogers argued that revenue from mandatory carriage was necessary to restore and sustain the stations' local programming. Although the CRTC did not believe that Rogers' proposal adequately addressed the provisioning of programs for regions of Canada not currently served by an Omni broadcast station, or was financially sustainable, the Commission granted Rogers a three-year interim licence term, and began the process of soliciting proposals for a national multicultural specialty channel.

Performance Racing Network

The Performance Racing Network (PRN) is a radio network controlled by Speedway Motorsports.

Since 1981, PRN has aired all NASCAR-sanctioned Monster Energy NASCAR Cup and Xfinity Series events held at Speedway Motorsports-controlled tracks which include Atlanta, Bristol, Charlotte, Kentucky, Las Vegas, New Hampshire, Sonoma and Texas, along with the Indianapolis Motor Speedway. The Big Machine 400 is jointly produced with the IndyCar Radio Network, where special restrictions are imposed by Indianapolis (radio stations must carry additional IndyCar Series races or pay a fee, and in conflicts where the PRN station and the IndyCar Radio station are different stations, the IndyCar Radio station has right of first refusal), and the streaming radio rights belong to PRN. This is in contrast to other NASCAR events (operated by ISC, Dover Motorsports and the Mattioli family), which are broadcast by ISC-controlled Motor Racing Network. PRN and MRN on most occasions share the same radio affiliates (IMS also, although PRN jointly produces the IMS race) in order to broadcast a complete NASCAR schedule.

All PRN shows with the exception of the pre and post race shows originate from Performance Racing Network's studios at Charlotte Motor Speedway.

All PRN race broadcasts, including Indianapolis, are available via Sirius XM NASCAR Radio. Fast Talk is also carried on Sirius XM NASCAR Radio on Wednesdays at 10:00 p.m. Eastern time. Fast Talk, The O'Reilly Pit Reporters and Garage Pass can all be heard online at goprn.com.

Prima Cool

Prima Cool is a private Czech television station.

Prima Cool is TV Prima's second channel. It is targeted primarily at young male audiences.

Prima Cool launched on April 1, 2009 as TV Prima's new digital channel. It is available on Czech DVB-T multiplex 2, where it is freely broadcast (covering up to 72% of the population of the Czech republic, mainly in Bohemia). The channel is also broadcast through DVB-S on satellite Astra 1G, and available on cable TV (in all packages, due to the must-carry law). It is also known as "Ninja Warrior"

Retransmission consent

Retransmission consent is a provision of the 1992 United States Cable Television Consumer Protection and Competition Act that requires cable operators and other multichannel video programming distributors (MVPDs) to obtain permission from broadcasters before carrying their programming.

Under the provision, a broadcast station (or its affiliated/parent broadcast network) can ask for monetary payment or other compensation, such as carriage of an additional channel. If the cable operator rejects the broadcaster's proposal, the station can prohibit the cable operator from retransmitting its signal.In the United States, the Federal Communications Commission (FCC) regulates this area of business and public policy pursuant to 47 U.S.C. Part II.

Super Channel (Canadian TV channel)

Super Channel Entertainment Network (Formally and commonly known as Super Channel) is a Canadian English language Category A premium cable and satellite television channel that is owned by Allarco Entertainment 2008 Inc. Super Channel's programming primarily includes theatrically released, first to television motion pictures and television series, along with documentaries and other niche programs.

The current Super Channel service was launched in 2007, and is not affiliated with the two pre-existing English-language premium channels which used the name at various times prior to 2001, which were later known as Movie Central (in Western Canada; defunct since March 2016) and The Movie Network (in Eastern Canada; merged with and relaunched as Crave in 2018). The Allards were the original owners of Movie Central, and later re-acquired rights to the Superchannel trademark. Prior to 2016, Super Channel was the first and only general-interest English-language pay television service authorized to operate nationally. Family Channel (with its multiplex channel Family Junior) was the only other national pay television channel, though it operated as a de facto basic tier specialty channel in most areas and on some providers.

Super Channel is available on nearly all major cable and satellite providers including Telus Optik TV, Bell TV, Shaw Direct, Access Communications, Cogeco, Rogers Cable, Shaw Cable, Eastlink and other providers. Super Channel was granted as a "must carry" service by the Canadian Radio-television and Telecommunications Commission (CRTC), meaning all television service providers must carry the service on their systems.

Turner Broadcasting System, Inc. v. FCC

Turner Broadcasting v. Federal Communications Commission, 512 U.S. 622 (1994), is the first of two United States Supreme Court cases dealing with the must-carry rules imposed on cable television companies. Turner Broadcasting v. Federal Communications Commission (II), 520 U.S. 180 (1997) was the second. Turner I established that cable television companies were indeed First Amendment speakers but didn't decide whether the federal regulation of their speech infringed upon their speech rights. In Turner II the court decided that the must-carry provisions were constitutional. Under the Miami Herald v. Tornillo case, it was unconstitutional to force a newspaper to run a story the editors would not have included absent a government statute because it was compelled speech which could not pass the strict scrutiny of a compelling state interest being achieved with the least restrictive means necessary to achieve the state interest. However, under the rule of Red Lion Broadcasting Co. v. FCC the High Court held that a federal agency could regulate broadcast stations (TV and radio) with far greater discretion. In order for federal agency regulation of broadcast media to pass constitutional muster, it need only serve an important state interest and need not narrowly tailor its regulation to the least restrictive means.

Unicellular organism

A unicellular organism, also known as a single-celled organism, is an organism that consists of only one cell, unlike a multicellular organism that consists of more than one cell. Unicellular organisms fall into two general categories: prokaryotic organisms and eukaryotic organisms. Prokaryotes include bacteria and archaea. Many eukaryotes are multicellular, but the group includes the protozoa, unicellular algae, and unicellular fungi. Unicellular organisms are thought to be the oldest form of life, with early protocells possibly emerging 3.8–4 billion years ago.Although some prokaryotes live in colonies, they are not specialised into cells with differing functions. These organisms live together, and each cell must carry out all life processes to survive. In contrast, even the simplest multicellular organisms have cells that depend on each other to survive.

Most multicellular organisms have a unicellular life-cycle stage. Gametes, for example, are reproductive unicells for multicellular organisms. Additionally, multicellularity appears to have evolved independently many times in the history of life.

Some organisms are partially unicellular, like Dictyostelium discoideum. Additionally, unicellular organisms can be multinucleate, like Myxogastria and Plasmodium.

WSFG-LD

WSFG-LD 51 and WSSF-LP 48 are a commonly-owned pair of low power television stations in Fayette County, Alabama which receive religious programming via satellite for terrestrial rebroadcast.

In 2008 both stations, despite their LPTV status, successfully forced their programming onto West Alabama TV Cable, a local cable television provider in Hamilton-Winfield-Fayette, Alabama, by using the terrestrial loophole in federal must-carry regulations which allow "qualified LPTV stations" to obtain mandatory cable carriage normally reserved for full-power stations. The use of this provision is based on a claim that no full-power station serves Fayette County, that the community is not part of any of the 160 largest metropolitan statistical areas and that the stations meet specific technical criteria (such as signal coverage and number of hours of programming) which apply to full-service stations seeking carriage.

As of this update, each channel currently carries the following programs:

.1

Daystar,

.2

The Cowboy Channel,

.3

Smile of a Child,

.4

Hillsong Channel,

.5

My Family TV,

.6

TBN,

.7

White Springs TV

WWRS-TV

WWRS-TV, virtual channel 52 (UHF digital channel 43), is a TBN owned-and-operated television station serving Milwaukee and Madison, Wisconsin, United States that is licensed to Mayville. The station is owned by the Trinity Broadcasting Network. WWRS-TV's studios are located on North Barker Road in Brookfield, and its transmitter is located in Hubbard. The station's signal covers much of southeastern and south-central Wisconsin, along with extended cable coverage throughout the area.

Digital television in North America
Terrestrial
Cable
Satellite TV
IPTV
Technical issues

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