Muslim Association of the Lictor

The Muslim Association of the Lictor (Italian: Associazione Musulmana del Littorio, AML) was created in 1939 as the Muslim branch of the National Fascist Party of Italy.[1] It was found mainly and largely in Italian Libya.[2] It was dissolved by the Allies during the invasion of Italy in 1943.

Muslim Association of the Lictor

Associazione Musulmana del Littorio
Founded1939
Dissolved1943
HeadquartersTripoli, Italian Libya
Youth wingArab Lictor Youth
IdeologyItalian Fascism
National affiliationNational Fascist Party
Distintivi pnf e ond
Fascist decorations used by the Muslim Association of the Lictor

History

The "Associazione mussulmana del Littorio" was founded by the Italian Governor-General in Libya, Italo Balbo, in January 9, 1939.[3]

This "Cittadinanza Italiana Speciale" (Italian Special citizenship) was created for indigenous Libyans only within Libya (they could not migrate to Italy proper with this form of citizenship) that was claimed to have been done as a gesture of gratitude for the military support received by 9000 native Libyans in the Italian conquest of Ethiopia in 1936.[4] Laws were subsequently passed that permitted indigenous Libyans to join the National Fascist Party and in particular the Muslim Association of the Lictor.[5]

The correspondent association of AML for youths in Italian Libya was called Arab Lictor Youth, that -by order of governor Balbo- was responsible for integrating sport between Arabs, Jews and Italians.[6]

Political Links

There were even connections with the Muslim Brotherhood in Egypt. Indeed the future presidents of Egypt Nasser [7] and Sadat were related to the "Associazione Mussulmana del Littorio", when were members of the "Green shirts" of Egypt fascim[8].

...I (Sadat) contacted for the first time general Ali al Masri, linked to the Italo-Libyan Fascist of the "Associazione Mussulmana del Littorio", in 1939 and later in Marsa Matruh in spring 1941.... I had some meetings with him in order to organize a revolt pro-Rommel in the Nile delta and in Cairo against the British...and I helped him to try to escape from Egypt in 1941. Anwar Sadat[9]

They were even jailed when the Italian and German troops reached El Alamein in summer 1942, and they were ready for an insurrection in Egypt against the British with support of Libyan members of the Muslim Association of Lictor[10]

Another political link with Libya's fascist organization for Arabs was the one of Sadat with Mustafa Maizran, the representitative of Tripolitania at the 1951 Conference for Libya's independence. Mustafa Maizran was a high ranking director for Tripolitania's Associazione Mussulmana del Littorio in 1940 and -because he was bilingual Italian and Arab- was the link between Italo Balbo (governor of Libya) and the group of Egyptian officials under the leardership of Sadat for a meeting to be done in Sidi Azeis near Marsa Matruh in the first days of war. Folco Quilici wrote about this meeting, that was not done because of the "strange" murder of Balbo while flying above Tobruk toward Sidi Azeis [11]. After the failure of this meeting the English authorities forced two Egyptian divisions (and Sadat) to withdraw from the Libyan-Egyptian frontier (Sadat wrote about this "humiliation" in his famous "Revolt on the Nile"[12]). Mustafa Maizran -after the meeting failure- distanciated himself from the fascist organizations in Libya.

See also

References

  1. ^ Video of the AML creation in 1939
  2. ^ Sarti, Roland. 1974. The Ax Within: Italian Fascism in Action. New York: New Viewpoints. p190.
  3. ^ Munzi, Massimiliano. L'epica del ritorno: archeologia e politica nella Tripolitania italiana. Saggi di storia antica. "L'Erma" di Bretschneider. Roma, 2001
  4. ^ Donati, S."A Political History of National Citizenship and Identity in Italy, 1861–1950", p. 193
  5. ^ Sarti, p196.
  6. ^ Gianluca Gabrielli: "Balbo's Fascism and Sport", p.242 (in Italian) [1])
  7. ^ Photo of Nasser as "Greenshirt" (pointed by arrow)
  8. ^ Nasser and Arafat, members of Egypt's fascist organizations
  9. ^ Anwar El-Sadat. "In Search of Identity: An Autobiography". p. 26-38
  10. ^ Stefano Fabei - Giovanna Canzano: "Fascismo, Nazionalsocialismo, gli Arabi e l’Islam" (in Italian) [2]
  11. ^ Balbo's death
  12. ^ Revolt on the Nile, by Sadat

Bibliography

  • Donati, Sabina A Political History of National Citizenship and Identity in Italy, 1861–1950. Stanford University Press, Stanford, 2013 ISBN 0804787336 ([3])
Impero italiano
The Italian empire before WWII is shown in red. Pink areas were annexed/occupied for various periods between 1940 and 1943. Italian concessions and forts in China are not shown.
Arab Lictor Youth

Arab Lictor Youth (Arabic: شباب الليتوريو العرب‎ Shabāb Al-Līttūriw Al-ʿArab, Italian: Gioventù Araba del Littorio, abbreviated G.A.L.) was a fascist youth organization for Arab youth in Italian Libya.

Fascism in Europe

Fascism in Europe was composed of numerous ideologies that were present during the 20th century and they all developed their own differences with each other. Fascism was born in Italy, but subsequently several fascist movements emerged across Europe and they borrowed influences from the Italian Fascism. The origins of fascism in Europe began outside of Italy and can be observed in the combining of a traditional national unity and revolutionary anti-democratic rhetoric espoused by integral nationalist Charles Maurras and revolutionary syndicalist Georges Sorel in France. The first foundations of fascism can be seen in the Italian Regency of Carnaro, many of its politics and aesthetics were taken from Gabriele D'Annunzio's rule and they were subsequently used by Benito Mussolini and his Italian Fasci of Combat which he had founded as the Fasci of Revolutionary Action in 1914. Despite the fact that its members referred to themselves as "fascists", the ideology was based around national syndicalism. The ideology of fascism would not fully develop until 1921 when Mussolini transformed his movement into the National Fascist Party which then in 1923 incorporated the Italian Nationalist Association. The INA was a nationalist movement that established fascist tropes, colored shirt uniforms for example, and also received the support of important proto-fascists like D'Annunzio and nationalist intellectual Enrico Corradini.

The first declaration of the political stance of fascism was the Fascist Manifesto written by national syndicalist Alceste De Ambris and futurist poet Filippo Tommaso Marinetti published in 1919. Many of the contents of the manifesto such as centralization, the abolition of the senate, formation of national councils loyal to the state, expanded military and support for militias (Blackshirts for example) were adopted by Mussolini's regime whilst other calls such as universal suffrage and a peaceful foreign policy were abandoned. De Ambris would later become a prominent anti-fascist. In 1932 The Doctrine of Fascism was published written by Mussolini and Giovanni Gentile providing an outline of fascism that better represented Mussolini's regime.

Fascist Italy (1922–1943)

Fascist Italy is the era of National Fascist Party government from 1922 to 1943 with Benito Mussolini as head of government of the Kingdom of Italy. The Italian Fascists imposed totalitarian rule and crushed political and intellectual opposition, while promoting economic modernization, traditional social values and a rapprochement with the Roman Catholic Church. According to Payne (1996), "[the] Fascist government passed through several relatively distinct phases". The first phase (1923–1925) was nominally a continuation of the parliamentary system, albeit with a "legally-organized executive dictatorship". The second phase (1925–1929) was "the construction of the Fascist dictatorship proper". The third phase (1929–1934) was with less activism. The fourth phase (1935–1940) was characterized by an aggressive foreign policy: Second Italo-Ethiopian War, which was launched from Eritrea and Somaliland; confrontations with the League of Nations, leading to sanctions; growing economic autarky; invasion of Albania; and the signing of the Pact of Steel. The fifth phase (1940–1943) was World War II itself which ended in military defeat, while the sixth and final phase (1943–1945) was the rump Salò Government under German control.Italy was a leading member of the Axis powers in World War II, battling on several fronts with initial success. However, after the German-Italian defeat in Africa and Soviet Union and the subsequent Allied landings in Sicily, King Victor Emmanuel III overthrew and arrested Mussolini, and the Fascist Party in areas (south of Rome) controlled by the Allied invaders was shut down. The new government signed an armistice with the Allies on September 1943. Nazi Germany, with Fascists' help, seized control of the northern half of Italy and freed Mussolini, setting up the Italian Social Republic, a collaborationist puppet state still led by Mussolini and his Fascist loyalists. The Allies organized some Italian troops in the south into the Italian Co-belligerent Army, which fought alongside the Allies for the rest of the war, while other Italian troops, loyal to Mussolini and his RSI, continued to fight alongside the Germans in the National Republican Army. From this point on, a large Italian resistance movement located in northern Italy fought a guerilla war against the German and RSI forces. Mussolini was captured and killed on 28 April 1945 by the Italian resistance, and hostilities ended the next day.

Shortly after the war, civil discontent led to the 1946 institutional referendum on whether Italy would remain a monarchy or become a republic. Italians decided to abandon the monarchy and form the Italian Republic, the present-day Italian state.

Italian Libya

Italian Libya (Italian: Libia Italiana; Arabic: ليبيا الإيطالية‎, Lībyā al-Īṭālīya) was a colony of the Kingdom of Italy located in North Africa, in what is now modern Libya. Italian Libya was formed from the Italian colonies of Cyrenaica and Tripolitania that were taken by the Kingdom of Italy from the Ottoman Empire in 1911, during the Italo-Turkish War of 1911 to 1912. The unified colony was established in 1934 by governor Italo Balbo, with Tripoli as the capital.

The territory of Italian Libya was also called Italian North Africa (Africa Settentrionale Italiana, or ASI), both before and after its unification. In 1923, indigenous rebels associated with the Senussi Order organized the Libyan resistance movement against Italian settlement in Libya. The rebellion was totally put down by Italian forces in 1932, after the so-called "pacification campaign", which resulted in the deaths of a quarter of Cyrenaica's population.

During World War II, Italian Libya became the setting for the North African Campaign. Although the Italians were defeated there by the Allies in 1943, many of the Italian settlers still remained in Libya. Under the terms of the 1947 peace treaty, Italy officially relinquished all claims to Libya, which was administrated by the United Kingdom and France until its independence in 1951.

Italian colonization of Libya

The history of Libya as an Italian colony began in the 1910s and lasted until February 1947, when Italy officially lost all the colonies of the former Italian Empire. It can be divided in two periods: the first from 1911 to 1934 called "Italian colonization" and the second from 1934 called "Italian Libya" (after the creation of "Libya" as a political entity).

Justice and Construction Party

The Justice and Construction Party or Justice and Development Party (Arabic: حزب العدالة والبناء‎, Hizb Al-Adala Wal-Bina) is the political party in Libya associated with the Muslim Brotherhood. It was officially founded on 3 March 2012 in Tripoli. The party advocates Islamism.

Mohamed Sowan of Misrata heads the party, while Mohamed Gaair is its spokesman. While the party finished second in the elections, it is believed to have attracted enough independents to have become the majority, and infighting in the National Forces Alliance has allowed the Brotherhood's political arm to gradually consolidate control over Libya. The party backed the election of Nouri Abusahmain a Amazigh and moderate Islamist over the secular candidates who were defeated. This gave the Brotherhood a strong position so that once Ali Zeidan was sacked over mishandling of Morning Glory oil shipments, the Brotherhood had the speaker-President, Abusahmain, with the authority that they could then eventually appoint a moderate Islamist and pro-Business politician, Ahmed Maiteeq as the prime minister. The Brotherhood is continuing to build a bigger consensus and by backing an Amazigh as President, the JCP consolidated a stronger support base among Libya's ethnic minorities.

List of political parties in Libya

Political parties in Libya lists political parties in Libya.

One-party state

A one-party state, single-party state, one-party system, or single-party system is a type of state in which one political party has the right to form the government, usually based on the existing constitution. All other parties are either outlawed or allowed to take only a limited and controlled participation in elections. Sometimes the term de facto one-party state is used to describe a dominant-party system that, unlike the one-party state, allows (at least nominally) democratic multiparty elections, but the existing practices or balance of political power effectively prevent the opposition from winning the elections.

World War II by country

Nearly every country and territory in the world participated in World War II. Most were neutral at the beginning, but only a few nations remained neutral to the end. The Second World War pitted two alliances against each other, the Axis powers and the Allied powers. The leading Axis powers were Nazi Germany, the Kingdom of Italy and the Empire of Japan; while the United Kingdom, the United States, the Soviet Union and China to an extent were the "Big Four" Allied powers.

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