Music Canada

Music Canada (formerly Canadian Recording Industry Association (CRIA)) is a Toronto-based, non-profit trade organization that was founded 9 April 1963 to represent the interests of companies that record, manufacture, produce, promote and distribute music in Canada. It also offers benefits to some of Canada's leading independent record labels and distributors.[1]


Originally formed as the 10-member Canadian Record Manufacturer's Association, the association changed its name to Canadian Recording Industry Association (CRIA) in 1972 and opened membership to other record industry companies.[2]

In 2006, the CRIA was in the news when a number of smaller labels resigned their memberships, complaining that the organization wasn't representing their interests.[3] In 2011, it changed its name to Music Canada offering special benefits to some of the leading independent labels and distributors in Canada.[4]


Music Canada is governed by a board of directors who are elected annually by association members. To be eligible for election a candidate for the board must be among the executive officers of the member companies. Graham Henderson of Universal Music Canada has been president since 15 November 2004; Brian Robertson previously held the position from 1974.[5]

Members are divided into 3 classes:[2]

  • Class A members are Canadian individuals or companies whose principal business is producing, manufacturing, or marketing sound recordings. These members hold voting rights, and currently consist of the "big four" record labels.[6]
  • Class B members are Canadian individuals or companies whose principal business is producing sound recordings. These members pay a $600 annual membership fee but have no voting rights. As of 2007, there were 22 class B members.[6]
  • Manufacturing Division members are Canadian individuals or companies whose principal business is manufacturing sound recordings.

Other services

Music Canada is responsible for the distribution of ISRC registrant codes within Canada, and also works with the IFPI and RIAA to try to prevent copyright infringement of artists' work.


Historically, Music Canada has represented all record labels in the country. Recently, however, some labels and other industry groups have publicly disagreed with Music Canada and claim it no longer represents them. In 2006, six well-known "indie" labels including Nettwerk left Music Canada in a dispute over Canadian content rules. They claimed the association was only protecting the interests of "the four major foreign multi-national labels,"[7] referring to EMI, Universal, Sony BMG, and Warner. Other points of contention include Music Canada's stance against the blank media tax, their support for digital locks on music,[8] and positions against copyright reform.[9] In 2007 a group of musicians formed the Canadian Music Creators Coalition, claiming "legislative proposals that would facilitate lawsuits against our fans or increase the labels' control over the enjoyment of music are made not in our names, but on behalf of the labels' foreign parent companies."

Legal actions

On February 16, 2004, Music Canada applied to the Federal Court to force five major Canadian internet service providersShaw Communications Inc., Telus Corp., Rogers Cable, Bell Canada's Sympatico service and Quebec's Vidéotron — to hand over the names of 29 people accused of copyright infringement through peer-to-peer file sharing. On April 2005, Vidéotron indicated its willingness to supply customer information to Music Canada.[10]

On March 31, 2004, in the case of BMG v. John Doe, Justice Konrad von Finckenstein of the Federal Court of Canada ruled that making music available for download over the Internet was not equivalent to distribution and was thus noninfringing. The Justice compared the peer-to-peer filesharing activities to "having a photocopier in a library room full of copyrighted material" and wrote that there was no evidence of unauthorized distribution presented.[11] The Federal Court of Appeal upheld the lower courts ruling denying the disclosure of the customers' identities, but, in reference to "what would or would not constitute infringement of copyright," stated: "such conclusions should not have been made in the very preliminary stages of this action, since they would require a consideration of the evidence as well as the law applicable to such evidence after it has been properly adduced, and could be damaging to the parties if a trial takes place."[12] The Copyright Board of Canada earlier that year had included downloading music in the list of "private copying" activities for which tariffs on blank media applied. (Private copying is the act of copying music for personal use from a noninfringing source, and is itself noninfringing.) That made it extremely unlikely that downloaders could be successfully prosecuted, leaving only the possibility of acting against uploaders, those supplying the works to others on the networks. In 2008, the operators of the isoHunt website filed a motion with the Supreme Court of British Columbia seeking a declaratory judgment affirming the legality of their operation. The motion was denied, and the court ruled a full trial was needed. This decision was appealed by the operators of isoHunt; the appeal was also denied. In late 2009, isoHunt filed a formal suit against Music Canada and the four "major" record labels seeking "declaratory relief to clarify its legal rights."[13]

Additionally, in October 2008, the four main members of Music Canada were sued by the estate of Chet Baker and several other artists for copyright infringement. The major claims in this lawsuit are as follows:

  • That some three hundred thousand works were illegally distributed by the Music Canada's members, and
  • That they failed to seek proper licensing and distribution agreements with the creators of the aforementioned works, instead placing the works on what is colloquially referred to as a "pending list" (i.e., any payments to be made for the use of the aforementioned works are reserved, pending an agreement with the artists who created the works).

As the standard punitive damages for each act of infringement is set at $20,000, and there are three hundred thousand works on the "pending lists", Music Canada could have faced punitive damages of a minimum of $6 billion.[14] On November 8, 2011, the suit was settled out of court for over $45 million.[15]

Certification awards

The Last Waltz CRIA gold certification
Gold disc for The Last Waltz (1978)


Certification For releases before May 1, 2008[16] For releases after May 1, 2008[16]
Gold 50,000 40,000
Platinum 100,000 80,000
Diamond 1,000,000 800,000


Prior to September 12, 2016, Music Canada had different certification levels for physical singles and Digital downloads singles.[17] On that date, the digital downloads singles award was discontinued and single awards include digital singles. It also includes streams, where 150 on-demand audio streams from a subscription service equals 1 unit towards certification.[16]

Physical singles
Certification For releases before February 1, 1982[18] For releases before September 2002[18] For releases after September 2002[A] For certifications after September 12, 2016
Gold 75,000 50,000 5,000 40,000
Platinum 150,000 100,000 10,000 80,000
Diamond 1,500,000 1,000,000 100,000 800,000
Digital downloads (singles)
Certification Before January 1, 2007[B][19] Until April, 2010[C][20][21] After May 1, 2010[21]
Discontinued September 12, 2016
Gold 10,000 20,000 40,000
Platinum 20,000 40,000 80,000
Diamond 200,000 400,000 800,000
  • Note that Music Canada certifies Digital-downloads (and from September 12, 2016, any singles) always applying the most recent certifications-levels, even to those titles that are released during the time frame the CRIA (currently Music Canada) had lower certification-levels for Digital-downloads. One such example is the single "Right Round" by Flo Rida feat. Kesha, which was released in January 2009 when certification-levels for Digital-downloads were 10,000 units for Gold and 20,000 units for Platinum. The CRIA (currently Music Canada) certified it three times Platinum in October 2010, applying the latest certification-levels for sales of 240,000 units.[22]

RingTones (singles)

Certification For all RingTone releases[16]
Gold 20,000
Platinum 40,000
Diamond 400,000


Certification For all Video releases[16]
Gold 5,000
Platinum 10,000
Diamond 100,000

See also


  • A ^ One of the first physical singles that was certified with levels of Gold=5,000 and Platinum=10,000 was "A Moment Like This" by Kelly Clarkson,[23] which was released on September 17, 2002.
  • B ^ One of the first digital singles that was certified with levels of Gold=20,000 and Platinum=40,000 was "Paralyzer" by Finger Eleven,[24] which was released as a digital track on March 6, 2007.[25]
  • C ^ One of the first digital singles that was certified with levels of Gold=40,000 and Platinum=80,000 was "OMG" by Usher,[26] which was released as a digital track on March 30, 2010.[27]


  1. ^ "About Music Canada". Music Canada. Archived from the original on July 30, 2013. Retrieved July 10, 2011.
  2. ^ a b "Canadian Recording Industry Association". The Canadian Encyclopedia. Retrieved December 8, 2009.
  3. ^ Larry LeBlanc (29 April 2006). "Indie Revolt Up North". Billboard. Nielsen Business Media, Inc.: 18–. ISSN 0006-2510.
  4. ^ "Canadian Recording Industry Association Changes Name". Billboard. Retrieved July 10, 2011.
  5. ^ "Long time recording industry President Brian Robertson to step down; Graham Henderson to succeed". CRIA. 21 September 2004. Archived from the original on 2 March 2005. Retrieved 8 December 2009.
  6. ^ a b Geist, Michael (12 September 2007). "LeBlanc on HMV and CRIA Stats". Retrieved 8 December 2009.
  7. ^ "Indie labels break with CRIA over commercial radio proposal". Canadian Broadcasting Corporation. 13 April 2009. Retrieved 8 December 2009.
  8. ^ Geist, Michael (6 August 2009). "Manitoba Music Industry Association Distances Self From CRIA On Copyright Reform". Retrieved 8 December 2009.
  9. ^ "Copyright Consulations - Canadian Music Creators Coalition (CMCC)". Industry Canada. 11 September 2009. Retrieved 8 December 2009.
  10. ^ Joudrey, Stephanie (2005-04-22). "Canadian File Sharing Lawsuits Moving Ahead, Vidéotron To Reveal Names". Retrieved 2009-08-10.
  11. ^ BMG Canada Inc. v. John Doe, FC 488 (F.C. 2004).
  12. ^ BMG Canada Inc. v. John Doe, FCA 193 (F.C.A 2005).
  13. ^ "Statement of Claim - isoHunt vs CRIA members" (PDF). 19 November 2009.
  14. ^ "Geist: Record industry faces liability over infringement". The Star. Toronto. 7 December 2009.
  15. ^ Gardner, Eriq (November 12, 2011). "Why Universal Music Sued Its Insurer Over a $14.4 Million Payment to Musicians (Analysis)". The Hollywood Reporter. Retrieved November 19, 2013.
  16. ^ a b c d e Music Canada. "Certification Definitions". Music Canada. Retrieved 2015-10-11.
  17. ^ "Certification Definitions". 23 July 2016. Archived from the original on July 23, 2016. Retrieved 30 September 2017.
  18. ^ a b CRIA Reports 46% Rise for Disk Certifications. Billboard magazine. 1982-02-27. Retrieved 2011-07-24.
  19. ^ "Gold & Platinum Certifications: March - August 2006". CRIA. Archived from the original on 2010-10-19. Retrieved 2012-06-24.
  20. ^ "CRIA Gold Platinum Certifications (April 2010)". CRIA. Archived from the original on October 29, 2013. Retrieved 2015-12-26.CS1 maint: Unfit url (link)
  21. ^ a b "What is Gold Platinum Certification?". Music Canada. Retrieved 2015-12-26.
  22. ^ "Gold & Platinum Certifications: October 2010". CRIA. Archived from the original on October 29, 2013. Retrieved 2014-10-12.CS1 maint: Unfit url (link)
  23. ^ "Gold & Platinum Certifications: April 2003". CRIA. Archived from the original on November 6, 2012. Retrieved 2015-12-26.CS1 maint: Unfit url (link)
  24. ^ "Gold & Platinum Certifications: August 2007". CRIA. Archived from the original on April 7, 2012. Retrieved 2015-12-26.CS1 maint: Unfit url (link)
  25. ^ "Amazon: Paralyzer". Retrieved 2012-06-24.
  26. ^ "Gold & Platinum Certifications: June 20107". CRIA. Archived from the original on February 12, 2014. Retrieved 2015-12-26.CS1 maint: Unfit url (link)
  27. ^ "Amazon: OMG". Retrieved 2012-06-24.

External links


Arkells are a Canadian rock band, formed in Hamilton, Ontario. In 2006, they signed with Dine Alone Records, and have since signed with Universal Records Canada and Last Gang Records. They are managed by Last Gang Management. They have released five albums, two EPs and a number of singles that have charted in Canada. The band has won multiple Juno Awards, including one for their album High Noon in 2015.

CBC Radio 3

CBC Radio 3 is a radio network that consists of two parts devoted to Canadian arts and music: a radio service which is available on Sirius XM Satellite Radio and streaming audio, and several daily and weekly podcasts from the CBC Radio 3 website. The audio stream is available from both CBC Music and from iTunes Radio, but geographical restrictions are in place to prevent access outside of Canada.

The network evolved out of programming on CBC Radio 2 (now CBC Music), which also simulcasted the satellite network on Saturday and Sunday nights from its debut in December 2005 until March 17, 2007. Radio 3 is no longer heard on terrestrial radio, but is still available through its satellite radio and Internet operations. The French-language equivalent to Radio 3 was Bande à part.

The network plays a relatively freeform mix of indie rock, indie pop, alternative hip hop, folk, country and electronic music. An article on, published in October 2006, called CBC Radio 3 "possibly the world's best radio station".CBC Radio 3 was nominated for a Webby Award in 2007 and previously won the award in 2003.

The network's unofficial mascot for many years was Bucky, a cartoon creature with the body of a goose and the head of a deer. Bucky was primarily seen in the introduction to the network's weekly R3TV video podcast, and also lent his name to the network's annual year-end music awards.

Deadmau5 discography

The following is a comprehensive discography of Deadmau5, a Canadian record producer and DJ. His discography most notably comprises eight studio albums, nine compilation albums, one soundtrack album, two video albums, six extended plays, forty eight singles, and eighteen music videos.


EMI Group Limited (originally an initialism for Electric and Musical Industries, also referred to as EMI Records Ltd. or simply EMI) was a British Transnational conglomerate founded in March 1931 in London. At the time of its break-up in 2012, it was the fourth largest business group and record label conglomerate in the music industry, and was one of the big four record companies (now the big three); its labels included EMI Records, Parlophone, Virgin Records, and Capitol Records, which are now owned by other companies.

The company was once a constituent of the FTSE 100 Index, but faced financial troubles and US$4 billion in debt, leading to its acquisition by Citigroup in February 2011. Citigroup's ownership was temporary, as EMI announced in November 2011 that it would sell its music arm to Vivendi's Universal Music Group for $1.9 billion and its publishing business to a Sony/ATV consortium for around $2.2 billion. Other members of the Sony consortium include the Estate of Michael Jackson, The Blackstone Group, and the Abu Dhabi–owned Mubadala Development Company. EMI's locations in the United Kingdom, the United States, and Canada were all disassembled to repay debt, but the primary head office located outside those countries is still functional.It is currently owned by Sony/ATV Music Publishing, the music publishing division of Sony Music which bought another 70% stake in EMI Music Publishing.

Ed Sheeran discography

English singer-songwriter Ed Sheeran has released three albums, 14 extended plays, 24 singles (including 11 as a featured artist), and 20 music videos.

Originally an indie artist selling music independently on his own label starting in 2005, Sheeran released nine EPs, steadily gaining public and critical acclaim, resulting in his signing to Atlantic Records in January 2011. Five months later, Sheeran released his first single, "The A Team", on 12 June 2011. It debuted at No. 3 on the UK Singles Chart with first-week sales of 57,607 copies. The track attained international chart success, reaching the top ten in numerous countries including Australia and New Zealand, where it peaked at No. 2 and No. 3 respectively. The release was succeeded by a second single, "You Need Me, I Don't Need You", in August 2011, which peaked at No. 4 in the United Kingdom. Sheeran released his major label debut studio album, +, on 9 September 2011. In its first week, + debuted at No. 1 in the UK Albums Chart selling over 100,000 copies in its first week and was certified 7× Platinum by the British Phonographic Industry for sales of 2.1 million copies. The album spawned a further three singles, including "Lego House", which reached the top five in Australia, New Zealand and the United Kingdom. "Drunk" was released in February 2012, becoming Sheeran's fourth consecutive top ten single when it peaked at No. 9. "Small Bump" was released in May 2012, peaking at No. 25 in the UK. The final single from +, "Give Me Love", was released on 21 November 2012 and peaked at No. 18 in the UK.

In 2014, Sheeran released his second studio album, × (Multiply), which peaked at No. 1 in the UK, Ireland, the US, Australia, New Zealand, Canada, Germany, Finland, Denmark, Switzerland and Norway. It was the fastest-selling album of 2014 in the UK, shifting 180,000 copies in its first week of release. Five singles were released from the album: "Sing", "Don't", "Thinking Out Loud", "Bloodstream" (a collaboration with Rudimental), and "Photograph". × was also the best-selling album of the year in the UK, with almost 1.7 million copies sold.

Sheeran released two singles, "Shape of You", "Castle on the Hill", his first solo material in two years, on 3 January 2017. His third studio album, ÷, followed on 3 March 2017. It debuted at No. 1 in 14 countries, including the UK, where it sold 672,000 units in its first week to become the fastest-selling album by a male solo artist there and the third-highest opening ever (behind Adele's 25 and Oasis' Be Here Now). It also topped the charts in the United States, Canada, and Australia. All the tracks on the album reached the top 20 of the UK Singles Chart in the week of the album's release, due mainly to heavy streaming. Sheeran also surpassed Calvin Harris' record of top 10 hits from one album. The next two singles, "Galway Girl" and "Perfect", both reached the summit in Ireland.

As of July 2015, Sheeran's song sales surpassed 18.9 million downloads in the United States.

Garth Brooks discography

The discography for American country music singer Garth Brooks consists of 15 studio albums, two live albums and 51 singles. The Recording Industry Association of America has certified Garth Brooks' albums at a total of 137 times Platinum, and he has sold 70.5 million albums in the US as of September 2015, making him the best-selling album artist in the US since Nielsen SoundScan began tracking music sales in January 1991. Seven of his albums have achieved Diamond status in the US and his worldwide sales are estimated at 150 million records.Most of his compact discs were remastered/reissued in 2000, and again in 2007 and 2014 via GhostTunes, Brooks' online music store. Brooks is currently in a partnership with Amazon Music for digital and streaming services, which he signed in 2016 and again in 2019. Most his albums can, again, be found at most retail outlets.

Hedley (album)

Hedley is the self-titled debut studio album recorded by Canadian rock band Hedley, released in Canada on September 6, 2005 through Universal Music Canada. The album reached the top 3 on the Canadian Albums Chart and has been certified double platinum by Music Canada. It garnered a nomination for Rock Album of the Year at the 2006 Juno Awards.Six tracks were released as singles: "On My Own", "Villain", "Trip", "321", "Gunnin'", and "Street Fight". The music videos for all of these songs, except "Villain" and "Street Fight", reached #1 on the MuchMusic countdown.

Following Hedley signing a US record deal with Capitol Records in the summer of 2006, the album was released in the US on September 26, 2006. In Canada, a "Platinum edition" of the album was released on November 21, 2006 with four bonus tracks and the updated album cover.

Seven of the songs are featured on the 2009 US version of their second studio album, released under the title Never Too Late.

Justin Bieber discography

Justin Bieber has released 4 studio albums, 5 compilation albums, 1 extended play, 29 singles (including 8 as a featured artist), and 17 promotional singles.

At the age of 12, Bieber was discovered by current manager, Scooter Braun, on YouTube and was signed by R&B singer Usher to RBMG. Popular urban producers Tricky Stewart and The-Dream were enlisted for Bieber's debut single, "One Time", which peaked at number 12 in Canada and reached the top twenty in several other countries. Bieber's debut extended play My World was released in November 2009; it debuted at number one in Canada and reached the top five in several other countries, including the United Kingdom and the United States. The EP also produced the follow-up single "One Less Lonely Girl", as well as the promotional singles "Favorite Girl" and "Love Me".

Bieber's full-length debut studio album, My World 2.0, was released in March 2010. The album was a commercial success, topping the charts in countries such as Australia, Canada and the United States. My World 2.0 received multi-platinum certifications from Music Canada (MC) and the Recording Industry Association of America (RIAA). The album was preceded by the release of its lead single, "Baby", a collaboration with American rapper Ludacris. It reached the top five in countries such as Canada, Australia and the United States. It was followed by the singles "Somebody to Love" and "U Smile".

In 2011, Bieber released the remix album Never Say Never: The Remixes, which topped the charts in Canada and the United States. Its lead single, "Never Say Never", also hit the top ten in several countries. His second studio album Under the Mistletoe was released in November 2011, topping the charts in Canada and the United States. Its single "Mistletoe" reached the top ten in Canada and Denmark.

Believe, Bieber's third studio album, followed in June 2012. It topped the charts in sixteen countries and was certified two times platinum by Music Canada. The album's lead single, "Boyfriend", reached the number one spot in Canada and peaked at number two in the US. Believe also produced the singles "As Long as You Love Me" and "Beauty and a Beat". Believe Acoustic was released in January 2013, becoming Bieber's fifth number-one album in Canada and the United States.In 2015, Bieber released his fourth studio album, Purpose, which debuted atop the US Billboard 200 with his best first-week sales of 522,000 pure copies and 649,000 equivalent units. Its singles "What Do You Mean?", "Sorry", and "Love Yourself" all topped the charts in Canada, Denmark, Ireland, New Zealand, Sweden, the United Kingdom, and the United States.

Kardinal Offishall

Jason D. Harrow (born May 11, 1976), better known by his stage name Kardinal Offishall , is a Canadian rapper, record producer, DJ and record executive. Often credited as Canada's "hip hop ambassador", he is regarded as one of the country's best hip hop producers, and is best known for his distinctive reggae and dancehall-influenced style of hip hop.A native of Toronto, Offishall began his career in the city's mid-1990s underground hip hop scene, as a member of The Circle. He released several independent 12" singles, a debut album (Eye & I), and an EP (Husslin'), before signing with major label MCA Records in 2000. The following year, Offishall released his second album, Quest for Fire: Firestarter, Vol. 1, spawning the Billboard hit "BaKardi Slang", which popularized Toronto's nickname "T-dot", and the minor hit "Ol' Time Killin'"; both singles became his signature songs. After failing to release the Firestarter Vol. 2 album in 2003, on MCA, and later Geffen Records (which absorbed MCA), Offishall briefly returned to the underground scene, releasing several more independent 12" singles.

In 2005, Offishall's third album, Fire and Glory, was released in Canada. That year, he collaborated with R&B singer Akon for the first time, starting a musical partnership that lasted until 2010. In 2007, he signed with Akon's Kon Live Distribution label, through Geffen, and released his fourth album, Not 4 Sale, the following year. The first single, "Dangerous", became a top five hit on the Billboard Hot 100, and was certified triple platinum in Canada. Offishall released two gold-certified singles, "Numba 1 (Tide Is High)" and "Body Bounce", before leaving Kon Live in late 2010. Since then, his latest singles have been released on his independent label Black Stone Colleagues Inc. In 2012, Offishall released Allow Me to Re-Introduce Myself, a collaborative mixtape with producer Nottz.

In 2013, Offishall became the Creative Executive Director of Universal Music Canada's A&R team. Two years later, he released his fifth album Kardi Gras, Vol. 1: The Clash under the label.

List of Universal Music Group labels

Universal Music Group owns, or has a joint share in, a large number of record labels listed herein.

Pancho and Lefty

"Pancho and Lefty" is a song written by country music artist Townes Van Zandt. Often considered his "most enduring and well-known song," Van Zandt first recorded it for his 1972 album The Late Great Townes Van Zandt.

Pink discography

American singer and songwriter Pink has released seven studio albums, three live albums, five compilation albums, 34 singles, and 33 music videos. In 2000, she released her debut studio album, Can't Take Me Home. It has sold four million units worldwide and yielded three singles, "There You Go", "Most Girls", and "You Make Me Sick". A year later, Pink recorded the Moulin Rouge! version of "Lady Marmalade" with Christina Aguilera, Mýa, and Lil' Kim. Later that year, Pink released her second studio album, Missundaztood, which has sold 15 million copies worldwide. The record was promoted by four singles, "Get the Party Started", "Don't Let Me Get Me", "Just Like a Pill", and "Family Portrait", all of which attended commercial success.

In 2003, Pink released her third studio album, Try This. The album was her least successful album, having sold 3 million units worldwide. Its single releases include "Trouble", "God Is a DJ", and "Last to Know". Her fourth studio album, I'm Not Dead, was released in 2006 and fared moderately on the charts. It generated seven singles, including top 10 singles "Stupid Girls", "U + Ur Hand", and "Who Knew". Pink's fifth album, Funhouse (2008), sold over seven million copies worldwide and charted at number one in several countries, including Australia, the Netherlands, and the United Kingdom. It includes her second number one hit on the Billboard Hot 100, "So What".

In 2010, Pink released her first greatest hits album, Greatest Hits... So Far!!!. It produced two top 10 hit singles, "Raise Your Glass" and "Fuckin' Perfect". Her sixth album, The Truth About Love, was released in 2012 and produced six singles, "Blow Me (One Last Kiss)", "Try", "Just Give Me a Reason", "True Love", "Walk of Shame", and "Are We All We Are". Pink has sold over 42 million albums and 75 million singles worldwide. In the United States, she has sold over 16 million albums. In 2017, the singer released her seventh album Beautiful Trauma, which topped the charts in Australia, Austria, Canada, Ireland, the Netherlands, New Zealand, the United Kingdom, and the United States. Its lead single "What About Us" reached number one in Australia and the Netherlands.

Ska punk

Ska punk (also spelled ska-punk) is a fusion genre that mixes ska music and punk rock music together. Ska-core (sometimes spelled skacore) is a subgenre of ska punk that mixes ska with hardcore punk. Early ska punk mixed both 2 Tone and ska with hardcore punk. Ska punk tends to feature brass instruments, especially horns such as saxophones, trombones and trumpets, making the genre distinct from other forms of punk rock. It is closely tied to third wave ska which reached its zenith in the mid 1990s.

Before ska punk began, many ska bands and punk rock bands performed on the same bills together and performed to the same audiences. Some music groups from the late 1970s and early 1980s, such as the Clash, the Deadbeats, the Specials, the Beat, and Madness fused characteristics of punk rock and ska, but many of these were either punk bands playing an occasional ska-flavored song, or are usually considered 2-Tone ska bands who played faster songs with a punk attitude. During the late 1980s and early 1990s, ska-punk enjoyed its greatest success, heralded by bands such as Fishbone, Dance Hall Crashers, the Mighty Mighty Bosstones, Citizen Fish, Sublime, the Porkers, Mad Caddies, Culture Shock, Operation Ivy, Reel Big Fish, and Mr. Bungle.

Ska punk had significant mainstream success in the middle-to-late 1990s, with many bands topping pop and rock music charts. The best selling ska punk record of the era was No Doubt's Tragic Kingdom, which was was certified diamond by the Recording Industry Association of America (RIAA) in 1999 and was certified diamond by Music Canada in 1997. By the early 2000s, many of the bands in ska punk had broken up, and the genre lost mainstream appeal, though it continued to have underground popularity and featured a revival in the late 2010s with bands like The Interrupters returning to chart success, when their song "She's Kerosene" reached the top-5 on alternative and rock music charts in Canada and the U.S.

Sony Music

Sony Music Entertainment (SME), commonly known as Sony Music, is an American global music conglomerate owned by Sony and incorporated as a general partnership of Sony Music Holdings Inc. through Sony Entertainment Inc., a subsidiary of Sony Corporation of America, which in turn is a subsidiary of the Japanese Sony Corporation. It was originally founded in 1929 as American Record Corporation and renamed as Columbia Recording Corporation in 1938, following its acquisition by the Columbia Broadcasting System. In 1966, the company was reorganized to become CBS Records, and Sony Corporation bought the company in 1988, renaming it under its current name in 1991. In 2004, Sony and Bertelsmann established a 50-50 joint venture known as Sony BMG Music Entertainment, which transferred the businesses of Sony Music and Bertelsmann Music Group into one entity. However, in 2008, Sony acquired Bertelsmann's stake, and the company reverted to the SME name shortly after; the buyout allowed Sony to acquire all of BMG's labels, and led to the dissolution of BMG, which instead relaunched as BMG Rights Management.

Sony Music Entertainment is the second largest of the "Big Three" record companies, behind Universal Music Group and ahead of Warner Music Group. Its music publishing division Sony/ATV is the largest music publisher in the world. It also owns SYCO Entertainment, which operates some of the world's most successful reality TV formats, including Got Talent and The X Factor.


Stereos was a Juno nominated pop band from Edmonton, Alberta, Canada, formed in 2008. Their musical style fuses aspects of hip hop and pop to form their primary style. Their first act that had them recognized was appearing on the MuchMusic original series, disBAND. In October 2009, they released their first album self-titled Stereos.

The Royal Conservatory of Music

The Royal Conservatory of Music, branded as The Royal Conservatory, is a non-profit music education institution and performance venue headquartered in Toronto, Ontario, Canada. It was founded in 1886 by Edward Fisher as The Toronto Conservatory of Music. In 1947, King George VI incorporated the organization through royal charter.

Its Toronto home was designated a National Historic Site of Canada in 1995, in recognition of the institution's significant influence on music education in Canada.Tim Price is the current Chair of the Board and Peter Simon is the President.

Virgin Records

Virgin Records Ltd. is a British record label founded by entrepreneurs Richard Branson, Simon Draper, Nik Powell, and musician Tom Newman in 1972. It grew to be a worldwide phenomenon over time, with the success of platinum performers such as George Michael, Paula Abdul, Janet Jackson, Roy Orbison, Devo, Tangerine Dream, Genesis, Keith Richards, the Human League, Culture Club, Simple Minds, Lenny Kravitz, dc Talk, the Smashing Pumpkins, Mike Oldfield, Gorillaz, and Spice Girls, among others.After its acquisition by Universal Music Group through its purchase of EMI in 2012, UMG absorbed Virgin's British operations to create Virgin EMI Records in March 2013. Today, the operations of Virgin Records America, Inc., the company's North American operations founded in 1986, are still active and headquartered in Hollywood, California, and have operated exclusively under the Capitol Music Group imprint, also owned by UMG, since 2007. The US operations have also taken on the name Virgin Records. A minor number of artists remain on Virgin Records America's roster, which is currently mostly occupied with European artists such as Bastille, Circa Waves, Corinne Bailey Rae, Ella Eyre, Grizfolk, Walking on Cars, Seinabo Sey, and Prides; American artists include Knox Hamilton, L'Tric, and Rise Against.

Warner Music Canada

Warner Music Canada is the Canadian division of Warner Music Group. The label previously operated as WEA Canada, the Canadian subsidiary of WEA International, which later changed its name to Warner Music International in 1990. It was founded in 1967 as Warner Reprise Canada Ltd.

Wind-up Records

Wind-up Entertainment is an American independent record label founded by Alan and Diana Meltzer in 1997. It is based in New York City and is distributed by Universal Music Group. Wind-up's best-selling artists worldwide were Evanescence and Creed.

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