Mushir (Arabic: مشير‎) is an Arab word meaning "counsellor" or "advisor". It is related to the word shura, meaning consultation or "taking counsel".

As an official title, it historically indicates a personal advisor to the ruler. In this use it is roughly comparable to the European titles of State Counsellor and counsellor of state.

In a military context, mushir became associated with the idea of the ruler's personal counsellor or advisor on military matters, and as such became the highest rank in Arab countries and the Ottoman Empire. It is used as the highest rank in most armed forces of the Middle East and North Africa, for armies, navies, and air forces. It is therefore equivalent to the ranks of Field Marshal and Admiral of the Fleet.

Military ranks of the Ottoman Empire
Field marshal
Birinci Ferik (Serdar)
فريق أول
Lieutenant general
أمير لواء
Major general
أمير آلاي
قائم مقام
Lieutenant colonel
(Sağ Kolağası / Sol Kolağası)
قول أغاسي
Mülâzım-ı Evvel
ملازم أول
First lieutenant
Mülâzım-ı Sani
ملازم ثاني
Second lieutenant
Non-commissioned officers
Military ranks of Egypt
(until 1958)
Egyptian ranks
General of the army/
Field Marshal
Fariq awwal
فريق أول
Colonel General
Lieutenant General
Major General
أمير آلاي
قائم مقام
Lieutenant Colonel
Mulazim awwal
ملازم أول
First Lieutenant
Mulazim thani
ملازم ثاني
Second Lieutenant
Non-commissioned officers


In Iraq under the rule of Saddam Hussein, the Iraqi navy maintained a fleet admiral rank known as Mushir. A Mushir was the most senior of all naval officers and the rank was rarely bestowed. The sleeve insignia was the same as a British Admiral of the Fleet.

The rank of Mushir in Iraq is known as "Muhib" and is used in all official and unofficial addresses. Saddam Hussein as commander-in-chief of the armed forces was an honorary "staff muhib" (مهيب ركن) in the Iraqi army, and the uniform which he typically wore was that of a staff muhib. He was the only muhib in the Iraqi army, for the minister of defence and the chief of staff held the rank of Fariq awal rukun (فريق اول ركن), or "staff general". (Hussein never actually served in the Iraqi Army but commanded as ruler of Iraq.) After Hussein's fall in the 2003 invasion of Iraq, the rank of Mushir became obsolete in the new Iraqi military.

Saudi Arabia

In Saudi Arabia, the rank of Mushir is typically held ceremonially by the Saudi Royal Family, and translated as "First class Field Marshal".

List of Egyptian Field Marshals

Kingdom of Egypt

Republic of Egypt

See also

2015–16 Iraq FA Cup

The 2015–16 Iraq FA Cup was the 27th edition of the Iraqi knockout football cup competition, the main domestic cup in Iraqi football. It was the second edition held after the 2002–03 edition, although the 2012–13 one was abandoned. At first, thirty-nine teams were set to participate in the competition, but after the withdrawals of many of the Iraqi Premier League teams, only days before the second round, clubs including Al-Shorta, Al-Talaba, Al-Hudood, Al-Sinaa, Naft Maysan, Al-Najaf, Zakho, and Al-Kahrabaa, a total of twelve teams from the Iraqi Premier League and nineteen from Iraq Division One ended up participating. It began on 5 October 2015 and ended on 29 May 2016 with the final at the Al-Shaab Stadium in Baghdad, which has hosted the final ever since the competition started (apart from the 2003 final).

The winner of the competition was Al-Quwa Al-Jawiya who won their 4th cup by defeating 14-time winners Al-Zawraa 2–0 in the final. Therefore, they qualified for the 2017 AFC Cup.

Ironically, the two sides who contested the most recent Iraq FA Cup final in 2003, where Al-Talaba defeated Al-Shorta 1–0, were the first two teams to withdraw from this year's competition.

Ahmed Badawi

Ahmed Bdawi Sayyid Ahmed (Arabic: أحمد بدوي سيد أحمد) was an Egyptian Field Marshal (Mushir) and The Commander in Chief of the Armed Forces.


Akayla (English: Lonely) is a 1991 Bollywood film directed by Ramesh Sippy and produced by the Mushir - Riaz duo. It was the fourth film collaboration of Ramesh Sippy and Amitabh Bachchan after Sholay (1975), Shaan (1980) and Shakti (1982). Although their previous films were successful at the box office, Akayla did not do as well as expected. The story was written by Salim Khan. The film had the famous fictional Ram Pyari car, originally a customized Volkswagen Beetle.

Apne Paraye

Apne Paraye (English: Relatives and Others) is a 1980 Indian Bollywood film directed by Basu Chatterjee and produced by Mushir Alam. It stars Amol Palekar and Shabana Azmi in pivotal roles. It is based on the Bengali novel, Nishkriti by Sarat Chandra ChattopadhyayAshalata, who made her Hindi film debut with the film, was nominated for the Filmfare Award for Best Supporting Actress.

Athletics at the 2006 Asian Games – Men's 5000 metres

The men's 5000 metres competition at the 2006 Asian Games in Doha, Qatar was held on 12 December 2006 at the Khalifa International Stadium.


Bairaag is a 1976 Bollywood film. Produced by the duo Mushir-Riaz, it is directed by Asit Sen. The film stars Dilip Kumar, who received a Filmfare nomination for Best Actor for playing a triple role. Bairaag also stars Saira Banu, Leena Chandavarkar, Ruma Guha Thakurta, Prem Chopra, Helen, Sujit Kumar, Madan Puri, Paintal, Kader Khan, Asit Sen and Sachin. Its music is by the duo Kalyanji Anandji, who received a Filmfare nomination for Best Music. The film received a Filmfare Award for Best Sound for P. Harikishan. According to one source, the film did not do well at the box office.

Commando (1988 film)

Commando is a 1988 Hindi-language Indian feature film directed by B.Subhash and produced by Mushir-Riaz, starring Mithun Chakraborty, Mandakini, Amrish Puri and Hemant Birje. It was a hit film.

Field marshal (Libya)

The rank of Field marshal (Arabic: مشير‎, romanized: Mushir) is a five-star rank in the current Libyan military, the Libyan National Army (LNA). General Khalifa Haftar, commander of the LNA since 2 March 2015, was promoted to the rank of field marshal on 14 September 2016 by the decision of the House of Representatives (HoR), a partially recognized legislature located in the city of Tobruk, in the eastern Libyan region of Cyrenaica.Haftar was promoted in recognition for his leadership in the Operation Surprise Lightening, capturing the four key oil ports (Sidra, Ra's Lanuf, Brega and Zuwetina) in the Gulf of Sirte from the Petroleum Facilities Guard (PFG) during the ongoing Libyan Civil War.The leading individual of the previous Libyan military, the Armed Forces of the Libyan Arab Jamahiriya, was Brotherly Leader and Guide of the Revolution Muammar Gaddafi, who used the rank of Colonel of the Libyan Army.

Khalid Mushir

Khalid Mushir Ismael (Arabic: خالد مشير اسماعيل‎, Kurdish: Xalid Muşîr Ismaîl‎) (born 14 February 1981 in Duhok, Iraq) is an Iraqi football player of Kurdish ethnicity. He is a midfielder for Duhok FC in Iraq and the Iraq national football team. He usually plays as defensive midfielder, but has recently played in a central defender role. Khalid moved to Zakho FC on 14 September 2013.

Leonard Mucheru Maina

Leonard Mucheru Maina (born 13 June 1978 in Nyandarua) is a Kenyan long-distance runner, who started from 2004 until 2007 as Mushir Salem Jawher (Arabic: مشير سالم جوهر‎), having acquired the citizenship of Bahrain.


Mehbooba is a 1976 Hindi film produced by Mushir-Riaz and directed by Shakti Samanta. The film stars Rajesh Khanna, Hema Malini and Prem Chopra. The story is based on the reincarnation theme. The music is composed by Rahul Dev Burman. The film is noted for an impressive performance by the lead pair and for its haunting melodies such as the solo song "Mere Naina Sawan Bhadon", sung by both Lata Mangeshkar and Kishore Kumar, "Chalo Ri" by Lata and the duet song "Parbat Ke Peeche". The plot is based on Gulshan Nanda's novel Sisakate Saaz, and Nanda also wrote the screenplay himself. Upon its release, the film was big flop. This film has gained a cult following over the years and appreciation from audiences in its screening on television.

Military ranks of the Kingdom of Egypt

The Turco-Egyptian ranks were the military ranks used by the Kingdom of Egypt from 1922 until they were changed in 1958 after the Egyptian Revolution of 1952 and the abolition of the monarchy. The names are Turco-Egyptian (i.e. derived from Ottoman Turkish and Arabic), and are derived at least in part from the pre-existing military structure developed out of the reforms of Muhammad Ali Pasha. The design of the rank insignia was completely British with high ranks given only to British officers during Britain's occupation of Egypt. The rank of Sirdar was given to the British Commander-in-Chief of the Egyptian Army.

Mohamed Abdel Ghani el-Gamasy

Mohamed Abdel Ghani el-Gamasy (Arabic: محمد عبد الغني الجمسي‎, 9 September 1921 – 7 June 2003) was an Egyptian Field Marshal (Mushir) and The Commander in Chief of The Armed Forces.

Moshir od-Dowleh

Moshir od-Dowleh, also transliterated as Moshir al-Dowleh (Persian: مشیرالدوله‎), is the title of several Iranian politicians of the Qajar era:

Mirza Hosein Khan Moshir od-Dowleh

Mirza Nasrullah Khan Naini

Hassan Pirnia


Mushir-ul-Haq was Vice Chancellor of Kashmir University and was murdered in Srinagar in 1990. He was kidnapped on 6 April 1990, together with his personal secretary Abdul Gani Zargar, and their bodies were found on 10 April 1990. The Jammu Kashmir Students Liberation Front claimed responsibility. He obtained his PhD from McGill University and later taught at Aligarh Muslim University and Jamia Millia Islamia. Mushir-ul-Haq wrote several books namely - Religion and Politics in Muslim India (1857-1947): A Study, Muslim politics in modern India 1857-1947 (1970), Indian Muslims' Attitude to the British in the Early Nineteenth Century, and Islam in Secular India (1972).

In April 2009, the Special Court under the Terrorist and Disruptive Activities (Prevention) Act (TADA) in Jammu acquitted those charged with Mushir-ul-Haq's murder after a trial which had lasted nineteen years. The Presiding Officer ruled that one confession was inadmissible and expressed doubts about the voluntary nature of others. In the absence of any corroborating evidence he dismissed the charges against all of the accused.


Samundar is an Indian film directed by Rahul Rawail and produced by Mushir-Riaz released in 1986. The movie stars Sunny Deol, Poonam Dhillon, Amrish Puri, Navin Nischol.

Shakti (1982 film)

Shakti (English: Strength) is a 1982 Indian Bollywood crime drama action film, directed by Ramesh Sippy, written by the famous writing duo Salim-Javed, and produced by Mushir-Riaz. It stars Dilip Kumar, Amitabh Bachchan, Raakhee, Smita Patil, and Amrish Puri, with Anil Kapoor in a special appearance. Shakti was notable for being the first and only film to feature veteran actors Dilip Kumar and Amitabh Bachchan together on screen.Considered to be one of the greatest films in the history of Indian cinema, it went on to win four Filmfare Awards, which were Best Film, Best Screenplay, Best Sound Editing, and Best Actor, which was awarded to Dilip Kumar.

Dilip Kumar was awarded the Filmfare Best Actor Award and Sippy stated “He (Bachchan) was underplayed and intense. I don’t think anyone else could’ve played the role the way Mr. Bachchan did. He had to play a hurt and wounded son". The core storyline was loosely based on the 1974 Tamil movie Thanga Pathakkam whose Hindi remake version Farz Aur Kanoon released just two months before this movie.

Virasat (1997 film)

Virasat (English: Inheritance) is a 1997 Indian Hindi film, directed by Priyadarshan. The story was written by Kamal Haasan and adapted from the Tamil film Thevar Magan. Mushir-Riaz duo produced the film. It stars Anil Kapoor, Tabu, Amrish Puri, Pooja Batra, Milind Gunaji and Govind Namdeo. The music was composed by Anu Malik and S. P. Venkatesh, with the former composing the songs and the latter composing the score. The film marked the comeback for Priyadarshan in Hindi cinema. Music director Annu Malik reused some of the original tunes of Ilaiyaraaja from Thevar Magan. Tabu has done beatboxing in this movie for the song Payalay Chunmun.

Virasat received eleven nominations at the 43rd Filmfare Awards, including Best Film, Best Director for Priyadarshan, Best Actor for Kapoor, Best Actress for Tabu, and Best Supporting Actress & Best Female Debut for Batra, and won in seven categories, including Best Film (Critics), Best Actor (Critics) for Kapoor, Best Actress (Critics) for Tabu, Best Supporting Actor for Puri, and Best Story for Haasan. With worldwide earnings of over ₹43 crore (US$6.2 million), Virasat emerged as one of the highest-grossing Bollywood films of 1997.


Zabardast (meaning "dexterous" in Hindi) is a 1985 Indian Hindi film, directed by Nasir Hussain, with his nephew Aamir Khan as assistant director, and produced by Mushir-Riaz. The film stars Sunny Deol, Sanjeev Kumar, Jaya Prada, Rajiv Kapoor, Rati Agnihotri and Amrish Puri. This was Hussain's final film.

Star officer grades
By star ranks
By titles


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