Muscoidea

Muscoidea is a superfamily of flies in the subsection Calyptratae. Muscoidea, with approximately 7000 described species, is nearly 5% of the known species level diversity of the Diptera, the true flies. Most muscoid flies are saprophagous, coprophagous or necrophagous as larvae, but some species are parasitic, predatory, or phytophagous.

Muscoidea
Anthomyia pluvialis01
Anthomyia pluvialis
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Arthropoda
Class: Insecta
Order: Diptera
(unranked): Eremoneura
(unranked): Cyclorrhapha
Section: Schizophora
Subsection: Calyptratae
Superfamily: Muscoidea
Families

References

Ding, S., Li, X., Wang, N., Cameron, S. L., Mao, M., Wang, Y., . . . Yang, D. (2015). The Phylogeny and Evolutionary Timescale of Muscoidea (Diptera: Brachycera: Calyptratae) Inferred from Mitochondrial Genomes. PLOS One,10(7), 1-17. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0134170

Adia (fly)

Adia is a genus of flies in the family Anthomyiidae.

Adia cinerella

Adia cinerella is a species of fly in the genus Adia. They are distributed from Yukon Territory to Greenland, Mexico, Georgia, the Bermuda islands and Europe.

Anthomyia

Anthomyia is a genus of flies in the family Anthomyiidae. They look rather like small houseflies, but commonly have conspicuous black-and-white patterning. This appears to be a mild form of aposematic coloration, though they do not appear to be distasteful unless they have eaten something offensive to the predator and have loaded their guts with it.

Anthomyiidae

The Anthomyiidae are a large and diverse family of Muscoidea flies. Most look rather like small houseflies, but are commonly drab grey. The genus Anthomyia, in contrast, is generally conspicuously patterned in black-and-white or black-and-silvery-grey. Most are difficult to identify, apart from a few groups such as the kelp flies that are conspicuous on beaches.

The name Anthomyiidae was derived from Greek anthos (flower) plus myia (a fly). Some species are commonly called "root-maggots", as the larvae are found in the stems and roots of various plants. As larvae, some also feed on decaying plant material. The well-known grey "seaweed flies" or "kelp flies" (Fucellia) are examples. Others are scavengers in such places as birds' nests; yet other species are leaf miners; the family also includes inquilines, commensals, and parasitic larvae.

Some species in the family are significant agricultural pests, particularly some from the genus Delia, which includes the onion fly (D. antiqua), the wheat bulb fly (D. coarctata), the turnip root fly (D. floralis), the bean seed fly (D. platura), and the cabbage root fly (D. radicum).

Botanophila

Botanophila is a genus of flies of the family Anthomyiidae.

Calyptratae

Calyptratae is a subsection of Schizophora in the insect order Diptera, commonly referred to as the calyptrate muscoids (or simply calyptrates). It consists of those flies which possess a calypter that covers the halteres, among which are some of the most familiar of all flies, such as the house fly.

About 18,000 described species are in this group, or about 12% of all the flies yet described.

Chirosia

Chirosia is a genus of root-maggot flies in the family Anthomyiidae. There are over fifty described species in Chirosia.

Coenosia

Coenosia is a very large genus of true flies of the family Muscidae.

Cordilura

Cordilura is a genus of dung flies in the family Scathophagidae. There are at least 90 described species in Cordilura.

Euryomma (fly)

Euryomma is a genus of species of flies of the family Fanniidae. The genus was originally proposed by the entomologist Paul Stein in 1899. Although at that time most authorities placed them in the family Muscidae. The distribution of Euryomma is mainly Neotropical, on the whole restricted to the Americas, there is also one Nearctic species, the exception being of the very cosmopolitan E. peregrinum (Meigen, 1826)

Eutrichota

Eutrichota is a genus of flies within the family Anthomyiidae.

Graphomya

Graphomya is a genus of true flies of the family Muscidae.

Hylemya

Hylemya is a genus of root-maggot flies in the family Anthomyiidae. There are at least 30 described species in Hylemya.

Muscidae

Muscidae are a family of flies found in the superfamily Muscoidea.

Muscidae, some of which are commonly known as house flies or stable flies due to their synanthropy, are worldwide in distribution and contain almost 4,000 described species in over 100 genera.

Most species are not synanthropic. Adults can be predatory, hematophagous, saprophagous, or feed on a number of types of plant and animal exudates. They can be attracted to various substances including sugar, sweat, tears [1] and blood. Larvae occur in various habitats including decaying vegetation, dry and wet soil, nests of insects and birds, fresh water, and carrion.

The housefly, Musca domestica, is the best known and most important species.

Some, from the genera Hydrotaea and Muscina, are involved in forensic case studies.

Muscomorpha

The Brachyceran infraorder Muscomorpha is a large and diverse group of flies, containing the bulk of the Brachycera, and, most of the known flies. It includes a number of the most familiar flies, such as the housefly, the fruit fly, and the blow fly. The antennae are short, usually three-segmented, with a dorsal arista. Their bodies are often highly setose, and the pattern of setae is often taxonomically important.

The larvae of muscomorphs (in the sense the name is used here; see below) have reduced head capsules, and the pupae are formed inside the exoskeleton of the last larval instar; exit from this puparium is by a circular line of weakness, and this pupal type is called "cyclorrhaphous"; this feature gives this group of flies their traditional name, Cyclorrhapha.

Norellia

The genus Norellia are small to medium sized predatory flies. Most of the species formally placed in this genus are now in the genus Norellisoma.

Scathophagidae

Not to be confused with Scatophagidae, a fish family.

The Scathophagidae are a small family of Muscoidea which are often known as dung flies, although this name is not appropriate except for a few species of the genus Scathophaga which do indeed pass their larval stages in animal dung. The name probably derives from the yellow dung fly, S. stercoraria, which is one of the most abundant and ubiquitous flies in many parts of the Northern Hemisphere.

Scathophaginae

Scathophaginae is a subfamily of dung flies in the family Scathophagidae. There are at least 30 genera and 130 described species in Scathophaginae.

Schizophora

The Schizophora are a section of true flies containing 78 families, which are collectively referred to as muscoids, although technically the term "muscoid" should be limited to flies in the superfamily Muscoidea; this is an example of informal, historical usage persisting in the vernacular. The section is divided into two subsections, the Acalyptratae and Calyptratae, which are commonly referred to as acalyptrate muscoids and calyptrate muscoids, respectively.

The defining feature of the Schizophora is the presence of a special structure used to help the emerging adult fly break free of the puparium; this structure is an inflatable membranous sac called the ptilinum that protrudes from the face, above the antennae. The inflation of the ptilinum (using fluid hemolymph rather than air) creates pressure along the line of weakness in the puparium, which then bursts open along the seam to allow the adult to escape. When the adult emerges, the fluid is withdrawn, the ptilinum collapses, and the membrane retracts entirely back inside the head. The large, inverted, "U"-shaped suture in the face through which it came, however, is still quite visible, and the name "Schizophora" ("split-bearers") is derived from this ptilinal or frontal suture. The term was first used by Eduard Becher.

In contrast to eggs of other arthropods, most insect eggs are drought-resistant, because inside the maternal chorion, two additional membranes develop from embryonic tissue, the amnion and the serosa. This serosa secretes a cuticle rich in chitin that protects the embryo against desiccation. In the Schizophora, however, the serosa does not develop, but these flies lay their eggs in damp places, such as rotting organic matter.

Extant Diptera families

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