|Musée des Beaux-Arts de Dijon|
|Location||Palace of the Dukes of Burgundy|
Being one of the oldest museums in France, the Museum of Fine Arts in Dijon was founded in 1787 during the Age of Enlightenment. It is known for its collections in relation with the dukes of Burgundy, for the richness of its encyclopedic collections stretching from Egyptian art to the 20th century as well as the historical interest of the building that holds them, the Palace of the Dukes of Burgundy.
The history of the Fine Arts Museum goes back to the creation of the art school by François Devosge in 1766.
His collections, which have been presented within the Museum since 1787, represent the beginnings of the museum’s collections. It was initially made up of two rooms, the Statues Room – intended for sculpture, and the Salon Condé – for paintings, which celebrate the glory of the Condés, governors of Burgundy.
It is located in the former palace of the Dukes of Burgundy and in the eastern part of the Palace of the Estates.
The museum opened its doors to the public in 1799 and gradually spread out within the palace being enriched by imperial grants, deposits by the State, donations and legacies.
As one of the largest museums of France, le Musée des Beaux-Arts de Dijon is known for its rich collections of sculptures, paintings, art objects and various other items from the past.
Among the attractions of the museum, you can find the tombs of Philippe le Hardi and Jean sans Peur, a collection of German and Swiss primitives (the most important in France) and a collection of French paintings, rich in artists dating back to the time of Louis XIV, not forgetting the collection of contemporary art.
The museum also holds extra-European collections, such as ceramic and Islamic glasses, weapons and oriental caskets, ancient ivories of Africa, everyday objects and African ceremonial masks, Chinese and Japanese porcelains, Korean stoneware, Tibetan and Indian sculptures and pre-Columbian ceramics.
The museum holds a large and varied collection of art:
Allegory of Chastity is a c.1505 oil on panel painting by Lorenzo Lotto.Cadaver Tomb of René of Chalon
The Cadaver Tomb of René of Chalon (French: Transi de René de Chalon, also known as the Memorial to the Heart of René de Chalon or The Skeleton) is a late Gothic period funerary monument, known as a transi, in the church of Saint-Étienne at Bar-le-Duc, in northeastern France. It consists of an altarpiece and a limestone statue of a putrefied and skinless corpse which stands upright and extends his left hand outwards. Completed sometime between 1544 and 1557, the majority of its construction is attributed to the French sculptor Ligier Richier. Other elements, including the coat of arms and funeral drapery, were added in the 16th and 18th centuries respectively.
The tomb dates from a period of societal anxiety over death, as plague, war and religious conflicts ravaged Europe. It was commissioned as the resting place of René of Chalon, Prince of Orange, son-in-law of Duke Antoine of Lorraine. René was killed aged 25 at the siege of St. Dizier on 15 July 1544, from a wound sustained the previous day. Richier presents him as an écorché, with his skin and muscles decayed, leaving him reduced to a skeleton. This apparently fulfilled his deathbed wish that his tomb depict his body as it would be three years after his death. His left arm is raised as if gesturing towards heaven. Supposedly, at one time his heart was held in a reliquary placed in the hand of the figure's raised arm. Unusually for contemporaneous objects of this type, his skeleton is standing, making it a "living corpse", an innovation that was to become highly influential. The tomb effigy is positioned above the carved marble and limestone altarpiece.
Designated a Monument historique on 18 June 1898, the tomb was moved for safekeeping to the Panthéon in Paris during the First World War, before being returned to Bar-le-Duc in 1920. Both the statue and altarpiece underwent extensive restoration between 1998 and 2003. Replicas of the statue are in the Musée Barrois in Bar-le-Duc and the Palais de Chaillot, Paris.Charles Balthazar Julien Févret de Saint-Mémin
Charles Balthazar Julien Févret de Saint-Mémin (1770–1852) was a portraitist and museum director. He fled France during the revolution, and worked as a portrait engraver in the United States in the early 19th century. He created portraits from life of George Washington, Thomas Jefferson, and others. He later served as museum director in Dijon.Félix Trutat
Félix Trutat (27 February 1824, Dijon - 7 March 1848, Dijon) was a French painter, known primarily for portraits and nudes.Jacques de Baerze
Jacques de Baerze (active before 1384, died after 1399) was a Flemish sculptor in wood, two of whose major carved altarpieces survive in Dijon, now in France, then the capital of the Duchy of Burgundy.
De Baerze probably came from Ghent, and lived in Dendermonde (Termonde in French) some thirty kilometres away, which is also not far from Antwerp and Brussels. He was clearly a well-established master before the death in January 1384 of the local ruler, Louis II of Flanders, Duke of Brabant, as two commissions from Louis to produce carved altarpieces are recorded, though the works have not survived. These were for the chapel of the castle of Dendermonde, and the hospice of the Cistercian abbey of Bijloke, then just outside Ghent.These works were noticed by Philip the Bold, Duke of Burgundy, Louis' son-in-law and successor as Count of Flanders. In 1385 Philip had founded a Carthusian monastery, the Charterhouse of Champmol, then just outside Dijon, as the dynastic burial-place of the Burgundian Valois, and was filling it with impressive works of art. In 1390, he commissioned de Baerze to create two similar altarpieces for Champmol: one, now known as the Altar of Saints and Martyrs for the chapter house, and the larger, now known as the Retable of the Crucifixion, for the main altar of the church. Both are triptychs with hinged wings, carved on the interior, but the exterior panels, showing when the wings were closed, were to be painted by his court artist Melchior Broederlam (another Fleming who also previously worked for Louis) — a common arrangement for a grand altarpiece. These painted outer panels only survive for the larger of the two retables. The triptychs would normally be shown closed, displaying the paintings, but opened to show the carvings for feast days.
The iconography of the two artists' elements was designed to complement each other, with a painted sequence of scenes from the Infancy of Christ and within, carved scenes of the Adoration of the Magi, the Crucifixion in the centre, and the Entombment of Christ, flanked by saints on the inside of the side-panels. Above there is elaborate Gothic tracery with small figures of saints and angels. The whole of both works is either gilded or painted. The Altar of Saints and Martyrs is 159 cm high, and 252 cm wide with the wings open. For the Retable of the Crucifixion the equivalent figures are 167 cm and 252 cm.The retables were transported to Dijon from Dendermonde in August 1391, but were returned to Flanders a year later. There, the painting and gilding was finished by Broederlam at his studio in Ypres; guild regulations usually mandated that the carving and painting or guilding were performed by members of different guilds. They were returned to Champmol, approved by a committee including Claus Sluter, and installed by the end of 1399, after which de Baerze disappears from documented records.
The altarpieces were moved after the French Revolution to the Musée des Beaux-Arts de Dijon, along with the Broederlam panels, which now, unlike at the time of their creation, receive more attention than the carvings, as they are of great significance in the development of Early Netherlandish painting, and painting is generally of greater interest to modern art historians than sculpture. De Baerze's two retables are probably the earliest Netherlandish examples to survive complete, although there were evidently many more such works in existence by this date, and the form probably developed first in the Low Countries. With hardly any works from the period to compare to those in Dijon, it is hard to assess the originality of de Baerze, or his place in the tradition, though he clearly participates in the International Gothic style of the period. Presumably most of his work was for local churches and religious houses. In fact the iconoclasm after the Reformation was so destructive of Netherlandish wood-carved altars that only a few fragments survive there from the following eighty years, while Germany has many examples.Other smaller carvings attributed to de Baerze survive, including the 28 cm high figure from an altar crucifix which formed part of the Champmol commission, now in the Art Institute of Chicago, and a St George in the Mimara Museum in Zagreb.Jean-Baptiste d'Huez
Jean-Baptiste Cyprien d'Huez (1728 – 27 October 1793) was a French sculptor.Jean-Jacques Caffieri
Jean-Jacques Caffieri (29 April 1725 - 22 June 1792) was a French sculptor. He was appointed sculpteur du Roi to Louis XV and later afforded lodgings in the Galeries du Louvre. He designed the fine rampe d'escalier which still adorns the Palais Royal. He is better known for his portrait busts, in terracotta or marble: his bust of Madame du Barry is at the Hermitage Museum, St Petersburg. He made a name with his busts of Pierre Corneille and Jean Racine for the foyer of the Comédie Française.Jean Tassel
Jean Tassel (20 March 1608, Langres - 6 April 1667, Langres) was a French painter who specialized in mythological and genre scenes. He also did some portraits.Jean de la Huerta
Jean de la Huerta (1413–1462) was a Spanish sculptor.
De la Huerta remained relatively unknown until the end of the 20th century, uncovered by the research of the Musée des Beaux-Arts de Dijon in 1972. In collaboration with Antoine Le Moiturier, he sculpted the tombs for Duke John the Fearless and Margaret of Bavaria, which currently reside at the Palace of the Dukes of Burgundy. The job was originally assigned to the workshop of Claus Sluter, but went to Le Moiturier and De la Huerta.List of works by François Rude
Famous above all for the iconic sculpture "La Marseillaise" on the Arc de Triomphe de l’Étoile, François Rude was born in Dijon on 4 January 1781, the son of a coppersmith/locksmith. Apprenticed to his father, an injury made him unsuitable for forge-work, leading to his attending François Devosges's famous École de Dessin in Dijon where he was soon to show his artistic talent. He developed a relationship with Louis Frémiet, under whose patronage he began to study in 1805 with Pierre Cartellier in Paris at the studio of Edme Gaulle. By 1809 his work began to be noticed, winning him several awards. In 1815, having saved enough money, he left Paris for Rome, but due to political conditions, he ended up in Brussels once again living with the Frémiets. Whilst in Brussels he married Sophie Frémiet, an accomplished painter and they were to become a formidable force in the art world. In Brussels he executed his first bust of Louis David, gaining him much notice. They returned to Paris in 1827 where they remained until his death on 3 November 1855.Madame Georges Anthony and Her Two Sons
Madame Georges Anthony and Her Two Sons is a 1796 oil on canvas group portrait by Pierre-Paul Prud'hon, now in the Museum of Fine Arts of Lyon, which acquired it in 1892.
Two years earlier he had fled Paris to escape the Thermidorian Reaction following Robespierre's fall. He took refuge in a family home at Rigny near Gray occupied by the postmaster Georges Anthony, his wife Louise (née Demandre) and their children. As a thank-you for their hospitality, Prud'hon painted this work and a portrait of Georges beside a horse (musée des Beaux-Arts de Dijon), both completed in 1796, the year he left their home. During the restoration of the musée des Beaux-Arts de Dijon in 2016 the paintings were briefly reunited in Lyon.Melchior Broederlam
Melchior Broederlam (born Ypres, perhaps c. 1350; died Ypres?, after 1409) was one of the earliest Early Netherlandish painters to whom surviving works can be confidently attributed. He worked mostly for Philip the Bold, Duke of Burgundy, and is documented from 1381 to 1409. Although only a single large pair of panel paintings can confidently be attributed to him, no history of Western painting can neglect his contribution.Nativity (Campin)
Nativity is a 1420 panel painting by the Early Netherlandish painter Robert Campin. As often, the moment shown is the adoration of the shepherds. Harshly realistic, the Child Jesus and his parents are shown in poverty, the figures crowded in a small structure, with broken-down walls, and a thatched roof with a hole, the single space shared with animals. In this Campin abandons the traditional narrative.The Virgin is presented as in her teens, Joseph as a much older man. Four angels hover above them, holding gifts. Two of them hold a banner with lettering addressed to midwives in the lower portion of the panel; it reads "Tangue puerum et sanabaris" (touch the child and you shall be healed). From the little record of Campin, he was a significant pioneer and innovator of painting, and here his appeal is to the poverty of the Holy Family. His skill with oil paint is reflected in the positioning of the central figures in the extreme foreground, giving the panel a very tight and focused feel, despite the highly detailed background details and landscape. The hut is slanted compared to the outline of the frame, a device later adopted by Rogier van der Weyden in his Bladelin Altarpiece.Campin places a landscape complete with a view of a lake beyond of the stable, just above the two midwives. Reinforcing the idea of redemption, Salome is given a prominent position, facing outwards towards the viewer in the mid foreground.The panel is housed in the Musée des Beaux-Arts de Dijon.Olivier Meslay
Olivier Meslay is the Hardymon Director of the Clark Art Institute. He is the fifth director of the Clark.Palace of the Dukes of Burgundy
The Palace of the Dukes and Estates of Burgundy or Palais des ducs et des États de Bourgogne is a remarkably well-preserved architectural assemblage in Dijon. The oldest part is the 14th and 15th century Gothic ducal palace and seat of the Dukes of Burgundy, made up of a logis still visible on place de la Liberation, the ducal kitchens on cour de Bar, the tour de Philippe le Bon, a "guette" overlooking the whole city, and tour de Bar. Most of what can be seen today, however, was built in the 17th and especially the 18th centuries, in a classical style, when the palace was a royal residence building and housed the estates of Burgundy. Finally, the 19th façade of the musée on place de la Sainte-Chapelle was added on the site of the palace's Sainte-Chapelle, demolished in 1802. The Palace houses the city's town hall and the musée des Beaux-Arts.Pierre Petitot
Pierre Petitot (December 11, 1760 in Langres – November 7, 1840 in Paris) was a French sculptor.Petitot initially studied under Claude François Devosge at the École des Beaux-Arts in Dijon. In 1788 he won the first major sculpture prize founded by the States of Burgundy, which allowed him to travel and stay in Rome. His award-winning statue was on display in the Musée des Beaux-Arts de Dijon. After he returned to France, he was imprisoned as a suspect and it was 27 July 1794. He regularly exhibited at the Salon (Paris) until 1819. He worked with Pierre Cartellier and Joseph Espercieux. The Museum of Dijon has an oil on canvas portrait he executed of the artist Pierre-Paul Prud'hon, and The Louvre also contains some of his works.Raymond Rochette
Raymond Rochette (May 25, 1906 – December 26, 1993) was a French painter.Tjesraperet
Tjesraperet (ṯs-rˁ-pr.t, "May Ra grant progeny") was the wet nurse of a daughter of the Nubian king Taharqo. She is mainly known from her burial which was found undisturbed.
The burial of Tjesraperet was discovered in Thebes on the 20 May 1829 by an expedition under Jean-Francois Champollion and Ippolito Rosellini. The tomb not only contained her burial but also that of her alleged husband Djedkhonsuefankh who was God's Father of Amun and Lesonis of the temple of Khons. Tjesraperet was also lady of the house and wet nurse of Taharqo's daughter. The name of Taharqo's daughter is not known. Most of the objects found were brought to Italy and are now in the National Archaeological Museum of Florence. The tomb was found in the early years of archaeology. Therefore, the recording and publication of the tomb is very brief and it is today problematic to reconstruct the original contents.
The following objects are known from the tomb: box shaped outer coffin of Tjesraperet, inner anthropoid coffin and a fragment of the second anthropoid coffin of the wet nurse, stela of Djedkhonsuefankh with gilded figures, a mirror with mirror case, a kohl pot with stick. These objects are now all in Florence. Some other objects are known to have arrived in France, as the stela of Tjesraperet now in the Louvre Museum and the Ptah-Sokar-Osiris figure in her name, which has been identified in the Musée des Beaux-Arts de Dijon. Other artifacts from the tomb are described in the old publication but are not yet identified in any modern collection. Perhaps they are still in Egypt: a basket with eggs, a clay pot with grain, the coffin of Djedkhonsuefankh, four canopic jars, another statue of Ptah-Sokar-Osiris, three clay boxes with shabtis, a jackal figure and sparrow-hawk statuettes.Tomb of Philip the Bold
The Tomb of Philip the Bold is a funerary monument commissioned by the Duke of Burgundy Philip the Bold (d. 1404) for his burial at Chartreuse de Champmol. The monument was primarily built by Claus Sluter, with contributions by Jean de Marville and Claus de Werve. Jean Malouel, official painter to the duke, is responsible design aspets. Today it is housed in the Musée des Beaux-Arts de Dijon. The tomb was influential; Jean, Duke of Berry commissioned a similar work for his own burial, and it inspired the well known Mourners of Dijon, crafted a generation later.
The monument is made from alabaster, marble, gilt and paint. It shows Philip's sarcophagus effigy in repose with his hands upright and clasped in prayer. An angel with gilded wings holds a cushion for his head. He rests on a black marble slab, with a lion at his feet. Below him are 41 pleurants standing in pairs in Gothic niches, arranged in a mourning procession. Philip acquired the domain of Champmol, near Dijon, in 1378 to build the Carthusian monastery Chartreuse de Champmol, which he intended to house the tombs of his dynasty. He was buried in its choir on 16 June 1404, with his organs sent to the church of Saint Martin at Halle. In 1792, his body was re-interred at Dijon Cathedral. The following year his tomb was damaged by revolutionaries and looters. It was restored in the first half of the 19th century.