Murano

Murano is a series of islands linked by bridges in the Venetian Lagoon, northern Italy. It lies about 1.5 kilometres (0.9 miles) north of Venice and measures about 1.5 km (0.9 mi) across with a population of just over 5,000 (2004 figures).[1] It is famous for its glass making. It was once an independent comune, but is now a frazione of the comune of Venice.

Murano
Murano sunset
Rio dei Vetrai, Murano (2015)
Murano is located in Italy
Murano
Murano
Geography
Coordinates- 45°27′23″N 12°21′11″E / 45.456339°N 12.353077°ECoordinates: 45°27′23″N 12°21′11″E / 45.456339°N 12.353077°E
Adjacent bodies of waterVenetian Lagoon
Administration
RegionVeneto
ProvinceProvince of Venice

History

Murano-view
View from a bridge on Murano, overlooking the Canal Grande di Murano

Murano was initially settled by the Romans and from the sixth century by people from Altinum and Oderzo. At first, the island prospered as a fishing port and through its production of salt. It was also a centre for trade through the port it controlled on Sant'Erasmo. From the eleventh century, it began to decline as islanders moved to Dorsoduro. It had a Grand Council, like that of Venice, but from the thirteenth century, Murano was ultimately governed by a podestà from Venice. Unlike the other islands in the Lagoon, Murano minted its own coins.

Early in the second millennium hermits of the Camaldolese Order occupied one of the islands, seeking a place of solitude for their way of life. There they founded the Monastery of St. Michael (Italian: S. Michele di Murano). This monastery became a great center of learning and printing. The famous cartographer, Fra Mauro, whose maps were crucial to the European exploration of the world, was a monk of this community. The monastery was suppressed in 1810 by French forces under Napoleon, in the course of their conquest of the Italian peninsula, and the monks were expelled in 1814. The grounds then became Venice's major cemetery.

In 1291, all the glassmakers in Venice were forced to move to Murano due to the risk of fires.[2] In the following century, exports began, and the island became famous, initially for glass beads and mirrors. Aventurine glass was invented on the island, and for a while Murano was the main producer of glass in Europe. The island later became known for chandeliers. Although decline set in during the eighteenth century, glassmaking is still the island's main industry.

In the fifteenth century, the island became popular as a resort for Venetians, and palaces were built, but this later declined. The countryside of the island was known for its orchards and vegetable gardens until the nineteenth century, when more housing was built.

Attractions on the island include the Church of Santa Maria e San Donato (known for its twelfth-century Byzantine mosaic pavement and said to house the bones of the dragon slain by Saint Donatus in the 4th century), the church of San Pietro Martire with the chapel of the Ballarin family built in 1506 and artworks by Giovanni Bellini, and the Palazzo da Mula. Glass-related attractions include the many glassworks, some Mediaeval and most open to the public, and the Murano Glass Museum, housed in the large Palazzo Giustinian.

Murano glassmaking

Murano making a Glass Horse
Glass making in Murano
Lampadario in vetro di Murano - Ca' Rezzonico, Venice
Chandelier in Murano glass

Murano’s reputation as a center for glassmaking was born when the Venetian Republic, fearing fire and the destruction of the city’s mostly wooden buildings, ordered glassmakers to move their furnaces to Murano in 1291. Murano glass is still associated with Venetian glass.

Murano's glassmakers were soon numbered among the island’s most prominent citizens. By the fourteenth century, glassmakers were allowed to wear swords, enjoyed immunity from prosecution by the Venetian state and found their daughters married into Venice’s most affluent families. While benefiting from certain statutory privileges, glassmakers were forbidden to leave the Republic. However, many of them took the risks associated with migration and established glass furnaces in surrounding cities and farther afield — sometimes in England and the Netherlands.

Murano’s glassmakers held a monopoly on high-quality glassmaking for centuries, developing or refining many technologies including optically clear glass, enameled glass (smalto), glass with threads of gold (aventurine), multicolored glass (millefiori), milk glass (lattimo), and imitation gemstones made of glass. Today, the artisans of Murano still employ these centuries-old techniques, crafting everything from contemporary art glass and glass jewelry to Murano glass chandeliers and wine stoppers.

Venice kept protecting the secret of the production of glass and of crystal but, notwithstanding it, the Republic partially lost its monopoly at the end of the sixteenth century, because of some glass makers who let the secret be known in many European countries.

Today, Murano is home to the Museo del Vetro or Murano Glass Museum in the Palazzo Giustinian, which holds displays on the history of glassmaking as well as glass samples ranging from Egyptian times through the present day.[3]

Some of the companies that own historical glass factories in Murano are among the most important brands of glass in the world. These companies include Venini, Alessandro Mandruzzato Ferro Murano, Barovier & Toso, Simone Cenedese [1] and Seguso. In order to protect the original Murano Glass art from foreign markets, the most famous Glass Factories of this island have a trademark that certifies glass made products on the island of Murano.

The oldest Murano glass factory that is still active today is that of Pauly & C. – Compagnia Venezia Murano, founded in 1866.

Government protection

As part of a broader view of protection and enhancement of typical and traditional Veneto product manufacturing and marketing, the Veneto Region protects and promotes the designation of origin of artistic glassworks created on the island of Murano, since glasswork is an inherent part of Venetian historical and cultural heritage.

The "Vetro Artistico Murano" trademark, filed and registered at the European Office for Harmonisation in Alicante, no. 00481812, has been established and is regulated by Regional Law no. 70, 1994.

Link to Warsaw

In the seventeenth century, the Murano-born Simone Giuseppe Belotti (in Polish, Szymon Józef Bellotti) became Royal Architect to the King of Poland and took part in designing some of Warsaw's most important landmarks (pl:Józef Szymon Bellotti). The palace he built for himself was named after his native island, "Muranów" — a Polish pronunciation of "Murano". This palace eventually gave its name to the entire surrounding district. Muranów was and remains one of Warsaw's most well known areas, especially associated with the city's Jewish history.

Geography

Murano is composed of seven islands in the Venetian Lagoon, linked by bridges over eight channels.

Isole di murano
The seven individual islands of Murano
Rii di Murano
The eight channels separating the islands of Murano

Economy

Vaporetti Venice Lagoon
Numerous tourists take a vaporetto from Venice to visit Murano

Weakness in the economy has affected Murano but some 260 companies remain in operation, employing 1,100 staff members (2016 data) and the island receives numerous tourists.[4][5]

See also

Notes

On 8 July 1797 was published the first comprehensive history book "Notizie Istorico-geografiche Murano", 1797. about the history of Murano.

  1. ^ Venice, the tourist maze, p. 171, Robert Charles Davis, Garry Marvin, 2004
  2. ^ Lucartha Kohler Glass: An Artist's Medium ISBN 0-87341-604-X p. 12
  3. ^ "Murano. The island of glass". Venicewinetour.com. Retrieved 16 February 2019.
  4. ^ "Murano glass museum marks the rebirth of four earthquake-damaged chandeliers". 24o.it. Retrieved 16 February 2019.
  5. ^ Glennen, Callum. "Murano's merchants of Venice". Businessdestinations.com. Retrieved 16 February 2019.

External links

Nissan Murano

The Nissan Murano is a front engine, five door mid-size crossover manufactured and marketed by Nissan since May 2002 as a model for 2003, and now in its third generation — with a convertible variant, the CrossCabriolet, available for the model years of 2011 to 2014.

As Nissan's first crossover SUV for the United States and Canada, the Murano was designed at Nissan America in La Jolla, California, and was based on the Nissan FF-L platform shared with the third generation Altima. The single European version of the Murano began sales in 2004.The Murano was Nissan's only crossover SUV in the United States until September 2007, when the 2008 Nissan Rogue went on sale. In Canada the X-Trail had been on sale as Nissan's second car based SUV since 2004 as a model for 2005; it was replaced by the new 2008 Nissan Rogue at the end of 2007. The Murano is sized between the Pathfinder and the now defunct Xterra (Now replaced by the Rogue as a compact SUV).

The nameplate Murano derives from the Italian city of Murano and the namesake Murano art glass for which the city is widely known.

Pauly

Pauly, a.k.a. The Pauly Shore Show, is an American sitcom series that aired on Fox from March 3 until April 7, 1997, starring Pauly Shore. It was cancelled after five episodes, leaving two episodes unaired.

Venetian glass

Venetian glass is thought to have been made for over 1,500 years, and production has been concentrated on the Venetian island of Murano since the 13th century. Today Murano is known for its art glass, but it has a long history of innovations in glassmaking in addition to its artistic fame—and was Europe's first major glassmaking center. During the 15th century, Murano glassmakers created cristallo—which was almost transparent and considered the finest glass in the world. Murano glassmakers also developed a white-colored glass (milk glass called lattimo) that looked like porcelain. They later became Europe's finest makers of mirrors.

Originally, Venice was controlled by the Byzantine Empire, but it eventually became an independent city state. It flourished as a trading center and seaport. Its connections with the Middle East helped its glassmakers gain additional skills, as glassmaking was more advanced in areas such as Syria and Egypt. Although Venetian glassmaking in factories existed as far back as the 8th Century, it became concentrated in Murano by law, beginning in 1291. Since glass factories often caught fire, this removed much of the possibility of a major fire disaster for the city. Venetian glassmakers developed secret recipes and methods for making glass, and the concentration of Venice's glassmaking on the island of Murano enabled better control of those secrets.

Murano became Europe's elite glassmaking center, peaking in popularity in the 15th and 16th centuries. Venice's dominance in trade along the Mediterranean Sea created a wealthy merchant class that was a strong connoisseur of the arts. This helped establish demand for art glass and more innovations. The spread of glassmaking talent in Europe eventually diminished the importance of Venice and its Murano glassmakers. The occupation and dissolution of the Venetian state by Napoleon Bonaparte in 1797 caused more hardship for Murano's glassmaking industry. Murano glassmaking began a revival in the 1920s. Today, Murano and Venice are tourist attractions, and Murano is home to numerous glass factories and a few individual artists' studios. Its Museo del Vetro (Glass Museum) in the Palazzo Giustinian contains displays on the history of glassmaking as well as glass samples ranging from Egyptian times through the present day.

Islands of the Venetian Lagoon
Northern lagoon
Central group
Southern lagoon

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