Municipality

A municipality is usually a single administrative division having corporate status and powers of self-government or jurisdiction as granted by national and regional laws to which it is subordinate. It is to be distinguished (usually) from the county, which may encompass rural territory or numerous small communities such as towns, villages and hamlets.

The term municipality may also mean the governing or ruling body of a given municipality.[1] A municipality is a general-purpose administrative subdivision, as opposed to a special-purpose district.

The term is derived from French municipalité and Latin municipalis.[2] The English word municipality derives from the Latin social contract municipium (derived from a word meaning "duty holders"), referring to the Latin communities that supplied Rome with troops in exchange for their own incorporation into the Roman state (granting Roman citizenship to the inhabitants) while permitting the communities to retain their own local governments (a limited autonomy).

A municipality can be any political jurisdiction from a sovereign state, such as the Principality of Monaco, to a small village, such as West Hampton Dunes, New York.

The territory over which a municipality has jurisdiction may encompass

Ponce City Hall
The Ponce City Hall, in the city of Ponce, Puerto Rico, is the seat of the government for both the city and the surrounding barrios making up the municipality.
Map of all City Municipalities in Slovenia
Map of all city municipalities in Slovenia

Political powers

Powers of municipalities range from virtual autonomy to complete subordination to the state. Municipalities may have the right to tax individuals and corporations with income tax, property tax, and corporate income tax, but may also receive substantial funding from the state.

In various countries

5 Boroughs Labels New York City Map
New York City as well as its composite five boroughs are all municipalities.
  1. Manhattan
  2. Brooklyn
  3. Queens
  4. The Bronx
  5. Staten Island

In various countries, municipalities are usually referred to as "communes", notably in Romance languages (derived from Latin) such as French commune (France, French-speaking areas of Belgium and Switzerland, French-speaking countries of Africa, e.g. Benin), Italian comune, Romanian comună, and Spanish comuna (Chile), and in Germanic languages such as German Kommune (in political parlance, the official term being Gemeinde), Swedish kommun, Faroese kommuna, and Norwegian, Danish kommune. However, in Moldova and Romania exist both municipalities (municipiu; urban administrative units) and communes (comună; rural units), and a commune may be part of a municipality (see more: communes of Moldova, communes of Romania).

Similar terms include Spanish ayuntamiento, also called municipalidad (cognate to "municipality"), Polish gmina, Dutch/Flemish Gemeente and Luxembourgish Gemeng.

English-speaking

  • In Australia, the term local government area (LGA) is used in place of the generic municipality. Here, the "LGA Structure covers only incorporated areas of Australia. Incorporated areas are legally designated parts of states and territories over which incorporated local governing bodies have responsibility."[4]
  • In Canada, municipalities are local governments established through provincial and territorial legislation, usually within general municipal statutes.[5][6] Types of municipalities within Canada include cities, district municipalities, municipal districts, municipalities, parishes, rural municipalities, towns, townships, villages, and villes among others.[6] The Province of Ontario has different tiers of municipalities, including lower, upper, and single tiers.[7] Types of upper tier municipalities in Ontario include counties and regional municipalities.[7] Nova Scotia also has regional municipalities, which include cities, counties, districts, or towns as municipal units.[8]
  • In India, a Municipality or Nagar Palika is an urban local body that administers a city of population 100,000 or more. However, there are exceptions to that, as previously Municipality were constituted in urban centers with population over 20,000, so all the urban bodies which were previously classified as Municipality were reclassified as Municipality even if their population was under 100,000. Under the Panchayati Raj system, it interacts directly with the state government, though it is administratively part of the district it is located in. Generally, smaller district cities and bigger towns have a Municipality. Municipality are also a form of local self-government entrusted with some duties and responsibilities, as enshrined in the Constitutional (74th Amendment) Act,1992.
  • In the United Kingdom, the term was used until the 1972 Local Government Act came into effect in 1974 in England and Wales, and until 1975 in Scotland and 1976 in Northern Ireland, "both for a city or town which is organized for self-government under a municipal corporation, and also for the governing body itself. Such a corporation in Great Britain consists of a head as a mayor or provost, and of superior members, as aldermen and councillors".[9] Since local government reorganisation, the unit in England, Northern Ireland and Wales is known as a district, and in Scotland as a council area. A district may be awarded borough or city status, or can retain its district title.
  • In Jersey, a municipality refers to the honorary officials elected to run each of the 12 parishes into which it is subdivided. This is the highest level of regional government in this jurisdiction.
  • In Trinidad and Tobago, "municipality" is usually understood as a city, town, or other local government unit, formed by municipal charter from the state as a municipal corporation. A town may be awarded borough status and later on may be upgraded to city status. Chaguanas, San Fernando, Port of Spain, Arima and Point Fortin are the 5 current municipalities in Trinidad and Tobago.
  • In the United States, "municipality" is usually understood as a city, town, village, or other local government unit, formed by municipal charter from the state as a municipal corporation.[10] In a state law context, some U.S. state codes define "municipality" more widely, from the state itself to any political subdivisions given jurisdiction over an area that may include multiple populated places and unpopulated places.[11][12] (See also Political divisions of the United States.)

Chinese-speaking

Municipalities by country

Country Term Example Subdivision of Quantity Notes Further reading
Afghanistan شاروالی یا شهرداری

shārwāli (or shahr-dari)

Provinces of Afghanistan 154 34 'provincial' municipalities of provincial capitals (shārwāli) and 120 rural or 'district' municipalities (shārwāli uluswāli) www.km.gov.af
Albania bashki (urban) or komunë (rural) 61 Municipalities of Albania
Algeria baladiyah daïra (district), which is part of a wilaya (province) 1,541 Municipalities of Algeria
Andorra parròquia Sant Julià de Lòria 7
Argentina municipalidad Puerto Madryn Provinces of Argentina, in some provinces they are a subdivision of departments 2,100 Smallest administrative division; either a city, town, or township Municipalities of Argentina
Austria Gemeinde a state (Bundesland). 1,725 The entire area of Austria is divided into municipalities, with no non-municipal gaps. This leads to some municipalities being very large despite having a small population. Municipality (Austria)
Bangladesh Pouroshabha / Pouroshava Upazila or subdistrict, which is in turn part of a district 311 Municipalities of Bangladesh
Belgium gemeente/commune Montigny-le-Tilleul a province (provincie/province) or of the Brussels-Capital Region 581 The provinces are themselves subdivisions of the Walloon and Flemish Regions which have the authority over the municipalities Municipalities in Belgium
Bolivia municipio Arani Municipality province, which is part of a departamento. 327 (2005) Municipalities of Bolivia
Bosnia and Herzegovina općina or opština in Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina : of a canton (kanton). In Republika Srpska, municipality is first order of government after entity government. 144 Municipalities of Bosnia and Herzegovina
Brazil município São Paulo (most populous), Borá (least populous) states (estados) 5,570 Smallest administrative subdivision. Not used in the Federal District or the Fernando de Noronha and St. Peter and St. Paul archipelagos, but encompasses all other territories nationwide Municipalities of Brazil
Brunei bandaran Bandar Seri Begawan 4 Independent of subdivisions; nevertheless overlap with mukims and villages Municipalities of Brunei
Bulgaria Bulgarian: община, Bulgarian: obshtina Aksakovo Municipality an oblast 264 Municipalities of Bulgaria
Cambodia ក្រុង (krong) Phnom Penh 1446
Chile municipalidad Torres del Paine provinces 346 Specifically the administrative body, while subdivisions are comunas; most municipalities administer one comuna each, but occasional municipalities administer more
China 直辖市 Beijing 4 Status equal to a province Municipalities of China
Colombia municipio a department (departamento) 1,102 It is also subdivided into Localities and Neighborhoods in urban municipalities and into Corregimientos and Veredas in rural municipalities Municipalities of Colombia
Costa Rica Municipalidad Province (Provinces of Costa Rica) Cantones of Costa Rica
Croatia općina county (županija) 428 Municipalities of Croatia
Czech Republic obec Karlovy Vary a kraj (kraj) 6250
Denmark kommune Aabenraa Municipality a region 98 Counties (amter) were abandoned in 2007 Municipalities of Denmark
Dominican Republic municipio province Municipalities of the Dominican Republic
El Salvador municipio Zacatecoluca departamentos 262 Municipalities of El Salvador
Estonia omavalitsus Are vald (Are Parish) county (maakond) 215 Can be either towns (linn) or parishes (vald) Municipalities of Estonia
Finland kunta/kommun Helsinki region 311 Can choose whether to call itself a "city" (kaupunki). Municipalities of Finland
France commune canton, which is part of an arrondissement, which is part of a department (département) which is part of a region (région) 36,600
Germany Gemeinde district (Kreis, literally "Circle"). Larger entities of the same level are called Stadt, plural Städte (Cities resp. Towns), which can be part of a Kreis (they are kreisangehörig, meaning "belonging to a Circle") or constituting a district on its own (kreisfrei, meaning "free of a Circle"). In less populated regions, small municipalities are often put together into consolidated superior municipalities (Verbandsgemeinde, Samtgemeinde or Amtsgemeinde) 12,013 Municipalities of Germany
Georgia munits'ipaliteti 76 self-governing towns/cities (k'alak'i) and communities (t'emi) Municipalities of Georgia
Greece demos (δήμος, pl. δήμοι) or koinoteta (κοινότητα, pl. κοινότητες) 325 Demoi and koinotetes are both considered municipalities; the latter are less populous Municipalities and communities of Greece
Greenland kommunea Kujalleq 4 First-level administrative division Municipalities of Greenland
Haiti commune an arrondissement, which is part of a department (département).
Honduras municipio was in 1895 originally the subdivision of the district (distrito), but as districts have fallen into disuse, it is now the subdivision of the department (departamento). 298 Municipalities of Honduras
Hungary település a county (megye). 3,168 (in 2005)
Iceland sveitarfélag Reykjavík Regions 74 The country's only self-governing local administrative units Municipalities of Iceland
India Sainthia Excludes both villages and large cities; typically has more than twenty thousand residents, but cannot exceed five hundred thousand Municipalities of India
Indonesia Kabupaten (regency) or Kotamadya (city) Provinces of Indonesia List of regencies and cities of Indonesia
Iraq Qadhaa Al-Hamdaniya District a district (Arabic: Qadhaa‎) which is part of a Governorate (Region or Province, Arabic: Mouhafatha). 130 Second-level, below the governorate Municipalities of Iraq
Israel Iri'ya (עיריה, City Government), Moatsa (מועצה, Council) Includes city councils (large municipalities), local councils (small municipalities), and regional councils (a group of communities; often rural)
Italy comune a province (provincia) which is part of a region (regione). 7,982 Solely used for subdivisions of larger comuni, especially in Rome; municipio indicates the city hall; in some case, they are joined in mountain communities (comunità montane)[13] List of comuni of Italy
Japan 市町村

Shichoson

1,719 Below the prefecture; includes shi (cities), cho (towns), and son (villages) Municipalities of Japan
Kenya a municipality is one of four types of local authorities. Nearly 50 major towns are given the municipality status.
Latvia singular: novads, plural: novadi Aglonas novads (Aglona Municipality) 110 A municipality normally consists of amalgamated parishes (singular: pagasts, plural: pagasti). Municipalities of Latvia
Lebanon a district (Arabic: Qadaa‎) which is part of a Governorate (Region or Province, Arabic: Mouhafazah).
Libya the municipality level is that of the Basic People's Congress. Large cities are subdivided. Municipalities of Libya
Lithuania savivaldybė Kalvarijos savivaldybė (Kalvarija Municipality) a district (apskritis) and is subdivided into elderates (seniūnija). Municipalities of Lithuania
Luxembourg commune (in French); Gemeng, plur. Gemengen (in Luxembourgish) part of a canton (Luxembourgish: Kantoun) which itself is part of a district 105 are the lowest divisions
North Macedonia opština Aračinovo Municipality the country (top-level) or the City of Skopje 84 (2004) current set established in 2004, reduced from 123 created in 1996. Municipalities of North Macedonia
Malta Kunsill Lokali (Local Council) Valletta Local Council none 68 established 1993, one new council created since then (Mtarfa) Local councils of Malta
Mauritius a municipality: The administration of all the main towns in Mauritius is done by the municipality of the respective towns.Most of the towns are found in the district of Plaines Wilhems. The capital city, Port-Louis is managed by the Municipality of Port-Louis, found in the district of Port Louis. The other seven districts are administered by are called district councils.
Mexico municipio / delegación Asientos Municipality a state (estado) or the DF 2,466 a borough (delegación) is a subdivision of the Federal District Municipalities of Mexico and boroughs of the Mexican Federal District
Moldova municipiu Municipiul Chișinău 32 is a main city or town and surrounding villages ranked by law at this level. Moldova#Administrative divisions
Montenegro opština Andrijevica Municipality the country (top-level) Municipalities of Montenegro
Nepal Nagarpalika 58 (after the census in 2001) a municipality is a town not large enough in population or infrastructure to qualify as a sub-metropolitan city.
Netherlands gemeente a province (provincie) 388 + 3 special municipalities Municipalities in the Netherlands
New Zealand a municipality is part of either a "city" (mostly urban) or a "district" (mostly rural). The term "municipality" has become rare in New Zealand since about 1979 and has no legal status. (See territorial authorities of New Zealand.)
Nicaragua municipio a department (departamento) or of one of the two Autonomous Regions, North Caribbean Coast Autonomous Region and South Caribbean Coast Autonomous Region. Municipalities of Nicaragua
Norway kommune Røyken kommune a county (fylke) 430 (2009) Municipalities of Norway
Palestinian National Authority 105 municipalities are localities with populations over 4,000 and have 13-15 council members. Municipality (Palestinian Authority)
Pakistan of a tehsil/taluka or sub-district of a "district". 149 Local government in Pakistan
Paraguay municipalidad a departament (departamento)
Peru municipio a province (provincia), which is part of a department (departamento). As of 2002 a department is now called a region (región). is another term for district (distrito) and is the lower-level administrative subdivision.
Philippines bayan or munisipyo or munisipalidad a province is a town with a popularly elected administration including a mayor and is part of a province (lalawigan or probinsya) (except for the independent municipality of Pateros, Metro Manila in the National Capital Region). Municipalities are not the smallest division of local government and are composed of barangays.
Poland gmina Gmina Annopol county (powiat).
Portugal concelho or município Oeiras District 308 Concelho is a directly elected local area authority generally consisting of a main city or town and surrounding villages, with wide-ranging local administration powers. Apart from the municipality of Corvo, however, municípios are not the smallest administrative unit in Portugal, that being the freguesia (civil parish). For central government purposes, Portuguese municipalities are grouped into districts (distritos). In Portugal, a municipality (município/concelho) is the primary local administrative unit. Although part of a district (distrito) for certain national administrative purposes, the municipality is not subordinate to the district and decentralization is doing away with the districts. A municipality contains one or more freguesias. Municipalities of Portugal
Puerto Rico municipio municipality consists of an urban area (termed a city or town) plus all of its surrounding barrios comprising the municipality. It has a popularly elected administration and a municipal mayor. The seat of the municipal government is located in such urban area and serves the entire municipal jurisdiction.[14][15] Municipalities of Puerto Rico
Romania municipiu / oraș / comună Deva County (județ) 103 + 217 + 2856 A municipality (municipiu) is a special status given to cities which fulfill certain criteria related to size, influence and development, as defined by Law no. 351/2001 (on the National Territorial Management Plan). Localities which do not meet the criteria are designated "cities" (orașe) or "communes" (comune). Municipalities of Romania
Cities of Romania
Communes of Romania
Russia several types of municipalities ("municipal formations") exist; see subdivisions of Russia
San Marino there are also eight minor municipalities, castelli.
Serbia opština a district (okrug)
Slovakia obec district (okres) which is part of a kraj (kraj) 2,891
Slovenia občina region (regija) 212 a municipality (občina) is the primary local administrative unit. There are 212 of them, 11 of which have a special "Urban" status with additional autonomy. Municipalities of Slovenia
South Africa district municipalities and metropolitan municipalities are subdivisions of the provinces, and local municipalities are subdivisions of district municipalities.
Spain municipio / municipi / concello / udalerria 8,122 a municipality (municipio) is the primary local administrative unit. It is a part of a province (provincia) for all national administrative purposes. In the Galicia region, the municipalities are called, in Galician language, concellos, and in the Principality of Asturias region, a municipality is called a concejo (in Spanish language) or a conceyu (in Asturian language). In these two regions a municipality contains one or more parroquias (parishes). Municipalities of Spain
Sweden kommun Stockholm Municipality

Gothenburg Municipality Malmö Municipality Ale Municipality

County Councils of Sweden (Swedish: landsting) self-governing local authority, covering 21 counties, each comprising one or more of the municipalities. 290 is self-governing according to the Swedish constitution and constitutes local government. Before 1971, a municipality could be called a town (stad), a köping or a rural municipality (landskommun); present municipalities which used to be towns are still commonly called towns. Sweden is also divided in 2 523 districts (Swedish: distrikt) since 1 January 2016.[16] Municipalities of Sweden
Switzerland commune/Gemeinde/comune a canton (canton/Kanton/cantone) and defined by cantonal law. 2,596 Municipalities in Switzerland
Thailand thesaban None 1,602 There are three levels of municipalities, and municipalities are not self-governed except for Bangkok and Pattaya. Municipalities introduced in 1935, Bangkok became self-governed in 1972, and Pattaya became self-governed in 1978. Thesaban
Turkey belediye Istanbul Metropolitan Municipality il(province) 2,920 is a local government authority and there are two types of municipalities: metropolitan (büyükşehir) municipality, district (alt/ilçe) municipality.
Ukraine there are two types of municipalities: urban and rural. Both are referred to after their governing body as council (i.e. miskrada, selyshchna rada or silrada). They are considered the lowest administrative division in the country and better known as the local government. Urban municipalities are more complex and divided into city municipalities (miskrada) and town municipalities (selyshchna rada). The most complex municipalities are the cities of regional significance which are referred to simply as cities and create a sort of ambiguity.
United Arab Emirates an emirate is defined by the law of the specific emirates.
Uruguay municipio 89 Municipalities of Uruguay
Venezuela municipio Anaco Municipality a state, as well as a subdivision of the Capital District (estado) Municipalities of Venezuela
Vietnam Direct-controlled municipality Ho Chi Minh City (largest) 5 A direct-controlled municipality (Thành phố trực thuộc trung ương) is a city with equal status to a province Municipalities of Vietnam
  • In Portuguese language usage, there are two words to distinguish the territory and the administrative organ. When referring to the territory, the word concelho is used, when referring to the organ of State, the word município is used. This differentiation is in use in Portugal and some of its former overseas provinces, but it's no longer in use in Brazil.

See also

References

  1. ^ "Municipality". Merriam-Webster.
  2. ^ "municipality definition". Yourdictionary.com.
  3. ^ "Santiago de Chile – Comunas". Mapas de Chile, Castor y Polux Ltda.
  4. ^ "Australian Standard Geographical Classification (ASGC)". Australian Bureau of Statistics.
  5. ^ "Municipal Government". The Canadian Encyclopedia > Government > Government, General > Municipal Government. Historica Foundation of Canada. 2009. Retrieved 2011-07-17.
  6. ^ a b "Interim List of Changes to Municipal Boundaries, Status, and Names – From January 2, 2010 to January 1, 2011" (PDF). Statistics Canada. April 2011. Retrieved 2011-07-17.
  7. ^ a b "List of Ontario Municipalities". Ontario Ministry of Municipal Affairs and Housing. 2011-07-04. Retrieved 2011-07-17.
  8. ^ "Municipal Government Act" (PDF). Office of the Legislative Counsel, Nova Scotia House of Assembly. 2010-01-07. Retrieved 2011-07-17.
  9. ^ Wikisource:1911 Encyclopædia Britannica/Municipality
  10. ^ "Legal Dictionary: Municipal Law". FindLaw.
  11. ^ "2009 Nevada Code". Justia.
  12. ^ "Kansas Statues". Lesterama.
  13. ^ The law provides for the possibility of overlapping of the office of President of the mountain community with that of mayor of one of the municipalities of the community: Buonomo, Giampiero (2001). "Compatibile il sindaco-dirigente della locale Comunità montana". Diritto&Giustizia edizione online.  – via Questia (subscription required)
  14. ^ Ayuda: Divulgación de Resultados de la Comisión Estatal de Elecciones – Municipio. Comision Estatal de Elecciones. Estado Libre Asociado de Puerto Rico. San Juan, Puerto Rico. 2004. Retrieved 6 December 2011.
  15. ^ Autonomous Municipalities Law. (in Spanish) Archived 2010-12-05 at the Wayback Machine Retrieved 24 October 2011.
  16. ^ SFS 2015:493, Svensk författningssamling: Förordning om distrikt.

External links

Anchorage, Alaska

Anchorage (officially called the Municipality of Anchorage; Dena'ina: Dgheyaytnu) is a unified home rule municipality in the U.S. state of Alaska, located in the West Coast of the United States. With an estimated 291,538 residents in 2018, it is Alaska's most populous city and contains more than 40 percent of the state's total population; among the 50 states, only New York has a higher percentage of residents who live in its most populous city. All together, the Anchorage metropolitan area, which combines Anchorage with the neighboring Matanuska-Susitna Borough, had a population of 399,148 in 2018, which accounts for more than half of the state's population. At 1,706 square miles of land area, the city is the fourth largest city by land in the United States and larger than the smallest state, Rhode Island, at 1,212 square miles.Anchorage is in the south-central portion of Alaska, at the terminus of the Cook Inlet, on a peninsula formed by the Knik Arm to the north and the Turnagain Arm to the south. The city limits span 1,961.1 square miles (5,079.2 km2) which encompass the urban core, a joint military base, several outlying communities and almost all of Chugach State Park.Due to its location, almost equidistant from New York City, Frankfurt, and Tokyo, Anchorage lies within ​9 1⁄2 hours by air of nearly 90% of the industrialized world. For this reason, the Anchorage International Airport is a common refueling stop for many international cargo flights and home to a major FedEx hub, which the company calls a "critical part" of its global network of services.Anchorage has won the All-America City Award four times: in 1956, 1965, 1984–85, and 2002, by the National Civic League. It has also been named by Kiplinger as the most tax-friendly city in the United States.

Chongqing

Chongqing (, also US: , Chinese: [ʈʂʰʊ̌ŋ.tɕʰîŋ] (listen)), alternately romanized as Chungking, is a major city in southwest China. Administratively, it is one of China's four municipalities under the direct administration of central government (the other three are Beijing, Shanghai and Tianjin), and the only such municipality in China located far away from the coast.Chongqing was a municipality during the Republic of China (ROC) administration, serving as its wartime capital during the Second Sino-Japanese War (1937–1945); during this period, Chongqing was listed as one of the world's four anti-fascist command centers, along with Washington, London and Moscow. The current municipality was recreated on 14 March 1997 to help develop the central and western parts of China. The Chongqing administrative municipality has a population of over 30 million, spread over an area the size of Austria. The city of Chongqing made of 9 urban districts has a much smaller population of 8,518,000 as of 2016 estimation. According to the 2010 census, Chongqing is the most populous Chinese municipality, and also the largest direct-controlled municipality in China, containing 26 districts, eight counties, and four autonomous counties.

The official abbreviation of the city, "Yu" (渝), was approved by the State Council on 18 April 1997. This abbreviation is derived from the old name of a part of the Jialing River that runs through Chongqing and feeds into the Yangtze River.

Chongqing has a significant history and culture. Being one of China's National Central Cities, it serves as the economic centre of the upstream Yangtze basin. It is a major manufacturing centre and transportation hub; a July 2012 report by the Economist Intelligence Unit described it as one of China's "13 emerging megalopolises".

Community Identification Number

The Official Municipality Key, formerly also known as the Official Municipality Characteristic Number or Municipality Code Number, is a number sequence for the identification of politically independent municipalities or unincorporated areas. Other classifications for the identification of areas include postal codes, NUTS codes or FIPS codes.

00923105059929

Gaunpalika

Gaunpalika or gaupalika (Nepali: गाउँपालिका, romanized: gāunpālikā| translation: Rural municipal) is the newly formed lower administrative division in Nepal. The Ministry of Federal Affairs and Local Development (Nepal) dissolved the existing village development committees and announced the establishment of this new local body. There are currently 460 rural municipalities .

Halifax, Nova Scotia

Halifax, formally known as the Halifax Regional Municipality (HRM), is the capital of the Canadian province of Nova Scotia. It had a population of 403,131 in 2016, with 316,701 in the urban area centred on Halifax Harbour. The regional municipality consists of four former municipalities that were amalgamated in 1996: Halifax, Dartmouth, Bedford, and Halifax County.

Halifax is a major economic centre in Atlantic Canada with a large concentration of government services and private sector companies. Major employers and economic generators include the Department of National Defence, Dalhousie University, Saint Mary's University, the Halifax Shipyard, various levels of government, and the Port of Halifax. Agriculture, fishing, mining, forestry and natural gas extraction are major resource industries found in the rural areas of the municipality.

Kotor

Kotor (Montenegrin Cyrillic: Котор, pronounced [kɔ̌tɔr]; Italian: Cattaro) is a coastal town in Montenegro. It is located in a secluded part of the Gulf of Kotor. The city has a population of 13,510 and is the administrative center of Kotor Municipality.

The old Mediterranean port of Kotor is surrounded by fortifications built during the Venetian period. It is located on the Bay of Kotor (Boka Kotorska), one of the most indented parts of the Adriatic Sea. Some have called it the southern-most fjord in Europe, but it is a ria, a submerged river canyon. Together with the nearly overhanging limestone cliffs of Orjen and Lovćen, Kotor and its surrounding area form an impressive landscape.

Since the early 2000s Kotor has seen an increase in tourists, many of them coming by cruise ship. Visitors are attracted by the natural environment of the Gulf of Kotor and by the old town of Kotor. Kotor is part of the World Heritage Site dubbed the Natural and Culturo-Historical Region of Kotor.

The fortified city of Kotor was also included in UNESCO's World Heritage Site list as part of Venetian Works of Defence between 15th and 17th centuries: Stato da Terra – western Stato da Mar in 2017.

Malmö

Malmö (, also US: , Swedish: [²malmøː] (listen); Danish: Malmø [ˈmalmøːˀ]) is the largest city of the Swedish county of Skåne County, the third-largest city in Sweden, after Stockholm and Gothenburg, and the sixth-largest city in Scandinavia, with a population of 316,588 inhabitants out of a municipal total of 338,230 in 2018. The Malmö Metropolitan Region is home to over 700,000 people, and the Øresund Region, which includes Malmö, is home to 4 million people.Malmö was one of the earliest and most industrialized towns of Scandinavia, but it struggled with the adaptation to post-industrialism. Since the construction of the Øresund Bridge, Malmö has undergone a major transformation with architectural developments, and it has attracted new biotech and IT companies, and particularly students through Malmö University, which was founded in 1998. The city contains many historic buildings and parks, and is also a commercial center for the western part of Scania.

Municipalities of Brazil

The municipalities of Brazil (Portuguese: municípios do Brasil) are administrative divisions of the Brazilian states. At present, Brazil has 5,570 municipalities, making the average municipality population 34,361. The average state in Brazil has 214 municipalities. Roraima is the least subdivided state, with 15 municipalities, while Minas Gerais is the most subdivided state, with 853.

The Federal District cannot be divided into municipalities, according to the Brazilian Constitution, the Federal District assumes the same constitutional and legal powers, attributions and obligations of the states and municipalities, instead, it is divided by administrative regions.

The 1988 Brazilian Constitution treats the municipalities as parts of the Federation and not simply dependent subdivisions of the states. Each municipality has an autonomous local government, comprising a mayor (prefeito) and a legislative body called municipal chamber (câmara municipal). Both the local government and the legislative body are directly elected by the population every four years. These elections take place at the same time all over the country; the last municipal elections were held on October 2, 2016. Each municipality has the constitutional power to approve its own laws, as well as collecting taxes and receiving funds from the state and federal governments. However, municipal governments have no judicial power, and courts are only organised at the state or federal level. A subdivision of the state judiciary, or comarca, can either correspond to an individual municipality or encompass several municipalities.

The seat of the municipal administration is a nominated city (cidade), with no specification in the law about the minimum population, area or facilities. The city always has the same name as the municipality, as they are not treated as distinct entities. Municipalities can be subdivided, only for administrative purposes, into districts (normally, new municipalities are formed from these districts). Other populated sites are villages, but with no legal effect or regulation. Almost all municipalities are subdivided into neighbourhoods (bairros), although most municipalities do not officially define their neighbourhood limits (usually small cities in the countryside).

Municipalities can be split or merged to form new municipalities within the borders of the state, if the population of the involved municipalities expresses a desire to do so in a plebiscite. However, these must abide by the Brazilian Constitution, and forming exclaves or seceding from the state or union is expressly forbidden.

Municipalities of Bulgaria

The 28 provinces of Bulgaria are divided into 265 municipalities (община, obshtina). Municipalities typically comprise multiple towns, villages and settlements and are governed by a mayor who is elected by popular majority vote for a four-year term, and a municipal council which is elected using proportional representation for a four-year term. The creation of new municipalities requires that they must be created in a territory with a population of at least 6,000 and created around a designated settlement. They must also be named after the settlement that serves as the territory's administrative center, among other criteria.The council of a municipality is further permitted to create admininistrative subdivisions: mayoralties (kmetstvo), settlements (naseleno myasto), and wards or quarters (rayon). Mayoralties are overseen by elected mayors and typically comprises one or more villages or towns; they must contain a population of at least 250. Settlements are overseen by a manager appointed by the mayor of a municipality and thus have fewer responsibilities and less power than a mayoralty; they must have a population of fewer than 150. Wards are overseen by elected mayors and must include a population of at least 25,000; their creation is required in Bulgaria's three most populous municipalities.Like municipalities themselves, mayoralities and wards are designated administrative-territorial units, as they have their own elected officials. Settlements, however, are simply designated territorial units since their leaders are appointed.

Municipalities of Slovenia

Slovenia is divided into 212 municipalities (občine, singular – občina), of which 11 have urban status. Municipalities are further divided into local communities and districts.

Slovene is an official language of all the municipalities. Hungarian is a second official language of three municipalities in Prekmurje: Dobrovnik/Dobronak, Hodoš/Hodos, and Lendava/Lendva. Italian is a second official language of four municipalities (of which one has urban status) in the Slovene Littoral: Ankaran/Ancarano, Izola/Isola, Koper/Capodistria, and Piran/Pirano.

In the EU statistics, the municipalities of Slovenia are classified as "local administrative unit 2" (LAU 2), below 58 administrative units (upravne enote), which are LAU 1.

Municipalities of Sweden

The municipalities of Sweden (Swedish: Sveriges kommuner) are its lower-level local government entities. There are 290 municipalities which are responsible for a large proportion of local services, including schools, emergency services and physical planning.

Municipalities of the Philippines

A municipality (Tagalog: bayan/munisipalidad; Hiligaynon: banwa; Cebuano: lungsod/munisipalidad; Pangasinan: baley; Kapampangan: balen/balayan; Central Bicolano: banwaan; Waray: bungto; Ilokano: ili) is a local government unit (LGU) in the Philippines. A municipality is also usually called town in its archaic term, since municipalities have the functions of a town since its inception. They are distinct from cities, which are a different category of local government unit. Provinces of the Philippines are divided into cities and municipalities, which in turn, are divided into barangays, formerly barrios. As of March 31, 2017, there are 1,489 municipalities across the country..

A municipal district is a now-defunct local government unit; previously certain areas were created first as municipal districts before they were converted into municipalities.

Novi Sad

Novi Sad (Serbian Cyrillic: Нови Сад, pronounced [nôʋiː sâːd] (listen); Hungarian: Újvidék [ˈuːjvideːk]; see below for other names) is the second largest city in Serbia, the capital of the autonomous province of Vojvodina and the administrative centre of the South Bačka District. It is located in the southern portion of the Pannonian Plain on the border of the Bačka and Srem geographical regions. Lying on the banks of the Danube river, the city faces the northern slopes of Fruška Gora.

According to the 2011 census, Novi Sad proper has a population of 250,439, while the entire urban area of Novi Sad (with the adjacent urban settlements of Petrovaradin and Sremska Kamenica) comprises 277,522 inhabitants. The population of the administrative area of the city, which includes its suburbs, totals 341,625 people.Novi Sad was founded in 1694 when Serb merchants formed a colony across the Danube from the Petrovaradin fortress, a strategic Habsburg military post. In the following centuries, it transformed into an important trading and manufacturing centre as well as a centre of Serbian culture, earning it the nickname Serbian Athens. The city was heavily devastated in the 1848 Revolution, but was subsequently rebuilt and restored. Today, along with the Serbian capital city of Belgrade, Novi Sad is an industrial and financial centre important to the Serbian economy.

Novi Sad was selected to be a European Capital of Culture for the year 2021.

Pondicherry

Pondicherry ( or ), officially known as Puducherry, is the capital and the most populous city of the Indian Union Territory of Puducherry, with a population of 657,209 and an area of 492 sq km. The city is in the Puducherry district of the union territory and is surrounded by the state of Tamil Nadu to which it shares most of its culture. It is affectionately called Pondy and short code as "Pdy," and has been officially known by the alternative name Puducherry in Tamil (New Town) since 2006.Pondicherry city consists of 42 wards. Wards 1–10 are north of the city. Wards 11–19 are in Boulevard Town and remaining wards are southwest of the city centre.

Regional county municipality

The term regional county municipality or RCM (French: municipalité régionale de comté, MRC) is used in Quebec to refer to one of 87 county-like political entities. In some older English translations they were called county regional municipality.

Regional county municipalities are a supralocal type of regional municipality, and act as the local municipality in unorganized territories within their borders. The system of regional county municipalities was introduced beginning in 1979 to replace the historic counties of Quebec. In most cases, the territory of an RCM corresponds to that of a census division, however there are a few exceptions.

Some local municipalities are outside any regional county municipality (hors MRC). This includes some municipalities within urban agglomerations and also some aboriginal lands, such as Indian reserves that are enclaves within the territory of an RCM but not juridically part of it. Where complete territorial coverage is desired, for example for the census, the Indian reserve enclaves are added in to create "geographical RCMs", and the urban agglomerations are considered to be "territories equivalent to an RCM".

For a list of RCMs and equivalent territories, see List of regional county municipalities and equivalent territories in Quebec.

Tromsø

Tromsø (, also UK: ; Norwegian pronunciation: [²trʊmsœ] (listen); Northern Sami: Romsa; Finnish: Tromssa; Kven: Tromssa) is a municipality in Troms county, Norway. The administrative centre of the municipality is the city of Tromsø. Outside Norway, Tromso and Tromsö are alternative spellings of the name.

Tromsø lies in Northern Norway. The 2,521-square-kilometre (973 sq mi) municipality is the 18th largest by area out of the 422 municipalities in Norway. Tromsø is the 9th most populous municipality in Norway with a population of 75,638. The municipality's population density is 30.6 inhabitants per square kilometre (79/sq mi) and its population has increased by 15.9% over the last decade. It is the largest urban area in Northern Norway and the third largest north of the Arctic Circle anywhere in the world (following Murmansk and Norilsk). Most of Tromsø, including the city centre, is located on the island of Tromsøya, 350 kilometres (217 mi) north of the Arctic Circle. In 2017, the city of Tromsø had a population of about 65,000 people spread out over Tromsøya and parts of Kvaløya and the mainland. Tromsøya is connected to the mainland by the Tromsø Bridge and the Tromsøysund Tunnel, and to the island of Kvaløya by the Sandnessund Bridge.

The municipality is warmer than most other places located on the same latitude, due to the warming effect of the Gulf Stream. Tromsø is even milder than places much farther south of it elsewhere in the world, such as on the Hudson Bay and in Far East Russia, with the warm-water current allowing for both relatively mild winters and tree growth in spite of its very high latitude.

The city centre of Tromsø contains the highest number of old wooden houses in Northern Norway, the oldest house dating from 1789. The city is a cultural centre for its region, with several festivals taking place in the summer. Torbjørn Brundtland and Svein Berge of the electronica duo Röyksopp and Lene Marlin grew up and started their careers in Tromsø. Noted electronic musician Geir Jenssen also hails from Tromsø.

Types of municipalities in Quebec

The following is a list of the types of local and supralocal territorial units in Quebec, including those used solely for statistical purposes, as defined by the Ministry of Municipal Affairs, Regions and Land Occupancy and compiled by the Institut de la statistique du Québec.

Not included are the urban agglomerations in Quebec, which, although they group together multiple municipalities, exercise only what are ordinarily local municipal powers.

A list of local municipal units in Quebec by regional county municipality can be found at List of municipalities in Quebec.

Unitary authority

A unitary authority is a type of local authority that has a single tier and is responsible for all local government functions within its area or performs additional functions which elsewhere in the relevant country are usually performed by national government or a higher level of sub-national government.

Typically unitary authorities cover towns or cities which are large enough to function independently of county or other regional administration. Sometimes they consist of national sub-divisions which are distinguished from others in the same country by having no lower level of administration.

Zealand

Zealand (Danish: Sjælland, pronounced [ˈɕɛˌlanˀ]), at 7,031 km2, is the largest and most populous island in Denmark proper (thus excluding Greenland and Disko Island, which are larger). Zealand has a population of 2,302,074 (as of 1 January 2018).It is the 13th-largest island in Europe by area and the 4th most populous. It is connected to Funen by the Great Belt Fixed Link, to Lolland, Falster (and Germany from 2028) by the Storstrøm Bridge and the Farø Bridges. Zealand is also linked to Amager by several bridges. Zealand is linked indirectly, through intervening islands by a series of bridges and tunnels, to southern Sweden.

Copenhagen, the capital of Denmark, is located partly on the eastern shore of Zealand and partly on the island of Amager. Other cities on Zealand include Roskilde, Hillerød, Næstved and Helsingør.

Despite their identical names, the island is not connected historically to the Pacific nation of New Zealand, which is named after the Dutch province of Zeeland.

Designations for types of administrative territorial entities

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