Municipalities of Mexico

Municipalities (municipios in Spanish) are the second-level administrative divisions of Mexico, where the first-level administrative division is the state (Spanish: estado). As of the establishment of two new municipalities in Chiapas in September 2017,[1] there are 2,448 municipalities in Mexico, not including the 16 delegaciones of Mexico City.[2] The internal political organization and their responsibilities are outlined in the 115th article of the 1917 Constitution[3] and detailed in the constitutions of the states to which they belong.

State Municipalities
 Aguascalientes 11
 Baja California 5
 Baja California Sur 5
 Campeche 11
 Chiapas 124
 Chihuahua 67
 Coahuila 38
 Colima 10
 Durango 39
 Guanajuato 46
 Guerrero 81
 Hidalgo 84
 Jalisco 125
 México 125
 Michoacán 113
 Morelos 33
 Nayarit 20
 Nuevo León 51
 Oaxaca 570
 Puebla 217
 Querétaro 18
 Quintana Roo 11
 San Luis Potosí 58
 Sinaloa 18
 Sonora 72
 Tabasco 17
 Tamaulipas 43
 Tlaxcala 60
 Veracruz 212
 Yucatán 106
 Zacatecas 58

Structure

All Mexican states are divided into municipalities. Each municipality is autonomous; citizens elect a "municipal president" (presidente municipal) who heads a municipal council (ayuntamiento), responsible for providing all the public services for their constituents. This concept, which originated after the Mexican Revolution, is known as a municipio libre ("free municipality").

The municipal president is elected by plurality and cannot be reelected for the next immediate term. The municipal council consists of a cabildo (chairman) with a síndico and several regidores (trustees).

If the municipality covers a large area and contains more than one city or town (collectively called localidades), one city or town is selected as a cabecera municipal (head city, seat of the municipal government) while the rest elect representatives to a presidencia auxiliar or junta auxiliar (auxiliary presidency or council). In that sense, a municipality in Mexico is roughly equivalent to the counties of the United States, whereas the auxiliary presidency is equivalent to a township. Nonetheless, auxiliary presidencies are not considered a third-level administrative division since they depend fiscally on the municipalities in which they are located.

North-western and south-eastern states are divided into small numbers of large municipalities (e.g. Baja California is divided into only five municipalities), and therefore they cover large areas incorporating several separated cities or towns that do not necessarily conform to one single conurbation. Central and southern states, on the other hand, are divided into a large number of small municipalities (e.g. Oaxaca is divided into 570 municipalities), and therefore large urban areas usually extend over several municipalities which form one single conurbation. Although an urban area might cover an entire municipality, auxiliary councils might still be used for administrative purposes.

Municipalities are responsible for public services (such as water and sewerage), street lighting, public safety, traffic, supervision of slaughterhouses and the cleaning and maintenance of public parks, gardens and cemeteries. They may also assist the state and federal governments in education, emergency fire and medical services, environmental protection and maintenance of monuments and historical landmarks. Since 1983, they can collect property taxes and user fees, although more funds are obtained from the state and federal governments than from their own collection efforts.

History

Ver-Pal Mpal
Municipal Palace of Veracruz

Since the Conquest and colonization of Mexico, the municipality became the basic entity of the administrative organization of New Spain and the Spanish Empire. Settlements located in strategic locations received the status of city (the highest status within the Empire, superior to that of villas and pueblos) and were entitled to form an ayuntamiento or municipality. After Independence, the 1824 Constitution did not specify any regulation for the municipalities, whose structure and responsibilities were to be outlined in the constitution of each state of the federation. As such, every state set its own requirements for a settlement to become a municipality (usually based on population). The Constitution of 1917 abolished the jefatura política ("political authority"), the intermediate administrative authority between the states and converted all existing municipalities into municipios libres ("free municipalities"), that is, gave them full autonomy to manage local affairs, while at the same time restricting the scope of their competencies.[4] However, in 1983 the 115th article was modified to expand the municipalities' authority to raise revenue (through property taxes and other local services) and to formulate budgets.

Ranking of municipalities

By population

Data from the 2015 Intercensal Survey by INEGI.[5]

Ranking Municipality State Population
1 Ecatepec Mexico 1,677,678
2 Tijuana Baja California 1,641,570
3 León Guanajuato 1,578,626
4 Puebla Puebla 1,576,259
5 Guadalajara Jalisco 1,460,148
6 Juárez Chihuahua 1,391,180
7 Zapopan Jalisco 1,332,272

By area

Data from Los Municipios con Mayor y Menor Extensión Territorial by the Instituto Nacional Para el Federalismo y el Desarrollo Municipal[6]

Puerto Ensenada
Ensenada
Ranking State Municipality Area (km²)
1 Baja California Ensenada 51,952.26
2 Baja California Sur Mulegé 33,092.20
3 Coahuila Ocampo 26,433.60
4 Baja California Sur La Paz 20,275.00
5 Quintana Roo Othón P. Blanco 17,189.75
6 Chihuahua Ahumada 17,131.48
7 Baja California Sur Comondú 16,858.30
8 Chihuahua Camargo 16,066.01
2,438 Tlaxcala San Lorenzo Axocomanitla 4.34

Municipalities of Mexico City

Mexico City is a special case in that it is not organized as a municipality, but as a federal district as the capital of the federation. It is administered through the Government of the Federal District and it has its own unicameral Legislative Assembly. For administrative purposes, the Federal District is subdivided into delegaciones, or boroughs. They are not identical to municipalities, but since 2000, they enjoy a certain degree of political autonomy since residents within a borough directly elect a local borough head of government (called jefe delegacional). However, boroughs do not form local [municipal] councils, are not constituted by a group of trustees, and do not have regulatory powers, most of which are exercised by the Federal District's government. Most public services are organized by the Federal District even if some responsibilities are carried out by the boroughs. Still, at the federal level, the boroughs are considered a second-level territorial division for statistical data collection and cross-municipal comparisons.

Other municipalities in Mexico have chosen to use a similar administrative internal organization. All municipalities of Baja California are subdivided into boroughs, or delegaciones. The municipality of Mexicali for example, is divided into 14 boroughs besides the City of Mexicali, which comprises the municipal seat and three additional metropolitan boroughs.

The Municipality of Santiago de Querétaro is subdivided into seven boroughs. Nonetheless, the heads of government of the boroughs are not elected by the residents but rather appointed by the municipal president. Unlike the boroughs of Mexico City, which are second-level administrative divisions, the boroughs of the municipalities are third-level administrative divisions.

See also

References

  1. ^ "Constitución Política del Estado Libre y Soberano de Chiapas". Article 2, Act of September 6, 2017 (PDF) (in Spanish). Retrieved January 5, 2018.
  2. ^ At the time of the 2015 Intercensal Survey, there were 2,441 municipalities in Mexico according to INEGI, excluding the delegaciones of Mexico City: "División territorial de México" (in Spanish). INEGI. Retrieved January 5, 2018. Since then, six municipalities have been created in Chiapas (Belisario Domínguez, Emiliano Zapata, El Parral, Mezcalapa, Capitán Luis Ángel Vidal, Rincón Chamula San Pedro) and one in Quintana Roo (Puerto Morelos), bringing the total to 2,448.
  3. ^ "Constitución Política de los Estados Unidos Mexicanos". Article 115,  of 1917 (in Spanish). Retrieved January 5, 2018.
  4. ^ Inform sobre Desarrollo Humano México 2004 Archived 2007-01-26 at the Wayback Machine p. 50
  5. ^ "Encuesta Intercensal 2015: Presentación de resultados" (PDF). INEGI. p. 15. Retrieved 2016-11-08.
  6. ^ Los Municipios con Mayor y Menor Extensión Territorial Archived 2011-05-17 at the Wayback Machine Instituto Nacional Para el Federalismo y el Desarrollo Municipal

External links

Ayuntamiento

Ayuntamiento (Spanish pronunciation: [aʝuntaˈmjento]) is the general term for the town council or cabildo of a municipality, or sometimes the municipality itself, in Spain and Latin America. Historically ayuntamiento was often preceded by the word excelentísimo ("most excellent"), when referring to the council. This phrase is often abbreviated "Exc.mo Ay.to ".

In Catalan-speaking parts of Spain, municipalities generally use the Catalan cognate, ajuntament, while Galician ones use the word concello, Astur-Leonese conceyu and Basque udaletxea. Ayuntamiento is mainly used in Spain; in Latin America alcaldía is also for municipal governing bodies, especially the executive ones, where the legislative body and an executive one are two separate entities.

In Latin America several terms exist for the legislative bodies of municipalities. The term consejo is used in Argentina, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, and Peru. In Mexico the term ayuntamiento is for the council (which refers to itself as the H. Ayuntamiento, or el Honorable Ayuntamiento). Puerto Rican municipalities have a legislatura municipal. In Peru the term ayuntamiento is never used; instead, it is municipalidad, consejo provincial or consejo distrital (district council). Executive functions in most of these countries is handled by an executive alcalde, the mayor (not to be confused with the historic alcalde, who was a magistrate).

Since ayuntamiento is a metonym for the building in which the council meets, it also translates to "city/town hall" in English.

Boroughs of Mexico

In Mexico, boroughs, into which some municipalities and Mexico City are divided for administrative purposes, are known as delegaciones (sing. delegación). Boroughs can either be second-level semi-autonomous administrative divisions –as it is the case in the Mexico City– or third-level non-autonomous administrative divisions –as it is the case in all other municipalities that have implemented this particular territorial organization. The limits, nature and competencies of boroughs are usually described in the constitutions of the states they are part of, or in the laws enacted by the municipality itself, and may differ from municipality to municipality.

Gustavo A. Madero, Mexico City

Gustavo A. Madero is one of the 16 municipalities into which Mexico City is divided.

Instituto Nacional para el Federalismo y el Desarrollo Municipal

The Instituto Nacional para el Federalismo y el Desarrollo Municipal (National Institute for Federalism and Municipal Development, better known by the acronym INAFED) is a decentralised agency of the Mexican federal government. It has responsibility for promoting the ideals of federalism between the several levels of government in Mexico, by acting to coordinate and implement policies, programmes and services that are designed to strengthen inter-governmental relations between the federal and "subsidiary" levels of governance at the state and municipal levels.

The agency comes under the overall responsibility of the Secretaría de Gobernación (SEGOB), the Secretariat of the Interior, the government department responsible for administering the country's internal affairs.

INAFED was established in July 2002, replacing and expanding upon the role of its predecessor agency, the Centro Nacional de Desarrollo Municipal or CEDEMUN (National Centre for Municipal Development).

Municipalities of Campeche

Campeche is a state in Southeast Mexico that is divided into eleven municipalities. According to the 2015 Mexican Intercensal Survey, Campeche is the third least populous state with 899,931 inhabitants and the 17th largest by land area spanning 57,693.59 square kilometres (22,275.62 sq mi).Municipalities in Campeche are administratively autonomous of the state according to the 115th article of the 1917 Constitution of Mexico. Every three years, citizens elect a municipal president (Spanish: presidente municipal) by a plurality voting system who heads a concurrently elected municipal council (ayuntamiento) responsible for providing all the public services for their constituents. The municipal council consists of a variable number of trustees and councillors (regidores y síndicos). Municipalities are responsible for public services (such as water and sewerage), street lighting, public safety, traffic, supervision of slaughterhouses and the maintenance of public parks, gardens and cemeteries. They may also assist the state and federal governments in education, emergency fire and medical services, environmental protection and maintenance of monuments and historical landmarks. Since 1984, they have had the power to collect property taxes and user fees, although more funds are obtained from the state and federal governments than from their own income.The largest municipality by population in Campeche is the state capital Campeche, with 283,025 residents, while the smallest municipality by population is Palizada with 8,971 residents. The largest municipality by area is Calakmul, which spans 14,031.51 km2 (5,417.60 sq mi), while Tenabo is the smallest at 1,061.63 km2 (409.90 sq mi). The first municipalities to incorporate were Campeche, Carmen, and Hecelchakán on April 6, 1825, and the newest municipality is Candelaria, which incorporated July 1, 1998.

Municipalities of Coahuila

Coahuila is a state in Northeast Mexico that is divided into 38 municipalities. According to the 2015 Mexican Intercensal Survey, Coahuila is the 16th most populous state with 2,954,915 inhabitants and the third largest by land area spanning 151,846.16 square kilometres (58,628.13 sq mi).Municipalities in Coahuila are administratively autonomous of the state according to the 115th article of the 1917 Constitution of Mexico. Every three years, citizens elect a municipal president (Spanish: presidente municipal) by a plurality voting system who heads a concurrently elected municipal council (ayuntamiento) responsible for providing all the public services for their constituents. The municipal council consists of a variable number of trustees and councillors (regidores y síndicos). Municipalities are responsible for public services (such as water and sewerage), street lighting, public safety, traffic, supervision of slaughterhouses and the maintenance of public parks, gardens and cemeteries. They may also assist the state and federal governments in education, emergency fire and medical services, environmental protection and maintenance of monuments and historical landmarks. Since 1984, they have had the power to collect property taxes and user fees, although more funds are obtained from the state and federal governments than from their own income.The largest municipality by population is the state capital Saltillo, with 807,537 residents, while the smallest is Abasolo with 1,015 residents. The largest municipality by land area in Coahuila and the third largest in Mexico is Ocampo, which spans 26,064.30 km2 (10,063.48 sq mi), and the smallest is Allende which spans 252.01 km2 (97.30 sq mi). The first municipality to incorporate was Monclova on August 12, 1689 and the newest municipality is Francisco I. Madero, which incorporated December 2, 1936.

Municipalities of Jalisco

Jalisco is a state in West Mexico that is divided into 125 municipalities.Municipalities in Jalisco are administratively autonomous of the state according to the 115th article of the 1917 Constitution of Mexico. Every three years, citizens elect a municipal president (Spanish: presidente municipal) by a plurality voting system who heads a concurrently elected municipal council (ayuntamiento) responsible for providing all the public services for their constituents. The municipal council consists of a variable number of trustees and councillors (regidores y síndicos). Municipalities are responsible for public services (such as water and sewerage), street lighting, public safety, traffic, supervision of slaughterhouses and the maintenance of public parks, gardens and cemeteries. They may also assist the state and federal governments in education, emergency fire and medical services, environmental protection and maintenance of monuments and historical landmarks. Since 1984, they have had the power to collect property taxes and user fees, although more funds are obtained from the state and federal governments than from their own income.

Municipalities of Mexico City

Mexico City as a territorial and administrative unit is, alongside the 31 states of Mexico, one of the 32 federal entities of which Mexico consists. This entity was until 2016, the "Federal District" (Spanish: Distrito Federal), but since then the entity has simply been known as "Mexico City" (Spanish: Ciudad de México).

Despite the Mexico City federal entity containing the word "City", it is not governed as a city but as a unit consisting of multiple municipalities; it contains both urban and rural areas; while much of the "city" i.e. the contiguous urban area of Greater Mexico City lies in another federal entity, the State of Mexico.

Mexico City is divided into sixteen municipalities. In Spanish they are, as territorial units, called demarcaciones territoriales but as units of government they are called alcaldías (lit. "area under control of a mayor (alcalde)"); these replaced the former "boroughs" (Spanish: delegaciones) and the powers of local government increased..

Since 2000, residents of each borough/municipality have elected by plurality a "head of government" (Spanish: jefe de gobierno), which since 2016 is referred to as the "mayor" (Spanish: alcalde).

Municipalities are subdivided into neighborhoods (colonias in Spanish) and in some parts of southern Mexico City, also into towns and rural areas.

Municipalities of Michoacán

Michoacán is a state in West Mexico that is divided into 113 municipalities.

Municipalities in Michoacan are administratively autonomous of the state according to the 115th article of the 1917 Constitution of Mexico. Every three years, citizens elect a municipal president (Spanish: presidente municipal) by a plurality voting system who heads a concurrently elected municipal council (ayuntamiento) responsible for providing all the public services for their constituents. The municipal council consists of a variable number of trustees and councillors (regidores y síndicos). Municipalities are responsible for public services (such as water and sewerage), street lighting, public safety, traffic, supervision of slaughterhouses and the maintenance of public parks, gardens and cemeteries. They may also assist the state and federal governments in education, emergency fire and medical services, environmental protection and maintenance of monuments and historical landmarks. Since 1984, they have had the power to collect property taxes and user fees, although more funds are obtained from the state and federal governments than from their own income.

Municipalities of Puebla

Puebla is a state in East Mexico that is divided into 217 municipalities.Municipalities in Puebla are administratively autonomous of the state according to the 115th article of the 1917 Constitution of Mexico. Every three years, citizens elect a municipal president (Spanish: presidente municipal) by a plurality voting system who heads a concurrently elected municipal council (ayuntamiento) responsible for providing all the public services for their constituents. The municipal council consists of a variable number of trustees and councillors (regidores y síndicos). Municipalities are responsible for public services (such as water and sewerage), street lighting, public safety, traffic, supervision of slaughterhouses and the maintenance of public parks, gardens and cemeteries. They may also assist the state and federal governments in education, emergency fire and medical services, environmental protection and maintenance of monuments and historical landmarks. Since 1984, they have had the power to collect property taxes and user fees, although more funds are obtained from the state and federal governments than from their own income.

Municipalities of Quintana Roo

Quintana Roo is a state in Southeast Mexico that is divided into eleven municipalities. Puerto Morelos, Tulum and Bacalar are the newest municipalities.The state was created from the Quintana Roo Territory in 1974 with seven municipios. Solidaridad was formed in 1993 by act of the Congress of Quintana Roo. Tulum was split off from Solidaridad in March 2008. Bacalar was split off from Othón P. Blanco in February 2011. And in 2016, Puerto Morelos was split off from Benito Juárez.

Municipalities in Quintana Roo are administratively autonomous of the state according to the 115th article of the 1917 Constitution of Mexico. Every three years, citizens elect a municipal president (Spanish: presidente municipal) by a plurality voting system who heads a concurrently elected municipal council (ayuntamiento) responsible for providing all the public services for their constituents. The municipal council consists of a variable number of trustees and councillors (regidores y síndicos). Municipalities are responsible for public services (such as water and sewerage), street lighting, public safety, traffic, supervision of slaughterhouses and the maintenance of public parks, gardens and cemeteries. They may also assist the state and federal governments in education, emergency fire and medical services, environmental protection and maintenance of monuments and historical landmarks. Since 1984, they have had the power to collect property taxes and user fees, although more funds are obtained from the state and federal governments than from their own income.While the population figures below are from 2010, they have been adjusted for the creation of the municipalities of Bacalar in 2011 and Puerto Morelos in 2016.

Municipalities of San Luis Potosí

San Luis Potosí is a state in North Central Mexico that is divided into 58 municipalities.Municipalities in San Luis Potosi are administratively autonomous of the state according to the 115th article of the 1917 Constitution of Mexico. Every three years, citizens elect a municipal president (Spanish: presidente municipal) by a plurality voting system who heads a concurrently elected municipal council (ayuntamiento) responsible for providing all the public services for their constituents. The municipal council consists of a variable number of trustees and councillors (regidores y síndicos). Municipalities are responsible for public services (such as water and sewerage), street lighting, public safety, traffic, supervision of slaughterhouses and the maintenance of public parks, gardens and cemeteries. They may also assist the state and federal governments in education, emergency fire and medical services, environmental protection and maintenance of monuments and historical landmarks. Since 1984, they have had the power to collect property taxes and user fees, although more funds are obtained from the state and federal governments than from their own income.

Municipalities of Sinaloa

Sinaloa is a state in Northwest Mexico that is divided into 18 municipalities.Municipalities in Sinaloa are administratively autonomous of the state according to the 115th article of the 1917 Constitution of Mexico. Every three years, citizens elect a municipal president (Spanish: presidente municipal) by a plurality voting system who heads a concurrently elected municipal council (ayuntamiento) responsible for providing all the public services for their constituents. The municipal council consists of a variable number of trustees and councillors (regidores y síndicos). Municipalities are responsible for public services (such as water and sewerage), street lighting, public safety, traffic, supervision of slaughterhouses and the maintenance of public parks, gardens and cemeteries. They may also assist the state and federal governments in education, emergency fire and medical services, environmental protection and maintenance of monuments and historical landmarks. Since 1984, they have had the power to collect property taxes and user fees, although more funds are obtained from the state and federal governments than from their own income.

Municipalities of Sonora

Sonora is a state in Northwest Mexico that is divided into 72 municipalities.Municipalities in Sonora are administratively autonomous of the state according to the 115th article of the 1917 Constitution of Mexico. Every three years, citizens elect a municipal president (Spanish: presidente municipal) by a plurality voting system who heads a concurrently elected municipal council (ayuntamiento) responsible for providing all the public services for their constituents. The municipal council consists of a variable number of trustees and councillors (regidores y síndicos). Municipalities are responsible for public services (such as water and sewerage), street lighting, public safety, traffic, supervision of slaughterhouses and the maintenance of public parks, gardens and cemeteries. They may also assist the state and federal governments in education, emergency fire and medical services, environmental protection and maintenance of monuments and historical landmarks. Since 1984, they have had the power to collect property taxes and user fees, although more funds are obtained from the state and federal governments than from their own income.

Municipalities of Tamaulipas

Tamaulipas is a state in Northeast Mexico that is divided into 43 municipalities.Municipalities in Tamaulipas are administratively autonomous of the state according to the 115th article of the 1917 Constitution of Mexico. Every three years, citizens elect a municipal president (Spanish: presidente municipal) by a plurality voting system who heads a concurrently elected municipal council (ayuntamiento) responsible for providing all the public services for their constituents. The municipal council consists of a variable number of trustees and councillors (regidores y síndicos). Municipalities are responsible for public services (such as water and sewerage), street lighting, public safety, traffic, supervision of slaughterhouses and the maintenance of public parks, gardens and cemeteries. They may also assist the state and federal governments in education, emergency fire and medical services, environmental protection and maintenance of monuments and historical landmarks. Since 1984, they have had the power to collect property taxes and user fees, although more funds are obtained from the state and federal governments than from their own income.

Municipalities of Tlaxcala

Tlaxcala is a state in East Mexico that is divided into 60 municipalities.Municipalities in Tlaxcala are administratively autonomous of the state according to the 115th article of the 1917 Constitution of Mexico. Every three years, citizens elect a municipal president (Spanish: presidente municipal) by a plurality voting system who heads a concurrently elected municipal council (ayuntamiento) responsible for providing all the public services for their constituents. The municipal council consists of a variable number of trustees and councillors (regidores y síndicos). Municipalities are responsible for public services (such as water and sewerage), street lighting, public safety, traffic, supervision of slaughterhouses and the maintenance of public parks, gardens and cemeteries. They may also assist the state and federal governments in education, emergency fire and medical services, environmental protection and maintenance of monuments and historical landmarks. Since 1984, they have had the power to collect property taxes and user fees, although more funds are obtained from the state and federal governments than from their own income.

Municipalities of Veracruz

Veracruz is a state in East Mexico that is divided into 212 municipalities.Municipalities in Veracruz are administratively autonomous of the state according to the 115th article of the 1917 Constitution of Mexico. Every three years, citizens elect a municipal president (Spanish: presidente municipal) by a plurality voting system who heads a concurrently elected municipal council (ayuntamiento) responsible for providing all the public services for their constituents. The municipal council consists of a variable number of trustees and councillors (regidores y síndicos). Municipalities are responsible for public services (such as water and sewerage), street lighting, public safety, traffic, supervision of slaughterhouses and the maintenance of public parks, gardens and cemeteries. They may also assist the state and federal governments in education, emergency fire and medical services, environmental protection and maintenance of monuments and historical landmarks. Since 1984, they have had the power to collect property taxes and user fees, although more funds are obtained from the state and federal governments than from their own income.

Municipalities of Yucatán

Yucatán is a state in Southeast Mexico that is divided into 106 municipalities, organized into 7 administrative regions. Most of the names of the municipalities come from the Yucatec Maya language, which is still spoken by more of 30% of the population, according to INEGI (2000).

Municipalities in Yucutan are administratively autonomous of the state according to the 115th article of the 1917 Constitution of Mexico. Every three years, citizens elect a municipal president (Spanish: presidente municipal) by a plurality voting system who heads a concurrently elected municipal council (ayuntamiento) responsible for providing all the public services for their constituents. The municipal council consists of a variable number of trustees and councillors (regidores y síndicos). Municipalities are responsible for public services (such as water and sewerage), street lighting, public safety, traffic, supervision of slaughterhouses and the maintenance of public parks, gardens and cemeteries. They may also assist the state and federal governments in education, emergency fire and medical services, environmental protection and maintenance of monuments and historical landmarks. Since 1984, they have had the power to collect property taxes and user fees, although more funds are obtained from the state and federal governments than from their own income.

Municipalities of the State of Mexico

Mexico is a state in South Central Mexico that is divided into 125 municipalities.Municipalities in the State of Mexico are administratively autonomous of the state according to the 115th article of the 1917 Constitution of Mexico. Every three years, citizens elect a municipal president (Spanish: presidente municipal) by a plurality voting system who heads a concurrently elected municipal council (ayuntamiento) responsible for providing all the public services for their constituents. The municipal council consists of a variable number of trustees and councillors (regidores y síndicos). Municipalities are responsible for public services (such as water and sewerage), street lighting, public safety, traffic, supervision of slaughterhouses and the maintenance of public parks, gardens and cemeteries. They may also assist the state and federal governments in education, emergency fire and medical services, environmental protection and maintenance of monuments and historical landmarks. Since 1984, they have had the power to collect property taxes and user fees, although more funds are obtained from the state and federal governments than from their own income.

National, Federal
Regional, Metropolitan
Urban, Rural
Mexico Municipalities of Mexico by state
Articles on second-level administrative divisions of North American countries

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