A municipal forest or municipal woodland is a forest or wood that is owned by a town or city. Such woods often have a higher density of leisure facilities like play parks, restaurants and cafes, bridleways, cycle paths and footpaths. Unlike an urban forest, which is located largely or entirely within an urban area and may be privately owned, a municipal forest is publicly owned and may well be outside the city or town to which it belongs. Most urban forests will be municipal forests, but many municipal forests are non-urban.
In Germany municipal forests are usually corporate forests in accordance with Section 3 of the Federal Forest Act (§ 3 Bundeswaldgesetz). Among the best known municipal forests in Germany are the Tiergarten (210 ha) in Berlin, the Berlin City Forest (28,500 ha) which includes the Grunewald (ca. 3,000 ha) and Köpenick Forest (ca. 6,500 ha), the Frankfurt City Forest (3,866 ha), the Dresden Heath (6,133 ha) and the Rostock Heath (6,004 ha), which are some of the largest in the world. The Duisburg City Forest, together with the Broich-Speldorf Forest in Mülheim an der Ruhr, the Sportpark Duisburg and the Duisburg Huckinger Mark form a contiguous forest area of about 3,000 ha. The Leipzig Riverside Forest is one of the largest surviving riparian forests in Central Europe.
The Schlossbergturm or Castle Hill Tower is a 35 m high observation tower on Castle Hill Schlossberg on the edge of the historic Altstadt of Freiburg im Breisgau. It has 153 steps, its top is located 463 m above sea level and thus 185 m above the average altitude of the city (278 m). The tower's twisted design includes six tree trunks (Douglas-firs from the municipal forest of Freiburg) around a staircase made of steel. It has three platforms and the top is reached by a small spiral staircase. The tower offers a panoramic view of Freiburg and its surroundings.
The tower is built on the grounds of the Fort de l'Aigle von Auban, also known locally as "Salzbüchsle", which are a continuation of the Black Forest into the city of Freiburg. It was designed by local Freiburg architect Hubert Horbach for the Kuratorium Freiburger Schlossberg, and built in 2002.It was funded in part by donations. For each donor a plaque with his or her name was attached to the vertical part of a step so that when climbing the tower one can read the names of the donors.Baxter Woods
Baxter Woods is a nature reserve in Portland, Maine, USA. Donated to the city by Percival Proctor Baxter, it is situated on 32 acres (130,000 m2), which is the largest undisturbed forest in Portland. Its trail connects to Evergreen Cemetery and is also close to Baxter Boulevard.
When the land was donated, Baxter said that the property "shall forever be retained and used by [the] City in trust for the benefit of the people of Portland as a Municipal Forest and Park and for public recreation and educational purposes".Betschdorf
Betschdorf is a commune in the Bas-Rhin department in Grand Est in northeastern France.
It is located about 45 km north-northeast of Strasbourg on the northern edge of the Forêt de Haguenau, the largest undivided forest in France. Betschdorf is a center of craft pottery manufacture, especially salt-glazed stoneware.Catoctin Mountain
Catoctin Mountain, along with the geologically associated Bull Run Mountains, forms the easternmost mountain ridge of the Blue Ridge Mountains, which are in turn a part of the Appalachian Mountains range. The ridge runs northeast/southwest for about 50 miles (80 km) departing from South Mountain near Emmitsburg, Maryland, and running south past Leesburg, Virginia, where it disappears into the Piedmont in a series of low-lying hills near Aldie, Virginia. The ridge forms the eastern rampart of the Loudoun and Middletown valleys.Corporate forest
A corporate forest is a forest or woodland area owned by a corporate body rather than a state or individual.
For example, in Germany, a corporate forest (German: Körperschaftswald) is, in accordance with Section 3, Paragraph 2, of the Federal Forest Act (Bundeswaldgesetz), a wood owned by a public body such as a municipality or town (also called a communal, town or municipal forest or even an "interested parties forest"), a university (then called a university forest) or other specified body.
Forests owned by the Church are not automatically classified by the German federal government as corporate forests, but may be so classified by state law.
Other types of forest may include state forests and private forests.Cunningham Falls State Park
Cunningham Falls State Park is a public recreation area located west of Thurmont, Maryland, in the United States. The state park is the home of Cunningham Falls, the largest cascading waterfall in Maryland, a 43-acre (17 ha) man-made lake, and the remains of a historic iron furnace. The park is one of several protected areas occupying 50-mile-long Catoctin Mountain; it is bordered on its north by Catoctin Mountain Park and on its south by Frederick Municipal Forest.Dransfeld Municipal Forest
The Dransfeld Municipal Forest (German: Dransfelder Stadtwald) is situated on a ridge in Germany's Central Uplands that ascends to 480 m high. It is located in the district of Göttingen, in South Lower Saxony.
Although its name suggests a forest within a town, Dranfeld Municipal Forest is actually a small, heavily forested high ridge that lies about halfway between the city of Göttingen to the northeast and the town of Hann. Münden to the southwest; it is east of the Bramwald and immediately south of the city of Dransfeld. The B3 federal highway runs through the western foothills of the Dransfeld Municipal Forest, located in the northern part of the Münden Nature Park.
Named hills in the Dransfeld Municipal Forest include:
Hoher Hagen (originally 508 m) - with its Gauß Tower
Brunsberg (480 m)
Hengelsberg (463 m) - with the source of the Auschnippe and the nearby "Giesekestein" monument
Dransberg (422 m)
Schotsberg (419 m)
Lohberg (312 m)Guevenatten
Guevenatten (German: Gevenatten) is a commune in the Haut-Rhin department in Alsace in north-eastern France.Hainich
Hainich is a forested hill chain in the state of Thuringia in Germany, between the towns of Eisenach, Mühlhausen and Bad Langensalza. Hainich covers an area of around 160 km² (61,8 sq mi), of which, since 31 December 1997, half has been designated as Hainich National Park. The highest point in Hainich is Alte Berg at 1621 ft (494 m). The Mühlhäuser Stadtwald in the northern part of Hainich is the largest municipal forest in Thuringia. The landmark of Hainich is Betteleiche, a 600-year-old common oak at Ihlefeld.Heinzenbach
Heinzenbach is an Ortsgemeinde – a municipality belonging to a Verbandsgemeinde, a kind of collective municipality – in the Rhein-Hunsrück-Kreis (district) in Rhineland-Palatinate, Germany. It belongs to the Verbandsgemeinde of Kirchberg, whose seat is in the like-named town.Hoher Hagen (Dransfeld)
The Hoher Hagen is a volcanic hill that is still 480 m high today, in the Dransfeld Municipal Forest, in the German district of Göttingen in South Lower Saxony.Lynn Woods Reservation
Lynn Woods Reservation (founded 1881) is a 2,200-acre (8.9 km2) municipal forest park located in Lynn, Essex County, Massachusetts. The City of Lynn's Department of Public Works, Park Commission and Lynn Water & Sewer Commission share jurisdiction and management of Lynn Woods Reservation. The park encompasses nearly one-fifth of the entire land area of the city and represents a significant natural, watershed and public recreational resource in eastern Massachusetts.
The entire portion of the reservation with Lynn city bounds was added to the National Register of Historic Places in 1996 as a historic district. (A small portion of the park is actually in neighboring Saugus.)Mount Tzouhalem
Mount Tzouhalem is a mountain on Vancouver Island, British Columbia, Canada, 4 kilometres east-northeast of Duncan in the municipality of North Cowichan. It is situated between Quamichan Lake, Maple Bay and Cowichan Bay.
The mountain is part of the municipal forest lands. Part of the mountain is an 18-hectare ecological reserve. It is popular with hikers and mountain bikers. It gives views towards Saltspring Island, the Coastal Mountains of the Lower Mainland and, on a clear day, Mount Baker in Washington State.
There is a large Christian cross on one cliffside. The original wooden cross, placed by local Catholic churches in the 1970s, was replaced by the Knights of Columbus with a welded version in the late 1980s.Offenbach-Lauterborn
Lauterborn is a borough of Offenbach am Main, Germany, with approximately 11,700 inhabitants.
It is located in the south-east part of the town and borders Frankfurt and the municipal forest.Ryūfuku-ji
Ryūfuku-ji (龍福寺) is a Buddhist temple, formally known as Sentakisan Ryūfuku-ji (仙滝山龍福寺) located in the Iwai district of the city of Asahi in Chiba Prefecture, Japan. The temple is also known as the Iwai no Taki Fudō (岩井の滝不動), a reference to a Fudō-myōō statue located under a waterfall on the site.Schlierschied
Schlierschied is an Ortsgemeinde – a municipality belonging to a Verbandsgemeinde, a kind of collective municipality – in the Rhein-Hunsrück-Kreis (district) in Rhineland-Palatinate, Germany. It belongs to the Verbandsgemeinde of Kirchberg, whose seat is in the like-named town.Todenroth
Todenroth is an Ortsgemeinde – a municipality belonging to a Verbandsgemeinde, a kind of collective municipality – in the Rhein-Hunsrück-Kreis (district) in Rhineland-Palatinate, Germany. It belongs to the Verbandsgemeinde of Kirchberg, whose seat is in the like-named town.Tuberculosis sanatorium Hohenstein
The Tuberculosis sanatorium Hohenstein (German: Lungenheilstätte Hohenstein) was a sanatorium in Hohenstein, East Prussia (Olsztynek, Poland) specialized in pulmonology and Tuberculosis treatment for male patients. Founded in 1903, it was located about 4 km north of the town center in the municipal forest and closed down in 1933.The sanatorium was opened by the "Verein zur Errichtung von Lungenheilstätten in Ostpreußen e.V." on 1 October 1903. Initially holding a capacity of 50 beds it was soon expanded to 84 beds in 6 single- and 17 multi-bedrooms including one 10-bed hall in a three-story main building. About 2/3 of the property size of 5 Hectar was forested. The surrounding municipal forest of about 450 ha and a small lake was also accessible.As of 1912 it was operated by the chief physician, Dr. Walther Liévin, an assistant doctor, four nurses and several technical employees. Between 1903 and 1 April 1912 2,282 patients were treated in Hohenstein. Most of the patients were 16 to 30 year old factory- or agricultural labourers from Königsberg, they rarely recovered completely and mostly remained unfit for work.With the outbreak of World War I all but five severe cases were released on 1. August 1914, the sanatorium re-opened in April 1915, now treating 100 tuberculous soldiers of the Imperial German Army. On account of the war the provisions were tenuous and the number of patients was reduced. In November 1919 69 patients left the sanatorium because of the catastrophic food supplies and the lack of heating. On 18 December 1919 the Königsberg Hartungsche Zeitung reported that fluid medicine was frozen inside the patient's rooms. Due to the bad reputation only about 50 percent of the capacity was occupied in 1920.On 15 January 1921 the Hartungsche Zeitung reported the "escape" of 35 patients who complained about the lack of food and the general "military" atmosphere under head physician Dr. Liévin. Liévin, father of actor Albert Lieven, was dismissed on 1 July 1921.Because of the Hyperinflation in the Weimar Republic the sanatorium was temporarily closed in July 1923. The economic situation remained difficult and the hospital was finally closed in 1933.Wahlenau
Wahlenau is an Ortsgemeinde – a municipality belonging to a Verbandsgemeinde, a kind of collective municipality – in the Rhein-Hunsrück-Kreis (district) in Rhineland-Palatinate, Germany. It belongs to the Verbandsgemeinde of Kirchberg, whose seat is in the like-named town.