Municipal corporations in India

A municipal corporation, city corporation, Mahanagar Palika, Mahanagar Nigam or Nagar Nigam or Nagara Sabha is a local government in India that administers urban areas with a population of more than one million. The growing population and urbanization in various cities of India were in need of a local governing body that can work for providing necessary community services like health care, educational institution, housing, transport etc. by collecting property tax and fixed grant from the State Government.

The 74th Amendment made the provisions relating to urban local governments.[1]

Ripon Building panorama
Chennai Corporation headquarters

Other names for municipal corporations

Municipal corporations are referred to by different names in different states (due to regional language variations), all of which are translated to "municipal corporation" in English. These names include nagar nigam (in Delhi, Uttar Pradesh, Uttarakhand, Bihar, Rajasthan, and Haryana), mahanagar palika (in Gujarat, Goa, Karnataka, and Maharashtra), pouro nigom (in Assam and West Bengal), pur porishod (in Tripura), nagar palika nigam (in Madhya Pradesh), Nagara Palaka Samstha (in Andhra Pradesh and Telangana), and Maanagaraatchi (in Tamil Nadu).

The Vadodara Municipal Corporation is typically called by the name "Vadodara Mahanagar Seva Sadan". The detailed structure of these urban bodies varies from state to state, as per the laws passed by the state legislatures, but the basic structure and function is almost the same.

Composition

Administrative structure of India
Administrative structure of India

The area administered by a municipal corporation is known as a municipal area. Each municipal area is divided into territorial constituencies known as wards. A municipal corporation is made up of a wards committee. Each ward has one seat in the wards committee. Members are elected to the wards committee on the basis of adult franchise for a term of five years. These members are known as councillors or corporators. The number of wards in a municipal area is determined by the population of the city. Some seats are reserved for scheduled castes, scheduled tribes, backward classes and women.[1]

A state can choose to constitute additional committees to carry functions of urban local governance, in addition to the wards committees. In addition to the councillors elected from the wards, the legislature of a state may also choose to make provisions for the representation of persons having special knowledge or experience in municipal administration, the MPs or MLAs representing the constituencies which comprise wholly or partly the municipal area, and/or the commissioners of additional committees that the state may have constituted. If a state legislature appoints a person from the first category to a wards committee, that individual will not have the right to vote in the meetings of the municipal corporation, while MPs, MLAs and commissioners do have the right to vote in meetings.[1]

The largest corporations are in the seven metropolitan cities of India, viz. Delhi, Mumbai, Kolkata, Chennai, Bengaluru, Hyderabad and Pune. The Brihanmumbai Municipal Corporation (BMC) of The City of Mumbai is the richest municipal corporation in India.[2][3]

Administration

The Mayor is the head of the municipal corporation, but in most states and territories of India the role is largely ceremonial as executive powers are vested in the Municipal Commissioner. The office of the Mayor combines a functional role of chairing the Corporation meeting as well as ceremonial role associated with being the First Citizen of the city. As per the amended Municipal Corporation Act of 1888, a Deputy Mayor is appointed by the Mayor. The tenure of the Mayor and Deputy Mayor is five years. However, in seven states; Bihar, Chhattisgarh, Jharkhand, Madhya Pradesh, Odisha, Uttar Pradesh and Uttarakhand; Mayors are directly elected by the people and thus hold the executive powers of the municipal corporations.

Executive officers monitor the implementation of all the programs related to planning and development of the corporation with the coordination of mayor and councilors.

Functions

Municipal building bangalore
Municipal Corporation building in Bengaluru

The Twelfth Schedule to the Constitution lists the subjects that municipal corporations are responsible for. Corporations may be entrusted to perform functions and implement schemes including those in relation to the matters listed in the Twelfth Schedule.[1]

  • Urban planning including town planning.
  • Regulation of land-use and construction of buildings.
  • Planning for economic and social development
  • Water supply for domestic, industrial and commercial purposes.
  • Public health, sanitation conservancy and solid waste management.
  • Fire services.
  • Urban forestry, protection of the environment and promotion of ecological aspects.
  • Safeguarding the interests of weaker sections of society, including the handicapped and mentally retarded.
  • Slum improvement and upgradation.
  • Urban poverty alleviation.
  • Provision of urban amenities and facilities such as parks, gardens, playgrounds.
  • Promotion of cultural, educational and aesthetic aspects.
  • Burials and burial grounds; cremations, cremation grounds and electric crematoriums.
  • Cattle pounds; prevention of cruelty to animals.
  • Vital statistics including registration of births and deaths.
  • Public amenities including street lighting, parking lots, bus stops and public conveniences.
  • Regulation of slaughter houses and tanneries[1]

Sources of Income

Its sources of income are taxes on water, houses, markets and vehicles (commercial only)paid by residents of the town and grants from the state government.

See also

References

  1. ^ a b c d e "THE CONSTITUTION (AMENDMENT)". indiacode.nic.in. Retrieved 3 December 2016. This article incorporates text from this source, which is in the public domain.
  2. ^ "BMC to open green channel for octroi". Financialexpress.com. 2007-09-03. Retrieved 2010-08-25.
  3. ^ "Gold & beautiful, News - Cover Story". Mumbai Mirror. Archived from the original on 2012-09-03. Retrieved 2010-07-21.
Bhagalpur Municipal Corporation

Bhagalpur is one of the municipal corporations of the state of Bihar, India.

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Katihar Municipal Corporation

Katihar is one of the municipal corporations of the state of Bihar, India.

List of municipal corporations in India

The content of this article is based on the "Census of India, 2011":

Cities with 1 lakh and above population

Census IndiaNote: The list includes the city municipal limits, but not urban agglomeration.

List of municipal corporations in Uttarakhand

Municipal Corporations of Uttarakhand are the local governing bodies of the cities in Uttarakhand. There are 8 such Municipal corporations in this Indian state.

List of urban local bodies in Uttarakhand

The following is a list of the urban local bodies in the Indian state of Uttarakhand.

Municipal governance in India

Municipal governance in India has existed since the year 1687, with the formation of Madras Municipal Corporation, and then Calcutta and Bombay Municipal Corporation in 1726. In the early part of the nineteenth century almost all towns in India had experienced some form of municipal governance. In 1882 the then Viceroy of India, Lord Ripon, who is known as the Father of Local Self Government, passed a resolution of local self-government which laid the democratic forms of municipal governance in India.In 1919, a Government of India Act incorporated the need of the resolution and the powers of democratically elected government were formulated. In 1935 another Government of India act brought local government under the preview of the state or provincial government and specific powers were given.

Nellore

Nellore is a city and district headquarters of Nellore district in the Indian state of Andhra Pradesh. It is located on the banks of Penna River and is the fourth most populous city in the state.

Tumkur

Tumkur (officially renamed as Tumakuru) is one of the industrial cities located in the state of Karnataka, also known as Shaikshanika Nagari (city of education) and Kalpatharu Nadu (land of coconut trees). Since 28 August 2010, Tumkur has been accorded the status of a City Corporation. It is situated at a distance of 70 km (43 mi) northwest of Bangalore, along National Highway NH-4 and NH-206. It is the headquarters of the Tumkur district.

Tumkur hosts India's first mega food park, a project of the ministry of food processing. The India Food Park was inaugurated by Prime Minister Narendra Modi in September 2014.

Vijayawada Municipal Corporation

Vijayawada Municipal Corporation (VMC) is the civic body that governs the city of Vijayawada in the Indian state of Andhra Pradesh.

Visakhapatnam

Visakhapatnam (also known as Vizag () and Waltair ()) is the largest city and the financial capital of the Indian state of Andhra Pradesh. The city is the administrative headquarters of Visakhapatnam district and state headquarters of Indian Coast Guard. Its geographical location is amidst the Eastern Ghats and the coast of the Bay of Bengal. It is the most populous city in the state with a population of 2,035,922 as of 2011, making it the 14th largest city in the country. It is also the 9th most populous metropolitan area in India with a population of 5,018,000. With an output of $43.5 billion, Visakhapatnam is the ninth-largest contributor to India's overall gross domestic product as of 2016.Visakhapatnam's history stretches back to the 6th century BCE, when it was considered a part of the Kalinga Kingdom, and later ruled by the Vengi, the Pallava and Eastern Ganga dynasties. Archaeological records suggest that the present city was built around the 11th and 12th centuries with control over the city fluctuating between the Chola Dynasty and the Gajapati Kingdom, until its conquest by the Vijayanagara Empire in the 15th century. Conquered by the Mughals in the 16th century, European powers eventually set up trading interests in the city, and by the end of the 18th century it had come under French rule. Control passed to the British in 1804 and it remained under British colonial rule until India's independence in 1947.

The city is home to the oldest shipyard and the only natural harbour on the east coast of India. Visakhapatnam Port is the fifth-busiest cargo port in India, and the city is home to the headquarters of the Indian Navy's Eastern Command and South Coast Railway zone. Visakhapatnam is a major tourist destination and is particularly known for its beaches. It is referred to by many nicknames such as The City of Destiny and The Jewel of the East Coast. It has been selected as one of the Indian cities to be developed as a smart city under the Smart Cities Mission. As per the Swachhta Sarvekshan rankings of 2017, it was the third 3rd cleanest city in India in 2017.. It fell to 7th position in 2018 and to 23rd position in 2019.

Municipalities & CD Blocks of West Bengal
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