A municipal corporation is the legal term for a local governing body, including (but not necessarily limited to) cities, counties, towns, townships, charter townships, villages, and boroughs. The term can also be used to describe municipally owned corporations.
Municipal incorporation occurs when such municipalities become self-governing entities under the laws of the state or province in which they are located. Often, this event is marked by the award or declaration of a municipal charter. A city charter or town charter or municipal charter is a legal document establishing a municipality, such as a city or town.
In Canada, charters are granted by provincial authorities.
The title "corporation" was used in boroughs from soon after the Norman conquest until the Local Government Act 2001. Under the 2001 act, county boroughs were renamed "cities" and their corporations became "city councils"; other borough corporations were renamed "borough councils".
After the Partition of Ireland, the corporations in the Irish Free State were Dublin, Cork, Limerick and Waterford (county boroughs) and Drogheda, Kilkenny, Sligo, Clonmel, and Wexford (non-county boroughs). Dún Laoghaire gained borough status in 1930 as “The Corporation of Dun Laoghaire". Galway's borough status, lost in 1840, was restored in 1937; it was formally styled "the Mayor, Aldermen and Burgesses of the Borough of Galway”, but referred to as "the Corporation".
The New Zealand Constitution Act 1852 allowed municipal corporations to be established within the new Provinces of New Zealand. The term fell out of favour following the abolition of the Provinces in 1876.
In the United States, such municipal corporations are established by charters that are granted either directly by a state legislature by means of local legislation, or indirectly under a general municipal corporation law, usually after the proposed charter has passed a referendum vote of the affected population.
Under the enterprise meaning of the term, municipal corporations are "organisations with independent corporate status, managed by an executive board appointed primarily by local government officials, and with majority public ownership". Some MOCs rely on revenue from user fees, distinguishing them from agencies and special districts funded through taxation, although this is not always the case. Municipal corporation follows a process of externalization that requires new skills and orientations from the respective local governments, and follow common changes in the institutional landscape of public services. They are argued to be more efficient than bureaucracy but have higher failure rates because of their legal and managerial autonomy.
Arrah is a city and a municipal corporation in Bhojpur district in the state of Bihar, India. The name is also sometimes transliterated as Ara. The term Ara or Arrah comes from the famous temple of goddess Aaranya (Aaranya Devi) which is situated in the city. It is the district headquarters of Bhojpur district, located near the confluence of the Ganges and Sone rivers, some 24 miles from Danapur and 36 miles from Patna.Asansol
Asansol is a metropolitan city and a municipal corporation in the Indian state of West Bengal. It is the second largest and most populated city of West Bengal after Kolkata. It is the district headquarters of Paschim Bardhaman district. It is the 39th largest urban agglomeration in India. According to a 2010 report released by the International Institute for Environment and Development, a UK-based policy research non-governmental body, Asansol was ranked 11th among Indian cities and 42nd in the world in its list of 100 fastest-growing cities. Asansol is classed as a Y-category city for calculation of HRA (House Rent Allowance) for public servants, making it a Tier-II city.Begusarai
Begusarai is the administrative headquarters of Begusarai district, which is one of the thirty-eight districts of Bihar state, India. The district lies on the northern bank of river Ganga. It is located at Latitudes 25.15N & 25.45N and longitudes 85.45E & 86.36E. It was established in 1870 as a subdivision of Munger District In 1972.
Begusarai had traditionally been a communist stronghold and was once referred to as the "Leningrad of Bihar".Bhilai
Bhilai, officially called Bhilai Nagar, is a city in the district of Durg, Chhattisgarh, in eastern central India. With an urban population of 1,064,222 Bhilai-Durg is the second largest urban area after Raipur in the Indian state of Chhattisgarh. Bhilai is a major industrial city in India as well as education hub of central India.Brihanmumbai Municipal Corporation
The Municipal Corporation of Greater Mumbai (MCGM), also known as Brihanmumbai Municipal Corporation (BMC), (formerly the Bombay Municipal Corporation and the Municipal Corporation of Greater Bombay (MCGB) till 1996) is the governing civic body of Mumbai, the capital city of Maharashtra. It is India's richest municipal corporation. The MCGM's annual budget exceeds that of some of India's smaller states. It was established under the Bombay Municipal Corporation Act 1888. MCGM is responsible for the civic infrastructure and administration of the city and some suburbs. In 2014, Trushna Vishwasrao became the first female corporator to serve as its leader.Darbhanga
Darbhanga is a Municipal Corporation in the Indian state of Bihar. It is the headquarters of Darbhanga district and Darbhanga division and was the seat of the Raj Darbhanga and capital of the Mithila region.Greater Hyderabad Municipal Corporation
The Greater Hyderabad Municipal Corporation (GHMC) is the civic body that oversees Hyderabad, the capital and largest city in the Indian state of Telangana. It is the local government for the cities of Hyderabad and Secunderabad. Its geographical area covers most of the urban development agency the Hyderabad Metropolitan Development Authority (HMDA). 24 Assembly constituencies comes under GHMC. 64 ex-officio members including 5 Lok Sabha MPs whose constituencies are in GHMC jurisdiction vote in GHMC election.Hubli
Hubli (also called Hubballi)
is the second largest city in the state of Karnataka. It forms a continuous urban area with the city of Dharwad. It is the nerve centre for North Karnataka region & the fastest growing city after capital Bangalore in the state of Karnataka.
The name "Hubballi" literally means "flowering creeper" in Kannada. While Dharwad is the administrative headquarters, the city of Hubli, situated about 20 km south-east of Dharwad, is the commercial centre and business hub of North Karnataka region. Crops including cotton, chili pepper and peanuts are grown in the surrounding rural agricultural areas, and Hubli is a major trading centre for these commodities. It is also an important city for the Indian Railways, as it is the headquarters for South Western Railway zone and the Hubli Railway Division. Hubballi is a major railway junction in North Karnataka. It is also the headquarters of North Western Karnataka Road Transport Corporation.
Hubballi also houses the largest number of government offices outside Bengaluru. In 2016, Hubli-Dharwad was selected for solar city / green city master plans. Recently, Hubballi-Dharwad City was selected for a smart city project.Kalyan
Kalyan is a city in the Thane District of Maharashtra state in Konkan division and a part of Mumbai Metropolitan Region (MMR). It is a neighbour city of Mumbai and is governed by Kalyan-Dombivli Municipal Corporation.
Kalyan is within the administrative division (tahsil) at a taluka level of the Thane District. Kalyan and its neighboring township of Dombivli jointly form the Kalyan Dombivli Municipal Corporation, abbreviated as KDMC. It is considered a part of the Mumbai Metropolitan Region, along with Vitthalwadi, Bhiwandi, Thane, Ulhasnagar and the municipal councils of Ambernath and Badlapur. Kalyan is the 9th biggest city in Maharashtra and 28th in the country.Kalyan-Dombivli
Kalyan-Dombivli is a twin city and a municipal corporation with its headquarters located in Kalyan in Thane district in the Indian state of Maharashtra. It was formed in 1982 to administer the twin townships of Kalyan and Dombivli. Kalyan has a history of over 700 years.
The government of India recently announced five cities of Maharashtra state for smart city project. Kalyan-Dombivli is one of them. The other four cities are Aurangabad, Nashik, Nagpur & Thane. It comes under the Mumbai metropolitan region or it is also known as MMRKochi Municipal Corporation
The Kochi Municipal Corporation is the municipal corporation that manages a portion of the Indian city of Kochi (formerly known as Cochin). The Corporation manages 94.88 km2 of Kochi city and has a population of 677,381 within that area. It is the most densely populated city corporation in the state.Kolkata Municipal Corporation
Kolkata Municipal Corporation or KMC (formerly Calcutta Municipal Corporation or CMC) is responsible for the civic infrastructure and administration of the city of Kolkata. This civic administrative body administers an area of 200.71 km2. Its motto, Purosree Bibardhan, is inscribed on its emblem in Bengali script. KMC is headed by Firhad Hakim the present Mayor of Kolkata.Kollam Municipal Corporation
Kollam Municipal Corporation (KMC) is the civic body that governs the City of Kollam in the Indian state of Kerala. It is the fourth largest city corporation in the state by population and fifth largest by area. Constituted in 1903 and officially recognized as city corporation in 2000, the body governs an area of 73.03 square kilometres (28.20 sq mi) centered on Kollam with about 55 wards and a population of 397,419.Kollam is the 2nd most revenue generating city in Kerala. As of 2015-16 reports, Kollam has a revenue of Rs.889.74 crore, expenditure of Rs.830 crore and a surplus of Rs.59.73 crore.Municipal Corporation of Delhi
The Municipal Corporation of Delhi (MCD) was a municipal corporation, an autonomous body that governed 8 of the 11 Districts of Delhi, in the state of Delhi, India. It was one of three municipalities in the National Capital Territory of Delhi, the others being New Delhi Municipal Council, and Delhi Cantonment Board. "The MCD was among the largest municipal bodies in the world providing civic services to more than estimated population of 11 million citizens in the capital city." The municipal corporation covered an area of 1,397.3 km² (539.5 mi²).
Within its jurisdiction were some of the most densely populated areas in the world. It also had the unique distinction of providing civic services to rural and urban villages, resettlement colonies, regularised unauthorised colonies, unregularised slum/squatter settlements, private 'katras' etc., all at the same time.Municipal corporations in India
A municipal corporation, city corporation, Mahanagar Palika, Mahanagar Nigam or Nagar Nigam or Nagara Sabha is a local government in India that administers urban areas with a population of more than one million. The growing population and urbanization in various cities of India were in need of a local governing body that can work for providing necessary community services like health care, educational institution, housing, transport etc. by collecting property tax and fixed grant from the State Government.
The 74th Amendment made the provisions relating to urban local governments.Raipur
Raipur ( pronunciation ) is the capital city of the Indian state of Chhattisgarh. It is also the largest city of the state. It was formerly a part of Madhya Pradesh before the state of Chhattisgarh was formed on 1 November 2000. It has a widely diverse population from all over the country. On the industrial propects, it has seen an exponential growth over the years. With a strong presence of international brands and prominent global automobile companies, Raipur has emerged as a major business hub in the central India. It is ranked 7th in Ease of Living Index 2018 by Union Ministry of Housing and Urban Affairs (MoHUA)Ranchi
Ranchi ( pronunciation ) is the capital of the Indian state of Jharkhand. Ranchi was the centre of the Jharkhand movement, which called for a separate state for the tribal regions of South Bihar, northern Orissa, western West Bengal and the eastern area of what is present-day Chhattisgarh. The Jharkhand state was formed on 15 November 2000 by carving out the Bihar divisions of Chota Nagpur and Santhal Parganas. Ranchi has been selected as one of the hundred Indian cities to be developed as a smart city under PM Narendra Modi's flagship Smart Cities Mission.Salem City Municipal Corporation
Salem City Municipal Corporation is a civic body that governs Salem city, India. It consists of a legislative and an executive body. The legislative body is headed by the city mayor while the executive body is headed by a Chief Commissioner. This corporation consist of 72 wards and is headed by a Mayor who presides over a Deputy Mayor and 70 councillors who represent each ward in the city. For administrative purpose the Salem corporation is divided into four zones: Suramangalam, Hasthampatty, Ammapet, and Kondalampatty. Each Zonal Office has its own Zonal Chairman and an Asst.Commissioner to take care of Zonal Activities. The current mayor is S. Soundappan of the AIADMK. and the corporation commissioner is K.R. Selvaraj.Thrissur Municipal Corporation
The Thrissur Municipal Corporation is the civic body that governs the Thrissur city in Kerala, India. It is the third largest city Corporation in the state of Kerala by area and population. Established as a Municipality since 1921 under the Cochin Municipal Regulations, it is responsible for civic infrastructure and administration; the distribution of electricity and water for Thrissur city. The Corporation manages 101.42 km of Thrissur city limits of through 55 wards through five zones Ayyanthole, Vilvattom, Ollukkara, Ollur and Koorkanchery.