Multiplex (movie theater)

A multiplex is a movie theater complex with multiple screens within a single complex. They are usually housed in a specially designed building. Sometimes, an existing venue undergoes a renovation where the existing auditoriums are split into smaller ones, or more auditoriums are added in an extension or expansion of the building. The largest of these complexes can sit thousands of people and are sometimes referred to as a megaplex.

The difference between a multiplex and a megaplex is related to the number of screens, but the dividing line is not well-defined; some say that 14 screens and stadium seating make a megaplex; others that at least 20 screens are required.[1] Megaplex theaters always have stadium seating, and may have other amenities often not found at smaller movie theaters. Multiplex theatres often feature regular seating.

Amc30ontariomills
A typical AMC Theatres megaplex with 30 screens at the Ontario Mills in Ontario, California.

History

Origins

In about 1915 two adjacent theatres in Moncton, New Brunswick, under the same ownership were converted to share a single entrance on Main Street. After patrons entered the door, there were separate ticket booths for each theatre, and different programs were shown. The arrangement was so unusual that it was featured by Robert Ripley in his Believe It or Not! comic strip.[2]

In 1937 James Edwards twinned his Alhambra Theater in the Los Angeles area by converting an adjacent storefront into a second "annex" screen. While both screens would show the same feature movie, one would also offer a double bill. It did not convert to showing different movies on both screens until some time after Nat Taylor (see below).[3] On February 25, 1940, the Patricia Theater made news by becoming what is believed to be the first two-screen theater showing different movies when operator H. Bert Ram added a screen to an adjoining building and shared a common box office. The main screen remained the Patricia Theatre and the Patricia Annex became known as the Little Patricia.[4]

In December 1947 Nat Taylor, the operator of the Elgin Theatre in Ottawa, Canada, opened a smaller second theater ("Little Elgin") next door to his first theater. It was not until 1957, however, that Taylor decided to run different movies in each theater, when he became annoyed at having to replace films that were still making money with new releases.[3] Taylor opened dual-screen theaters in 1962 in Place Ville Marie in Montreal, Quebec, and at Yorkdale Plaza in Toronto, Ontario, in 1964.

Also in late 1947, but in Havana, Cuba, the Duplex movie theater was built to share the vestibule and ancillary facilities with the previously existing Rex Cinema (open since 1938); they were both designed by the same architect, Luis Bonich. The programming was coordinated, so that one of them showed documentary and news reels. while the other was showing feature films.[5][6] They were in use at least until the 1990s.

In 1963 AMC Theatres opened the two-screen Parkway Twin in Kansas City, a concept which company president Stan Durwood later claimed to have come up with in 1962, realizing he could double the revenue of a single theater "by adding a second screen and still operate with the same size staff".[3][7] Also, the shopping center structure where the Parkway was located could not support a large theater, so two small theaters were built to avoid that issue, and at first both theaters played the same film. AMC followed up on the Parkway Twin with a four-screen theater in 1966 and a six-screen theater in 1969.[8] Durwood's insight was that one box office and one concession stand could easily serve two (or more) attached auditoriums. Another AMC innovation was to offset the starting times of films, so that staff members who previously had downtime while films were playing at a single-auditorium theater would now be kept continuously busy servicing other auditoriums.

In 1965 Martin's Westgate Cinemas became one of the first indoor two-screen theaters in Atlanta, Georgia. Located in East Point, Georgia, it was later converted into a three-screen venue after a fire partially destroyed one of the theaters. The Disney family film Those Calloways had its world premier at the Westgate,[9] the only film to have been so honored at that theater.

Screen wars

Opening in April 1979, the 18-screen Cineplex, co-founded by Nat Taylor in Toronto's Eaton Centre, became the world's largest multitheatre complex under one roof.[10] It was expanded to 21 screens by at least 1981.[11]

In November 1988, Kinepolis Brussels opened with 25 screens,[12] and is often credited as being the first "megaplex".[13]

On December 30, 1996, AMC Ontario Mills 30, a 30-screen theater, opened in Ontario, California, and became the theater with the most screens in the world.[14] This was eventually tied in the late 1990s by other AMC 30-screen theaters.

Effects

During a high period of growth in many towns, the competition presented by a multiplex would often put the town's smaller theaters out of business. Multiplexes were often developed in conjunction with big box stores in power centers or in suburban malls during the 70s and 80s. The expansion was executed at the big-box pace which left many theater companies bankrupt while attempting to compete — almost all major movie theater companies went bankrupt during this hasty development process; however, AMC Theatres and Cinemark Theatres did not go into bankruptcy. The early U.S. megaplexes sparked a wave of megaplex building across the United States. This was financed in part by a sale-leaseback model with Entertainment Properties Trust.

Largest cinema complex

Kinepolis Madrid opened in Spain on 17 September 1998; it is the world's largest cinema complex in terms of number of seats and has a total seating capacity of 9,200 with 25 screens, each seating between 211 and 996 people. The world's tallest cinema complex is the Cineworld Glasgow Renfrew Street in Glasgow, Scotland, United Kingdom at 203 feet. Opened in 2001, it has 18 screens and seats 4,300 people.[15][16]

Around the world

Australia

The largest megaplex in the Southern Hemisphere is the 26-screen Marion MEGAPLEX in Adelaide, South Australia. The megaplex was originally a 30-screen megaplex branded as Greater Union but was modified to accommodate Gold Class and V-Max screens and was re-branded as Event Cinemas. The auditoriums sit on top of Westfield Marion, which is the largest shopping complex in Adelaide.

Canada

Canada's largest movie theaters over the years have been located in Toronto. As mentioned above the 18- (later 21-) screen Cineplex was the movie theater with the most screens in the world until the late 1980s, but remained the largest movie theater in Canada until it was closed at the turn of the 21st century. In 1998, AMC expanded to Canada, building large movie theatres with as many as 24 screens before opening a 30-plex there in 1999, which is the AMC Interchange 30. Then in 2008, the 24-screen AMC Yonge Dundas 24, adjacent to the Eaton Centre, was completed. Cineplex Entertainment purchased the theater in 2012, along with several other Canadian AMC megaplexes, bringing the company full circle. After that, some more were closed or sold to Empire Theatres. AMC exited Canada by closing the AMC Interchange 30 in 2014.

France

France's largest movie theaters are: 27-screen UGC Ciné Cité Les Halles (3,913 seats) in Paris, 23-screen Kinépolis - Château du Cinéma in Lomme (7,286 seats), 22-screen UGC Ciné Cité Stransbourg (5,275 seats) and 20-screen MK2 Bibliothèque in Paris (3,500 seats).

Greece

Greece' s largest multiplex is Village Rentis, that features 18 mainstream screens, two comfort (special type of a mainstream screen, better seating and less auditorium), three RealD 3D screens and one summer screen.In total it features 21 screens.

India

In India, the mushrooming of multiplexes started since the mid-1980s. Cinema chains such as INOX, PVR, Carnival Cinemas, SPI Cinemas, Cinepolis and Big Cinemas operate multiplexes across the country. The largest multiplex in India is the 16-screen megaplex Mayajaal in Chennai.

Netherlands

In the Netherlands there weren't many multiplexes until the millennial change. In April 2000 Pathé ArenA opened its doors in the ArenAPoort area in Amsterdam. It's the largest multiplex in the Netherlands and features 14 screens and 3250 seats in total. Nowadays a lot of other multiplexes are being set up, but so far none of them have surpassed Pathé ArenA's capacity.

Spain

Multiplexes (multicines) are very popular in Spain and they can be found in or close to most cities, displacing the traditional single-screen theaters.[17] Many middle-sized and large cities have several of them, and they are also common in malls. The average number of screens per theater was 5.2 in 2016.[18]

The Kinepolis-Madrid Ciudad de la Imagen megaplex has been the largest movie theater in the world since 1998, with 25 screens and a seating capacity of 9,200 including a 996-seat auditorium.[19][20][21] Kinepolis-Valencia, built in 2001, boasts 24 screens and 8,000 seats.

United Kingdom

Multiplex cinemas were introduced to the United Kingdom with the opening of a ten-screen cinema by AMC Cinemas at The Point in Milton Keynes in 1985. This was both AMC's first multiplex outside of the United States, but also the first for the UK[22][23] and was largely responsible for the turnaround in the decline of the UK cinema industry. The success of the cinema at Milton Keynes led to further expansion by AMC in the UK to Newcastle, Dudley, Telford, Warrington and by royal appointment to London, before it eventually sold its UK division to UCI Cinemas in 1989.[22] Non-multiplex cinemas are now rare in the UK.

United States

Rave Multiplex Ann Arbor
Rave Motion Pictures Ann Arbor (now a Cinemark)

In the United States, the 14-screen Cineplex in the Beverly Center Mall in West Hollywood, California, became the country's largest upon opening in 1982.[24] (The Beverly Center Cinemas closed in June 2010.)

In December 1988, Studio 28 in Grand Rapids, Michigan, expanded from 12 to 20 screens with a seating capacity of 6,000.[25] (Studio 28 closed in November 2008).

The AMC Grand 24 opened in Dallas, Texas in 1995 as the first 24-screen megaiplex built from the ground up in the United States.[1] AMC Theatres has since built many megaplexes with up to 30 screens, starting with the AMC Ontario Mills 30. After a lease renewal dispute with the property owner, the AMC Grand 24 closed sometime in November 2010.[26] The building has been divided and is scheduled to reopen in 2012 as a Toby Keith–owned nightclub and a 14-screen first-run movie theater operated by Southern Theatres as the "AmStar 14". This theatre is now the Studio Movie Grill Northwest Highway as of 2013. With 14 screens and stadium seating, this theatre is still considered a megaplex.[27]

See also

References

  1. ^ a b Melnick, Ross & Fuchs, Andrea (2004). Cinema Treasures: A New Look at Classic Movie Theaters. pp. 180–81. ISBN 978-0760314920. "[T]he new 'megaplex' theater, defined as containing 20 or more screens"; "Durwood opened the AMC Grand 24 (Dallas) in May 1995".
  2. ^ Larracey, E. W. (1991). The History of Moncton, Volume 2, Moncton: The City of Moncton, p 127. ISBN 0-9694634-2-1
  3. ^ a b c "The Many Births of the Multiplex". Cinelog.org. June 27, 2009. Retrieved November 17, 2009.
  4. ^ "Aiken to be 17th City to Show Film ("Gone with the Wind"); Little Patricia to Open Same Day." Aiken Standard, 14 February 1940, p. 5 and see http://cinematreasures.org/theaters/20886/photos/131821
  5. ^ http://cinematreasures.org/theaters/39388
  6. ^ Melnick, Ross & Andrea Fuchs. Cinema Treasures: A New Look at Classic Movie Theatres. St. Paul: MBI, 2004. Page 147
  7. ^ Klady, Leonard. "Obituaries: Stanley Durwood". Variety, July 19, 1999, p. 40.
  8. ^ "Stan Durwood; Multiplex Theater Pioneer". Los Angeles Times. July 16, 1999. Retrieved November 17, 2009.
  9. ^ "Those Calloways (1965)". Retrieved 5 April 2018 – via www.imdb.com.
  10. ^ Sid Adilman (August 5, 1979). "Cineplex 18: Movies for Many Tastes". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved November 17, 2009. Cineplex opened mid-April...
  11. ^ Andrew H. Malcolm (November 22, 1981). "Toronto Movie Bazaar". The New York Times. Retrieved November 17, 2009.
  12. ^ John Tagliabue (January 27, 2000). "Now Playing Europe: Invasion of the Multiplex; With Subplots on Pride and Environment". The New York Times. Retrieved November 17, 2009.
  13. ^ Acland, Charles R. (2003). Screen Traffic: Movies, Multiplexes, and Global Culture. p. 136. ISBN 978-0822331636.
  14. ^ Degen Pener (June 6, 1997). "Tyrannosaurus Plex". Entertainment Weekly. Retrieved November 17, 2009.
  15. ^ Barr, G. "UGC / Cineworld City Centre". www.scottishcinemas.org.uk. Retrieved 5 April 2018.
  16. ^ "Cineworld". www.attractions.glasgowvant.com. Retrieved 5 April 2018.
  17. ^ 20Minutos. "Aumenta número de salas de cine en España, aunque cada vez son más pequeñas". 20minutos.es. Retrieved 5 April 2018.
  18. ^ "¿CUÁNTOS CINES HAY EN ESPAÑA? ¿CUÁNTOS CINES TIENE CADA COMUNIDAD AUTÓNOMA? - El Blog de Cine Español". www.elblogdecineespanol.com. Retrieved 5 April 2018.
  19. ^ Watts, Christopher. "Mega-ambitious". forbes.com. Retrieved 5 April 2018.
  20. ^ Bennett, Laura (20 June 2010). [http://archive.boston.com/ae/movies/articles/2010/06/20/spanish_cinema_leaves_mark_on_us_films/ "Moviegoing in the land of Almod�var"]. Retrieved 5 April 2018 – via The Boston Globe. replacement character in |title= at position 32 (help)
  21. ^ "Fabulous Fifteen - Film Journal International". www.filmjournal.com. Retrieved 5 April 2018.
  22. ^ a b "AMC CINEMAS® BRINGS THE MULTIPLEX TO THE UNITED KINGDOM". Archived from the original on 2015-01-04. Retrieved 3 January 2015.
  23. ^ "How multiplex cinemas saved the British film industry 25 years ago". https://www.theguardian.com. The Guardian, UK. 25 November 2010. Retrieved 3 January 2015. External link in |website= (help)
  24. ^ Aljean Harmetz (July 28, 1982). "14 screens housed in 1 theater complex". Pittsburgh Post-Gazette. Archived from the original on January 25, 2013. Retrieved November 17, 2009.
  25. ^ Jack Loeks' Studio 28 in Grand Rapids, MI. Cinema Treasures. Retrieved on 2013-07-12.
  26. ^ Wilonsky, Robert (May 27, 2010). "It's Curtains For the AMC Grand 24". Dallas Observer. Unfair Park blog. Retrieved May 27, 2010.
  27. ^ Wilonksy, Robert (September 1, 2011). "So, the Old AMC Grand 24 Will Remain a Movie Theater After All. Half of It, Anyway. Sri Lanka The first multiplex CINECITY was opened in 2000 which consisted four screens . Now the second one is operational in colombo , majestic - which too has four screens". Dallas Observer. Unfair Park blog. Retrieved September 1, 2011.
  • Marlene Edmunds, "Kinepolis Keeps the Plexes Coming", Variety, June 15, 1998, p. 74.
  • William Echikson, "Taking the Megaplex on the Road", Business Week, no. 3547 (Oct. 6, 1997), p. 21.

External links

Abella Center

Abella Center formerly International Marketplace and originally El Portal Shopping Center is a mixed-use city services, business, shopping center and housing village transit-oriented development that was formerly a mall in San Pablo, California.

Bay Plaza Shopping Center

Bay Plaza Shopping Center is a shopping center on the south side of Co-op City, in the Bronx, New York. In addition to various department stores and shops, such as Macy's, JCPenney, Staples, Kmart, Saks Off 5th (formerly Barnes & Noble), and Old Navy, it has a multiplex movie theater, several restaurants, a fitness club, and some office space. Constructed from 1987 to 1988 by Prestige Properties, the shopping center is located between Bartow and Baychester Avenues, just outside Sections 4 and 5 of Co-op City, on an open lot that from 1960 to 1964, was the site of Freedomland USA. The Bay Plaza Shopping Center is the largest shopping center in New York City. Since opening over 25 years ago, it has become extremely successful, the center claims to hold some of the highest performing stores on a per-square-foot basis for many national retailers.

Cavendish Mall

The Cavendish Mall (also known as Quartier Cavendish) is an indoor shopping centre in Côte Saint-Luc, Quebec, Canada. It includes a food court, multiplex movie theater and a medical clinic: the CLSC Rene Cassin. A small highrise office-building is adjoined to the mall's southern half. Redeveloped in 2011, the mall was reduced to almost half its original size.

David Cronenberg's 1977 film Rabid features scenes shot in the mall.

Eldorado Cinema (Oslo)

Eldorado Cinema was a Multiplex (movie theater) located at Torggata 9 in Oslo sentrum. It had five theaters with 1000 seats, which broke down as 170, 140, 163, 168, and 370 seats in theaters 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5, respectively.

Kuroiso, Tochigi

Kuroiso (黒磯市, Kuroiso-shi), formerly a city in Tochigi Prefecture, Japan, is a district located in the modern city of Nasushiobara. The former city was founded on November 1, 1970.

In 2003, the city had an estimated population of 60,145 and a density of 175.29 persons per km². The total area was 343.12 km².

Magic Johnson Enterprises

Magic Johnson Enterprises is an American investment company owned by retired NBA Hall of Fame legend Magic Johnson. In 1995, after some criticism that he only invested with other people's money, Johnson took an equity stake along with what was then the Loews chain in the 12-screen multiplex movie theater in Baldwin Hills (now owned by Cinemark). The Beverly Hills-based Magic Johnson Enterprises formerly owned Magic Johnson Theatres in four cities, 31 Burger King restaurants in the Southeast, and 13 24-Hour Fitness/Magic Johnson Sport health clubs. Over the years, Magic Johnson Enterprises has continually invested ownership in many lucrative businesses such as the Los Angeles Lakers, movie theaters and restaurants in the United States, including T.G.I. Friday's, Sodexo, and Burger King locations.

In October 2010, Johnson sold his interest in 105 Starbucks franchises back to the company. Around the same time he sold his 4.5% interest in the Los Angeles Lakers for an estimated $27 million. Johnson owned a nearly 5% share of the Lakers, until its sale to Patrick Soon-Shiong in 2010. In March 2008, Johnson signed a multi-year marketing deal to help electronics retailer Best Buy Co. bolster sales in urban neighborhoods.Johnson's urban investments were formed in 2001 as the Canyon-Johnson Urban Fund, an alliance with Canyon Capital. The alliance has financed 31 real estate developments in 13 states and the District Of Columbia. The first Canyon-Johnson Urban Fund struggled for two years to raise $300 million to invest in urban neighborhoods. A subsequent fund raised $600 million while the third and biggest investment fund was started in April 2008 and drew $1 billion from pension funds and other investors. The Canyon-Johnson fund was involved in the $100-million purchase of the 32-story former Transamerica Center complex in downtown Los Angeles that subsequently was renovated and sold for $205 million. The fund also had a stake in Sunset+Vine in Hollywood, which was built for $125 million and sold for $160 millon.In the summer of 2006, the company made headlines for concluding a deal with Sodexo, one of the largest food services and facilities management companies in the world. The initiative includes a marketing agreement and the formation of SodexoMAGIC, LLC, a new joint venture that is 51 percent owned by Johnson.Magic Johnson Enterprises has also invested in Jopwell. Jopwell is a diversity hiring startup that helps companies connect with and recruit underrepresented ethnic minority candidates for jobs and internships. Magic Johnson Enterprises' investment was part of a $3.25 million seed round that included Andreessen Horowitz, Kapor Capital, Omidyar Network and Valar Ventures.

Military Circle Mall

Military Circle Mall, known as The Gallery at Military Circle Mall from 2002 to 2015, is an enclosed shopping mall in Norfolk, Virginia. Opened in 1970, it lost three anchors in the 2010s: Sears, JCPenney, and Macy's. It now features Ross Dress for Less and a Cinemark multiplex movie theater. In October 2016 the Virginia Beach City Council rejected plans for an oceanfront arena. This vote triggered discussions for the Military Circle area to include the construction of a 20,000 seat multi purpose arena. However, rising city debt and other priorities appear to negate any near-term plans for a new arena to the area.

Moosic, Pennsylvania

Moosic is a borough in Lackawanna County, Pennsylvania, six miles (9 km) south of Downtown Scranton and 13 miles (21 km) northeast of Downtown Wilkes-Barre on the Lackawanna River.

Moosic is in a former coal-mining region. A few older industries existed at one time, including the manufacturing of canvas gloves and silk products. The population was 5,719 at the 2010 census.

Multi-screen

Multi-screen may refer to:

Multi-screen video

Multi-screen cinema, or Multiplex (movie theater)

Multi Screen Media, previous name of Sony Pictures Networks India

North DeKalb Mall

North Dekalb Mall is an enclosed shopping mall located in unincorporated DeKalb County, near Decatur, a suburb of Atlanta, Georgia, United States. Opened in 1965, the center currently comprises more than eighty-five stores on one level. Anchor stores include Burlington Coat Factory and Marshalls, the mall also features a food court and multiplex movie theater.

Sandy Springs station

Sandy Springs is an underground metro station in Sandy Springs, Georgia, on the Red Line of the Metropolitan Atlanta Rapid Transit Authority (MARTA) rail system. It serves the Perimeter Center area, including high-rise office parks near Georgia 400 and Abernathy Road, north of Perimeter Mall and within the recently incorporated city of Sandy Springs, the Art Institute of Atlanta, American Intercontinental University, United Parcel Service (UPS World Headquarters), North Park business park, Embassy Row and Cox Communications.

It is adjacent to a large shopping complex that includes a multiplex movie theater, the only MARTA station to have one so close.

Soma San Diego

SOMA is a concert venue in the Midway neighborhood of San Diego, California, adjacent to the San Diego Sports Arena. It is an all-ages venue with a strict alcohol-free policy to permit attendance by minors. It has been described as San Diego's "leading all-ages venue for punk and alternative-rock concerts." It is located at 3350 Sports Arena Blvd.

SouthSide Works

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Tejgaon Thana

Tejgaon (Bengali: তেজগাঁও) is a thana of Dhaka District in the Division of Dhaka, Bangladesh. It is in the centre of Dhaka, the capital. In 2006, the boundaries of the thana were redrawn when Tejgaon Industrial Area Thana was created out of the former larger area and again in 2009 when Sher-e-Bangla Nagar Thana was created.This is an important area of Dhaka city as the prime minister's office is here. It is bounded by Mohakhali to the north, Old Airport Road to the east and Moghbazar-Malibagh to the south and Dhanmondi to the west. It consists of several localities, including Tejgaon Industrial Area, Kawran Bazar, Nakhalpara, Shaheen Bag, Arjat para, East Raja Bazar, West Raja Bazar, Tejturi Bazar and Tejkunipara.

Tysons Corner Center

Tysons Corner Center, located in the Tysons unincorporated area in Fairfax County, Virginia, United States (between McLean and Vienna, Virginia), opened to the public in 1968, becoming one of the first fully enclosed, climate-controlled shopping malls in the Washington metropolitan area.It is the largest shopping mall in the state and in the Baltimore-Washington area. Tysons Corner Center is located 12.5 miles (20.1 kilometers) from the Central Business District of Washington D.C. and neighbors the Tysons Galleria mall across Chain Bridge Road.

Williamsburg Cinemas

Williamsburg Cinemas is a first-run multiplex theater located in Williamsburg, Brooklyn in New York City, on the corner of Grand Street and Driggs Avenue.Williamsburg Cinemas has seven theaters inside of it, is 19,000 square-feet wide, and has stadium-seating.

Yerevan Mall

Yerevan Mall (Armenian: Երևան Մոլ) is a shopping mall located on Arshakunyats Avenue, Yerevan, Armenia. Opened in 2014, it is the largest mall in Armenia in terms of number of stores and total floor area.

Carrefour hypermarket was opened in the mall on March 11, 2015.

KinoPark, the most modern and innovative movie theater in Armenia, and Captain Kid’s treasure island, the biggest indoor entertainment center in Armenia, are located at Yerevan Mall.

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