Shia Muslims mourn the death of Ḥusayn ibn ʿAlī and his family, honoring the martyrs by prayer and abstinence from joyous events. Shia Muslims do not fast on the 10th of Muharram, but some will not eat or drink until Zawal (afternoon) to show their sympathy with Husayn. In addition there is an important ziyarat book, the Ziyarat Ashura about Husayn ibn Ali. In the Shia sect, it is popular to read this ziyarat on this date.
The sighting of the new moon ushers in the Islamic New Year. The first month, Muharram, is one of the four sacred months mentioned in the Quran, along with the seventh month of Rajab, and the eleventh and twelfth months of Dhu al-Qi'dah and Dhu al-Hijjah, respectively, immediately preceding Muharram. During these sacred months, warfare is forbidden. Before the advent of Islam, the Quraish and Arabs also forbade warfare during those months.
Muharram is a month of remembrance and modern Shia meditation that is often considered synonymous with Ashura. Ashura, which literally means the "Tenth" in Arabic, refers to the tenth day of Muharram. It is well-known because of historical significance and mourning for the murder of Ḥusayn ibn Ali, the grandson of Muhammad.
Shia's begin mourning from the first night of Muharram and continue for ten nights, climaxing on the 10th of Muharram, known as the Day of Ashura. The last few days up until and including the Day of Ashura are the most important because these were the days in which Husayn and his family and followers (including women, children and elderly people) were deprived of water from the 7th onward and on the 10th, Husayn and 72 of his followers were killed by the army of unjust terrorist ruler Yazid I at the Battle of Karbala on Yazid's unjust orders. The surviving members of Husayn’s family and those of his followers were taken captive, marched to Damascus, and imprisoned there.
The Islamic calendar is a lunar calendar, and months begin when the first crescent of a new moon is sighted. Since the Islamic lunar calendar year is 10 to 11 days shorter than the solar year, Muharram migrates throughout the solar years. The estimated start and end dates for Muharram are as follows (based on the Umm al-Qura calendar of Saudi Arabia):
|AH||First day (CE/AD)||Last day (CE/AD)|
|1439||21 September 2017||20 October 2017|
|1440||11 September 2018||9 October 2018|
|1441||31 August 2019||29 September 2019|
|1442||20 August 2020||17 September 2020|
|1443||9 August 2021||7 September 2021|
|1444||30 July 2022||27 August 2022|
There will be an Ayah (sign) in (the month of) Ramadan. Then, there will 'isabah (splitting into groups) in Shawwal. Then, there will be fighting in (the month of) Dhu al-Qi'dah. Then, the pilgrim will be robbed in (the month of) Dhu al-Hijjah. Then, the prohibitions will be violated in (the month of) al-Muharram. Then, there will be sound in (the month of) Safar, then the tribes will conflict with each other in the two months of Rabi' al-awwal & Rabi' al-thani. Then, the most amazing thing will happen between (the months of) Jumada and Rajab. Then, a well-fed she-camel will be better than a fortress (castle) sheltering a thousand (people).
The 1979 Qatif Uprising was a period of unprecedented civil unrest that occurred in Qatif and Al-Hasa, Saudi Arabia, in late November 1979. The unrest resulted in 20-24 people killed in what was described as a sectarian outburst of violence between the Shi'a minority and Sunni Majority in Saudi Arabia and the beginning of the modern phase of the Qatif conflict.Abbas ibn Ali
Al-Abbas ibn Ali (Arabic: العباس بن علي, romanized: al-‘Abbās ibn ‘Alī), also known as Qamar Banī Hāshim (Arabic: قمر بني هاشم) (the moon of Banu Hashim) (born 4th Sha‘bān 26 AH – 10 Muharram 61 AH; approximately May 15, 647 – October 10, 680), was a son of Ali (who was the first Imam of Shia Muslims and the fourth Caliph of Sunni Muslims), and Fatima bint Hizam, commonly known as Mother of the Sons (Arabic: أم البنين).
Abbas, also known as Abbas Alamdar, is highly revered by Shia Muslims and Sunni Muslims for his loyalty to his brother Husain, his respect for the Household of Muhammad, and his role in the Battle of Karbala. Abbas is buried in the Shrine of Abbas in Karbala, Karbala Governorate, Iraq, where he was martyred during the Battle of Karbala on the day of Ashura. He was praised for his "handsome looks" and was also well known in the Arab community for his courage, bravery, strength and ferocity as a warrior. Ibn Manzur narrates in his al-Ayn that Al-Abbas was the "lion that other lions feared" as a testament to his accolades as a warrior. Sheikh at-Turaihi describes Abbas's appearance as resembling an unshakable mountain, with his heart firmly rooted, due to his qualities as a "unique horseman" and a "fearless hero".Ashura
Yom Ashura or Ashura (Arabic: عاشوراء, romanized: ʻĀshūrā’ [ʕaːʃuːˈraːʔ]) is the tenth day of Muharram, the first month in the Islamic calendar. It marks the day that Husayn ibn Ali, the grandson of the Islamic prophet Muhammad, was martyred in the Battle of Karbala. Ashura is a major holiday and occasion for pilgrimage and fasting in Shia Islam, as well as a recommended but non-obligatory day of fasting in Sunni Islam. Ashura has origins in Yom Kippur from Judaism.Ashura marks the climax of the Remembrance of Muharram, the annual commemoration of the death of Husayn and his family and supporters at the Battle of Karbala on 10 Muharram in the year 61 AH (in AHt: October 10, 680 CE). Mourning for the incident began almost immediately after the battle. Popular elegies were written by poets to commemorate the Battle of Karbala during the Umayyad and Abbasid era, and the earliest public mourning rituals occurred in 963 CE during the Buyid dynasty.
In Afghanistan, Iran, Iraq, Lebanon, Bahrain and Pakistan Ashura has become a national holiday, and many ethnic and religious communities participate in it.For Sunni Muslims, Ashura also marks the day that Moses and the Israelites were saved from Pharaoh by God creating a path in the Sea or Noah leaving the Ark.Ashure
Ashure (Turkish: Aşure) or Noah's Pudding is a Turkish dessert porridge that is made of a mixture consisting of grains, fruits, dried fruits and nuts. In Turkey it is made all the year and served especially during Muharram, the first month of the Islamic calendar, as the 10th of Muharrem corresponds to the Day of Ashure. ("Ashura" is Arabic for "tenth".)
Ashure is one of the limited set of Turkish desserts which contain no animal products. One reason behind it is arguably protesting all kinds of violence and bloodshed. Alevis in Turkey are the prominent group to promote this pudding, traditionally cooking and sharing it following the days of fasting (coinciding Battle of Karbala) in which they abstain from eating meat. In said battle, Hussein ibn Ali and his followers embraced martyrdom.
Traditionally, Ashure is made in large quantities to commemorate the ark's landing and is distributed to friends, relatives, neighbors, colleagues, classmates, among others, without regard to the recipient's religion or belief system as an offering of peace and love. Ashure was traditionally made and eaten during the colder months of the year as it is calorie rich fare, but now it is enjoyed year-round.Azadari in Lucknow
Azadari in Lucknow or Mourning in Lucknow, is name of the practices related to mourning and commemoration of the anniversary of the death of Imam Husayn ibn Ali at the Battle of Karbala in 680, particularly in period of Muharram (in the Indian sub-continent Muharram in the context of remembrance of the events of Karbala means the period of two months & eight days i.e. 68 days starting from the evening of 29 Zill-Hijjah and ending on the evening of 8 Rabi-al-Awwal) and in general round the year.
The Government of Uttar Pradesh banned the processions in 1977 because of riots and violence. As a result of protests, demonstrations, court arrests, self immolations and deaths of Shia youth, under the leadership of shia ulemas, the Shias were permitted by the government to stage an Azadari procession in January 1998 (21st of Ramzan). A limited number of processions are allowed, and security is tight.Battle of Karbala
The Battle of Karbala was fought on 10 October 680 (10 Muharram in the year 61 AH of the Islamic calendar) between the army of the second Umayyad caliph Yazid I and a small army led by Husayn ibn Ali, the grandson of the Islamic prophet Muhammad, at Karbala, Iraq.
Prior to his death, the Umayyad caliph Muawiyah I had nominated his son Yazid as his successor. Yazid's nomination was not generally seen as favorable by the community, as he was widely viewed as un-Islamic and had adopted the practices of the Age of Ignorance. Upon Muawiyah's death in 680 CE, Yazid sought to legitimize his rule by demanding that Husayn, Muhammad's grandson, pledge allegiance to him. Husayn did not give allegiance to Yazid and traveled towards Kufa. The people of Kufa were averse of the Syria-based Umayyad rule and had a long-standing attachment to the house of Ali (Husayn's father). As Husayn traveled towards Kufa with a retinue of some 70 men, his caravan was intercepted by a 1,000 strong army of the caliph at some distance from Kufa and pushed north. He was forced to pitch tents in the plain of Karbala on 2 October, where a larger army of 4,000 arrived soon afterwards. Negotiations failed after the Umayyad governor Ubayd Allah ibn Ziyad refused to let Husayn go without submitting to his authority, a condition declined by Husayn. Battle ensued on 10 October in which Husayn was killed along with most of his relatives and companions, while his family were taken prisoner. The battle was followed by the Second Islamic Civil War, during which the Iraqis organized two separate campaigns to avenge the death of Husayn; the first one by the Tawwabin and the other one by Mukhtar al-Thaqafi and his supporters.
The Battle of Karbala galvanized the development of the pro-Alid party (Shi'at Ali) into a unique religious sect with its own rituals and collective memory. It has a central place in the Shi'a history, tradition, and theology, and has frequently been recounted in the Shi'a literature. For the Shi'a, Husayn's suffering and death became a symbol of sacrifice in the struggle for right against wrong, and for justice and truth against injustice and falsehood. It also provides the members of the Shi'a faith with a catalog of heroic norms. The battle is commemorated during an annual ten-day period during Muharram by Shi'a, culminating on tenth day of the month, known as the Day of Ashura. During this period, Shi'a Muslims mourn, hold public processions, organize religious gathering, beat their chests and in some cases self-flagellate. Sunni Muslims likewise regard the incident as a historical tragedy; Husayn and his companions are widely regarded as martyrs by both Sunni and Shi'a Muslims.Hijri year
The Hijri year (Arabic: سَنة هِجْريّة) or era (التقويم الهجري at-taqwīm al-hijrī) is the era used in the Islamic lunar calendar, which begins its count from the Islamic New Year in 622 CE. During that year, Muhammad and his followers migrated from Mecca to Yathrib (now Medina). This event, known as the Hijra, is commemorated in Islam for its role in the founding of the first Muslim community (ummah).
In the West, this era is most commonly denoted as AH (Latin: Anno Hegirae , 'in the year of the Hijra') in parallel with the Christian (AD), Common (CE) and Jewish eras (AM) and can similarly be placed before or after the date. In Muslim-dominated countries, it is also commonly abbreviated H ("Hijra") from its Arabic abbreviation hāʾ (هـ). Years prior to AH 1 are reckoned in English as BH ("Before the Hijra"), which should follow the date.Because the Islamic lunar calendar has only 354 or 355 days in its year, it slowly rotates relative to the Gregorian year. The year 2019 CE corresponds to the Islamic years AH 1440 – 1441. AH 1440 corresponds to 2018 – 2019 in the Common Era.Hosseinieh Azam Zanjan Mosque
Hosseinieh Azam Zanjan Mosque (Persian: حسینیه اعظم زنجان) is one of the Shia Islam religious sites located in Zanjan. This place dates back more than a century ago. This Hoseyniyeh by two people named Mirza Muhammad Taqi and Haj Mirza Babai was dedicated and since was held there since then on the 8th of Muharram mourning a certain way.Husayn ibn Ali
Al-Husayn ibn Ali ibn Abi Talib (Arabic: ٱلْحُسَيْن ابْن عَلِي ابْن أَبِي طَالِب, romanized: al-Ḥusayn ʾibn ʿAlī ʾibn ʾAbī Ṭālib; 10 January 626 – 10 October 680) was a grandson of the Islamic prophet Muhammad and a son of Ali ibn Abi Talib (the first Shia Imam and the fourth Rightly Guided Caliph of Sunni Islam) and Muhammad's daughter Fatimah. He is an important figure in Islam as he was a member of the Household of Muhammad (Ahl al-Bayt) and the People of the Cloak (Ahl al-Kisā'), as well as the third Shia Imam.
Prior to his death, the Umayyad ruler Mu'awiya appointed his son Yazid as his successor, contrary to the Hasan-Muawiya treaty. When Muawiya died in 680 CE, Yazid demanded that Husayn pledge allegiance to him. Husayn refused to pledge allegiance to Yazid, even though it meant sacrificing his life. As a consequence, he left Medina, his hometown, to take refuge in Mecca in AH 60. There, the people of Kufa sent letters to him, asking his help and pledging their allegiance to him. So he traveled towards Kufa, but near Karbala his caravan was intercepted by Yazid's army. He was killed and beheaded in the Battle of Karbala on 10 October 680 (10 Muharram 61 AH) by Yazid, along with most of his family and companions, including Husayn's six month old son, Ali al-Asghar, with the women and children taken as prisoners. Anger at Husayn's death was turned into a rallying cry that helped undermine the Umayyad caliphate's legitimacy, and ultimately its overthrow by the Abbasid Revolution.The annual commemoration of Husayn and his children, family and companions occurs during Muharram, the first month of the Islamic calendar, and the day he was martyred is known as Ashura (the tenth day of Muharram, a day of mourning for Shi'i Muslims). Husayn's actions at Karbala fueled later Shi'a movements, and his death was decisive in shaping Islamic and Shi'a history. The timing of Husayn's life and death were crucial as they were in one of the most challenging periods of the seventh century. During this time, Umayyad oppression was rampant, and the stand that Husayn and his followers took became a symbol of resistance inspiring future uprisings against oppressors and injustice. Throughout history, many notable personalities, such as Nelson Mandela and Mahatma Gandhi, have cited Husayn's stand against oppression as an example for their own fights against injustice.Hussainiya
A ḥosayniya or hussainiya (Persian: حسینیه hoseyniye), also known as an ashurkhana, imambargah, or imambara, is a congregation hall for Twelver Shia Muslim commemoration ceremonies, especially those associated with the Mourning of Muharram. The name comes from Husayn ibn Ali, the third of the Twelve Imams and the grandson of the Islamic prophet Muhammad. Husayn was killed at the Battle of Karbala on 10 October 680 CE during the reign of Umayyad Caliph Yazid I. The Shia commemorate his martyrdom every year on Ashura, the 10th day of Muharram. There are also other ceremonies which are held during the year in hussainiyas, including religious commemorations unrelated to Ashura.Islamic New Year
The Islamic New Year, also known as Arabic New Year or Hijri New Year (Arabic: رأس السنة الهجرية Raʼs al-Sanah al-Hijrīyah), is the day that marks the beginning of a new Hijri year, and is the day on which the year count is incremented. The first day of the year is observed on the first day of Muharram, the first month in the Islamic calendar. The epoch (reference date) of the Islamic era was set as 622 Common Era (CE), the year of the emigration of Muhammad and his followers from Mecca to Medina, known as the Hijra. All religious duties, such as prayer, fasting in the month of Ramadan, and pilgrimage, and the dates of significant events, such as celebration of holy nights and festivals, are calculated according to the Islamic calendar.
While some Islamic organizations prefer determining the new month (and hence the new year) by local sightings of the moon, most Islamic institutions and countries, including Saudi Arabia, follow astronomical calculations to determine future dates of the Islamic calendar. There are various schema for calculating the tabular Islamic calendar (i.e. not based on observation), which results in differences of typically one or even two days between countries using such schema and those that use lunar sightings. For example, the Umm al-Qura calendar used in Saudi Arabia was reformed several times in recent years. The current scheme was introduced in 1423 AH (15 March 2002).A day in the Islamic calendar is defined as beginning at sunset. For example, 1 Muharram 1432 was defined to correspond to 7 or 8 December 2010 in official calendars (depending on the country). For an observation-based calendar, a sighting of the new moon at sunset of 6 December would mean that 1 Muharram lasted from the moment of sunset of 6 December to the moment of sunset of 7 December, while in places where the new moon was not sighted on 6 December, 1 Muharram would last from the moment of sunset of 7 December to the moment of sunset of 8 December.Islamic calendar
The Islamic, Muslim, or Hijri calendar (Arabic: التقويم الهجري at-taqwīm al-hijrī) is a lunar calendar consisting of 12 lunar months in a year of 354 or 355 days. It is used to determine the proper days of Islamic holidays and rituals, such as the annual period of fasting and the proper time for the pilgrimage to Mecca. The civil calendar of almost all countries where the religion is predominantly Muslim is the Gregorian calendar. Notable exceptions to this rule are Iran and Afghanistan, which use the Solar Hijri calendar. Rents, wages and similar regular commitments are generally paid by the civil calendar.The Islamic calendar employs the Hijri era whose epoch was established as the Islamic New Year of 622 AD/CE. During that year, Muhammad and his followers migrated from Mecca to Medina and established the first Muslim community (ummah), an event commemorated as the Hijra. In the West, dates in this era are usually denoted AH (Latin: Anno Hegirae, "in the year of the Hijra") in parallel with the Christian (AD), Common (CE) and Jewish eras (AM). In Muslim countries, it is also sometimes denoted as H from its Arabic form (سَنة هِجْريّة, abbreviated هـ). In English, years prior to the Hijra are reckoned as BH ("Before the Hijra").The current Islamic year is 1441 AH. In the Gregorian calendar, 1441 AH runs from approximately 1 September 2019 to 20 August 2020.Karbala
Karbala ( KAR-bə-lə, also US: KAR-bə-LAH; Arabic: كَرْبَلَاء, romanized: Karbalāʾ [karbaˈlaːʔ]; Persian: کربلا) or Kerbala is a city in central Iraq, located about 100 km (62 mi) southwest of Baghdad, and a few dozen miles east of Lake Milh. Karbala is the capital of Karbala Governorate, and has an estimated population of 700,000 people (2015).
The city, best known as the location of the Battle of Karbala in 680 CE, or the Mosques of Imam Husayn and Abbas, is considered a holy city for Shi'ite Muslims in the same way as Mecca, Medina and Jerusalem. Tens of millions of Shi'ite Muslims visit the site twice a year, rivaling Mecca as a place of pilgrimage. The martyrdom of Husayn ibn Ali is commemorated annually by millions of Shi'ites. Up to 8 million pilgrims visit the city to observe ‘Āshūrā’ (the tenth day of the month of Muharram), which marks the anniversary of Husayn's death, but the main event is the Arba‘īn (the 40th day after Ashura), where up to 30 million visit the holy graves. Most of the pilgrims travel on foot from all around Iraq and more than 56 countries.Mourning of Muharram
The Mourning of Muharram (also known as the Remembrance of Muharram or Muharram Observances) is a set of rituals associated with Shia Muslims; and all believers in Islam , as well as some non-Muslims, also take part in the remembrance. The commemoration falls in Muharram, the first month of the Islamic calendar. Many of the events associated with the ritual take place in congregation halls known as Hussainia.
The event marks the anniversary of the Battle of Karbala, when Imam Hussein ibn Ali, a grandson of Muhammad, was killed by the forces of the second Umayyad caliph. Family members and companions accompanying him were killed or subjected to humiliation. The commemoration of this event during the yearly mourning season, with the Day of Ashura as the focal date, serves to define Shia communal identity. Muharram observances are carried out in countries with a sizable Shia population.
Both Sunni and Shia Muslims mourn during Muharram, although Sunnis do so to a much lesser extent. Storytelling, weeping, self-flagellation, and re-enactments of the Battle of Karbala form the crux of the observances.Operation Muharram
Operation Muharram (Persian: عملیات محرم) was an Iranian operation which was conducted during the Iran–Iraq War by the command of Hasan Bagheri. It was started on 1 November 1982 at 22:08 o'clock with the code of "La-Hawla wa La-Qowwatah Ela Bellah; Ya Zeinab-Kobra (S)". The goal of this operation was "liberation of Iran's occupied lands in the vicinity of frontier mountains of Jabal-al-Hamrain in the south of Dehloran and the region which was between Fakkeh till Dehloran city.Operation Muharram is known as one of exterritorial operations of Iran, too; because, advance in the territory of Iraq was planned as well as liberation plan of Iran's occupied lands. Operational area of Muharram was limited from the east to Doyrej river, and from the west to the frontier highlands of Jabal-al-Hamrain and Jabal-al-Fuqi. The operation was regarded as the continuation of Operation Fath ol-Mobin that could complete its goals by winning in that.Finally, at the end of Operation Muharram, Iran succeeded to free the highlands 400/298, Bayat oil territory, Anbar river, Chamsari police station, Musian and other returns, among freeing 550 kilometers of Iran's lands, capturing 2350 Iraqis, and 6000 Iraqis were murdered/injured, plus other casualties to Iraqi Army.Saifia
The Silsila-e-Saifia Urdu سیفیہArabic السیفیہ is a Muslim Sufi order based in Pakistan, with a following in the UK, Europe, US, Canada,Afghanistan, India, Bangladesh and various countries of the Middle East. The order is linked to the lineage of Naqshbandiyyah Mujaddadiyyah, and the order's grandmaster is Akhundzada Saif-ur-Rahman Mubarak.Ta'zieh
Ta'zieh or Ta'zïye or Ta'zīya or Tazīa or Ta'ziyeh, (Arabic: تعزية, Persian: تعزیه, Urdu: تعزیہ) means comfort, condolence or expression of grief. It comes from roots aza (عزو and عزى) which means mourning.
Depending on the region, time, occasion, religion, etc. the word can signify different cultural meanings and practices:
In Persian cultural reference it is categorized as Condolence Theater or Passion Play inspired by a historical and religious event, the tragic death of Hussein, symbolizing epic spirit and resistance.
In South Asia and in the Caribbean it refers specifically to the Miniature Mausoleums (imitations of the mausolems of Karbala, generally made of coloured paper and bamboo) used in ritual processions held in the month of Muharram.Ta'zieh, primarily known from the Persian tradition, is a shi'ite Muslim ritual that reenacts the death of Hussein (the prophet Muhammad's grandson) and his male children and companions in a brutal massacre on the plains of Karbala, Iraq in the year 680 A.D. His death was the result of a power struggle in the decision of control of the Muslim community (called the caliph) after the death of the Prophet Muhammad.Today, we know of 250 Ta'zieh pieces. They were collected by an Italian ambassador to Iran, Cherulli, and added to a collection which can be found in the Vatican Library. Various other scripts can be found scattered throughout Iran.Tabuik
A Tabuik is the local manifestation of the Remembrance of Muharram among the Minangkabau people in the coastal regions of West Sumatra, Indonesia, particularly in the city of Pariaman.Tekyeh
A Tekyeh (Persian: تکیه) is a place where Shiite Muslims gather to mourn muharram. Such places are particularly found in Iran. They are usually traditionally designed with observable elements of Persian architecture. Tehran is said to have had up to 50 tekyeh in the Qajar era. There are tekyeh in almost every Iranian cities. They look like mosques but are used during muharram month. Even in small villages such as Fasham (near Tehran), there is a big tekyeh. You can visit for free the one in Fasham.
Months of the Islamic calendar (AH)
(differ by states)