Muhammad XII of Granada

Abu `Abdallah Muhammad XII (Arabic: أبو عبد الله محمد الثاني عشرAbū ‘Abdi-llāh Muḥammad ath-thānī ‘ashar) (c. 1460 – 1533), known to the Castilians as Boabdil (a Spanish rendering of the name Abu Abdillah), was the 22nd and last Nasrid ruler of the Emirate of Granada in Iberia.

Muhammad XII
El rey chico de Granada
A painting of Muhammad XII of Granada, last Muslim sultan in Spain. Date of this painting and its current location are unknown.
Sultan of Granada
1st reign1482–1483
PredecessorAbu l-Hasan Ali
SuccessorAbu l-Hasan Ali
2nd reign1487 – 2 January 1492
PredecessorMuhammad XIII
Bornc. 1460
Alhambra, Granada
Fes, Morocco[1]
Aixa (Sor Isabel de Granada)
Full name
Abu `Abdallah Muhammad XII (Arabic: أبو عبد الله محمد الثاني عشر)
HouseNasrid dynasty
FatherAbu l-Hasan Ali, Sultan of Granada


Muhammad XII was the son of Abu l-Hasan Ali, Sultan of the Emirate of Granada whom he succeeded in 1482[2], as a result of both court intrigue and unrest amongst the population at large.[3]

Muhammad XII soon sought to gain prestige by invading Castile. He was taken prisoner at Lucena in 1483.[2] Muhammad's father was then restored as ruler of Granada, to be replaced in 1485 by his uncle Muhammed XIII, also known as Abdullah ez Zagal.

Muhammad obtained his freedom and Christian support to recover his throne in 1487, by consenting to hold Granada as a tributary kingdom under the Catholic monarchs.[2] He further undertook not to intervene in the Siege of Málaga, in which Málaga was taken by the Christians.

Following the fall of Málaga and Baza in 1487, Almuñécar, Salobreña and Almería were taken by the Christians the following year. By the beginning of 1491, Granada was the only Muslim-governed city in Iberia.

Surrender of Granada

In 1491, Muhammad XII was summoned by Ferdinand and Isabella to surrender the city of Granada, which was besieged by the Castilians. Eventually, on 2 January 1492, Granada was surrendered.[2] In most sumptuous attire the royal procession moved from Santa Fe to a place a little more than a mile from Granada, where Ferdinand took up his position by the banks of the Genil. A private letter written by an eyewitness to the bishop of León only six days after the event recorded the scene:

La Rendición de Granada - Pradilla
The Capitulation of Granada by Francisco Pradilla Ortiz, 1882: Muhammad XII surrenders to Ferdinand and Isabella

The Moorish sultan, with about eighty or a hundred on horseback and very well dressed, went forth to kiss the hand of their Highnesses. According to the final capitulation the key to Granada will pass into Spanish hands without Muhammad XII having to kiss the hands of Los Reyes, as the Spanish royal couple Isabella and Fernando became known. The indomitable mother of Muhammad XII insisted on sparing her son this final humiliation of kissing the hand of Isabella .

Christopher Columbus seems to have been present; he refers to the surrender:

After your Highnesses ended the war of the Moors who reigned in Europe, and finished the war of the great city of Granada, where this present year 1492 on the 2nd January I saw the royal banners of Your Highnesses planted by force of arms on the towers of the Alhambra.


Les Adieux du roi Boabdil a Grenade Alfred Dehodencq 1822 1882
The farewells of King Boabdil at Granada (Les Adieux du roi Boabdil à Grenade), Alfred Dehodencq (1822–1882).

Legend has it that as Muhammad XII went into exile, he reached a rocky prominence which gave a last view of the city. Here he reined in his horse and viewed for the last time the Alhambra and the green valley that spread below. The place where this allegedly took place is today known as the Suspiro del Moro, "the Moor's sigh". Muhammad mourned his loss, and continued his journey to exile accompanied by his mother.

Muhammad XII was given an estate in Laujar de Andarax, Las Alpujarras, a mountainous area between the Sierra Nevada and the Mediterranean Sea, but in October 1493 he crossed the Mediterranean to Fes, Morocco, accompanied by an entourage of 1,130 courtiers and servants. Large numbers of the Muslim population of Granada had already fled to North Africa, taking advantage of a clause in the articles of surrender that permitted free passage.[4]

Letter to the Marinid Sultan of Morocco

Shortly after his surrender, Muhammad Boabdil sent a long letter to the Marinid rulers of Morocco asking for refuge. The letter begins with a long poem praising the Marinids, followed by a prose passage where he laments his defeat and asks forgiveness for past wrongdoings of his forefathers against the Marinids. The entire text was reported by al-Maqqari:[5]

...The lord of Castile has proposed for us a respectable residence and has given us assurances of safety to which he pledged by his own handwriting, enough to convince the souls. But we, as descendants of Banu al-Ahmar, didn't settle for this and our faith in God does not permit us to reside under the protection of disbelief.

We also received from the east many letters full of goodwill, inviting us to come to their lands and offering the best of advantages. But we cannot choose other than our home and the home of our forefathers, we can only accept the protection of our relatives, not because of opportunism but to confirm the brotherhood relationship between us and to fulfill the testament of our forefathers, that tells us not to seek any help other that of the Marinids and not to let anything obstruct us from going to you. So we traversed the vast lands and sailed the tumultuous sea and we hope that we would not be returned and that our eyes will be satisfied and our hurt and grievous souls will be healed from this great pain... - Muhamad Abu Abdallah[5]

Original text in Arabic:

ولقد عرض علينا صاحب قشتالة مواضع معتبرة خير فيها، وأعطى من أمانه المؤكد فيه خطه بأيمانه ما يقنع النفوس ويكفيها، فلم نر

ونحن من سلالة الأحمر، مجاورة الصفر، ولا سوغ لنا الإيمان الإقامة بين ظهراني الكفر، ما وجدنا عن ذلك مندوحة ولو شاسعة، وأمنا من المطالب المشاغب حمة شرٍ لنا لاسعة، وادكرنا أي ادكار، قول الله تعالى المنكر لذلك غاية الإنكار "ألم تكن أرض الله واسعة" وقول الرسول، عليه الصلاة والسلام، المبالغ في ذلك بأبلغ الكلام "أنا بريء من مؤمن مع كافر لا تتراءى ناراهما" وقول الشاعر الحاث على حث المطية، المتثاقلة عن السير في طريق منجاء البطية

وما أنا والتلدد نحو نجد وقد غصت تهامة بالرجال

ووصلت أيضاً من الشرق إلينا، كتب كريمة المقاصد لدينا، تستدعي الانحياز إلى تلك الجنبات، وتتضمن ما لا مزيد عليه من الرغبات، فلم نختر إلا دارنا التي كانت دار آبائنا من قبلنا، ولم نرتض الإنضواء إلا لمن بحبله وصل حبلنا، وبريش نبله ريش نبلنا، إدلالاً على محل إخاء متوارث لا عن كلالة، وامتثالاً لوصاة أجداد لأنظارهم وأقدارهم أصالة وجلالة، إذ قد روينا عمن سلف من أسلافنا، في الإيصاء لمن يخلف بعدهم من أخلافنا، أن لا يبتغوا إذا دهمهم داهم بالحضرة المرينية بدلاً، ولا يجدوا عن طريقها في التوجه إلى فريقها معدلاً، فاخترقنا إلى الرياض الأريضة الفجاج، وركبنا إلى البحر الفرات ظهر البحر الأجاج، فلا غرو أن نرد منه على ما يقر العين، ويشفي النفس الشاكية من ألم البين

The 17th-century historian Al-Maqqari wrote that Muhammad XII crossed the Mediterranean to Melilla then went to Fes where he built a palace. He stayed there until his death in 1533/1534 (in 940 A.H.).[1][6] He was buried near the Musala (place of the special prayer during the Islamic festivals) located outside of "Bab Sheria" in Fes.[1] Muhammad XII was survived by two sons; Yusef and Ahmed.[1] Al-Maqqari met with his descendants in 1618 in Fes; they lived in a state of poverty and relied on the Zakat.[1]

Spanish chronicler Luis del Mármol Carvajal[7] wrote "Muhammad XII died near the Oued el Assouad (Black River) at ford told Waqûba during the war between the Marinids and the Saadians." This source is also taken by Louis de Chénier, a diplomat of King Louis XVI of France, in his Historical research on the Moors and History of the Empire of Morocco published in Paris in 1787.[8]

Muhammad XII in popular culture

Sword of Boabdil
Sword of Boabdil, Musée de Cluny.
Washington Irving Memorial Irvington Boabdil
Statue of Boabdil at the Washington Irving Memorial
  • He is a main character in John Dryden's "Conquest of Grenada", a heroic drama in two parts, 1672.
  • He was the subject of the three-act opera "Boabdil, der letzte Maurenkönig", Op. 49, written in 1892 by the Jewish-German-Polish composer Moritz Moszkowski.
  • Spanish composer Gaspar Cassadó wrote the Lamento de Boabdil for cello and piano, in memory of the king.
  • Spanish composer Antón García Abril wrote the 'Elegía a la pérdida de la Alhambra' from his song cycle Canciones del Jardin Secreto for voice and piano; it is set to text (in Andalusian Arabic) that is attributed to Boabdil, in which he laments the loss of the Alhambra.
  • Abu Abdallah appears as the main character in "De Ongelukkige" published in 1915 by Dutch author Louis Couperus. This novel covers the last decade of Abu Abdallah's reign as ruler of the Emirate of Granada.
  • He figures in the video game Assassin's Creed II: Discovery for the iOS and Nintendo DS, as an ally of the Assassins.
  • He is portrayed by Khalid Abdalla in the film Assassin's Creed (2016).
  • Andalusian singer-songwriter and poet Carlos Cano dedicated a song to Muhammad XII in his album Crónicas Granadinas, entitled Caída del Rey Chico.
  • Salman Rushdie's book, The Moor's Last Sigh, also features consistent references to Muhammad XII.
  • He appears as a character in Leo Africanus by Amin Maalouf.
  • Louis Aragon's book Le Fou d'Elsa renders a dramatized and poetic version of the story of Granada's capture, which includes Muhammad XII as one of the two main characters present in the novel, (Majnun being the other. Elsa, whom it could be argued is the second major character, is absent from the book.).
  • Pakistan Television Corporation (PTV) produced a drama in 1980, based on the novel "Shaheen" by Nasim Hijazi. In this drama Abu Abdullah Mohammad was played by Shakeel Ahmed.
  • Also in 1980 (22 November until 7 February 1981), appeared in the comics supplement to the Portuguese newspaper A Capital a 12-page comics story on the conquest of Granada with Boabdil as the main character, Luz do Oriente ("Light of the Orient"). The script was by popular literature writer and bookman Jorge Magalhães and the drawing was by Portuguese-Guinean sculptor, painter and comic book artist Augusto Trigo.[9]
  • Boabdil appeared as main character in Spanish eight-episode serial Requiem por Granada (1991). In this serial, he was played by Manuel Bandera. Young Boabdil was played by Lucas Martín.
  • Boabdil appeared as main character in the season two of the Spanish TV Series Isabel (2013). In this show, he was played by Álex Martínez.
  • He appeared as a main character in the novel Court of Lions (2017) by Jane Johnson.
  • He appears as a character in G. Willow Wilson’s novel, The Bird King (2019), which is set during 1491 and the arrival of the Spanish Inquisition. The protagonist Fatima is his concubine.

See also

Further reading

  • Drayson, Elizabeth (2018). The Moor's Last Stand: How Seven Centuries of Muslim Rule in Spain Came to an End. Interlink. ISBN 1566560497. The first full account in any language of the last Muslim king of Spain.
  • Lytton, Edward Bulwer Lytton (1838). Leila; or, The Siege of Granada. London. Retrieved January 31, 2018. This is a historical novel from 1838, and should not be used as a historical source.


  1. ^ a b c d e f "نفح الطيب من غصن الاندلس الرطيب" pp1317. احمد المقري المغربي المالكي الاشعري
  2. ^ a b c d Wikisource Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Boabdil" . Encyclopædia Britannica. 4 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. p. 94.
  3. ^ Elizabeth Drayson, "The Moor's Last Stand: How Seven Centuries of Muslim Rule in Spain Came to an End": cited in page 11, Literary Review April 2017
  4. ^ Elizabeth Drayson, "The Moor's Last Stand: How Seven Centuries of Muslim Rule in Spain Came to an End": cited in page 11, Literary Review April 2017
  5. ^ a b "نفح الطيب من غصن الاندلس الرطيب" pp1325. احمد المقري المغربي المالكي الاشعري
  6. ^ Harvey, Leonard Patrick (1992). Islamic Spain, 1250 to 1500. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. p. 327. ISBN 0-226-31962-8.
  7. ^ Shillington, Kevin (2005). Encyclopedia of African history. 1. CRC Press. p. 220. ISBN 1-57958-245-1.
  8. ^ Recherches historiques sur les Maures, et histoire de l'empire de Maroc, Volume 2, p. 341, at Google Books and Volume 3, p. 303, at Google Books (in French)
  9. ^ Quadradinhos, II series, number 26 (22 November 1980) to 37 (7 February 1981), newspaper A Capital. Published in book-form as Luz do Oriente, Editorial Futura, Lisbon, 1986
Muhammad XII of Granada
Cadet branch of the Banu Khazraj
Born: 1460? Died: 1533?
Regnal titles
Preceded by
Abu l-Hasan Ali
Sultan of Granada
Succeeded by
Abu l-Hasan Ali
Preceded by
Muhammed XIII
Sultan of Granada
Granada captured by Castile

Al-Andalus (Arabic: الأنْدَلُس‎, trans. al-ʼAndalus; Aragonese: al-Andalus; Asturian: al-Ándalus; Basque: al-Andalus; Berber: ⴰⵏⴷⴰⵍⵓⵙ Andalus; Catalan: al-Àndalus; Galician: al-Andalus; Occitan: Al Andalús; Portuguese: al-Ândalus; Spanish: al-Ándalus), also known as Muslim Spain, Muslim Iberia, or Islamic Iberia, was a medieval Muslim territory and cultural domain that in its early period occupied most of Iberia, today's Portugal and Spain. At its greatest geographical extent, it occupied the northwest of the Iberian peninsula and a part of present day southern France Septimania (8th century) and for nearly a century (9th–10th centuries) extended its control from Fraxinet over the Alpine passes which connect Italy with the remainder of Western Europe. The name more generally describes the parts of the peninsula governed by Muslims (given the generic name of Moors) at various times between 711 and 1492, though the boundaries changed constantly as the Christian Reconquista progressed, eventually shrinking to the south around modern-day Andalusia and then to the Emirate of Granada.

Following the Umayyad conquest of Hispania, al-Andalus, then at its greatest extent, was divided into five administrative units, corresponding roughly to modern Andalusia, Portugal and Galicia, Castile and León, Navarre, Aragon, the County of Barcelona, and Septimania. As a political domain, it successively constituted a province of the Umayyad Caliphate, initiated by the Caliph Al-Walid I (711–750); the Emirate of Córdoba (c. 750–929); the Caliphate of Córdoba (929–1031); and the Caliphate of Córdoba's taifa (successor) kingdoms. Rule under these kingdoms led to a rise in cultural exchange and cooperation between Muslims and Christians. Christians and Jews were subject to a special tax called Jizya, to the state, which in return provided internal autonomy in practicing their religion and offered the same level of protections by the Muslim rulers. The jizya was not only a tax, however, but also a symbolic expression of subordination.Under the Caliphate of Córdoba, al-Andalus was a beacon of learning, and the city of Córdoba, the largest in Europe, became one of the leading cultural and economic centres throughout the Mediterranean Basin, Europe, and the Islamic world. Achievements that advanced Islamic and Western science came from al-Andalus, including major advances in trigonometry (Geber), astronomy (Arzachel), surgery (Abulcasis), pharmacology (Avenzoar), agronomy (Ibn Bassal and Abū l-Khayr al-Ishbīlī), and other fields. Al-Andalus became a major educational center for Europe and the lands around the Mediterranean Sea as well as a conduit for cultural and scientific exchange between the Islamic and Christian worlds.For much of its history, al-Andalus existed in conflict with Christian kingdoms to the north. After the fall of the Umayyad caliphate, al-Andalus was fragmented into minor states and principalities. Attacks from the Christians intensified, led by the Castilians under Alfonso VI. The Almoravid empire intervened and repelled the Christian attacks on the region, deposing the weak Andalusi Muslim princes and included al-Andalus under direct Berber rule. In the next century and a half, al-Andalus became a province of the Berber Muslim empires of the Almoravids and Almohads, both based in Marrakesh.

Ultimately, the Christian kingdoms in the north of the Iberian Peninsula overpowered the Muslim states to the south. In 1085, Alfonso VI captured Toledo, starting a gradual decline of Muslim power. With the fall of Córdoba in 1236, most of the south quickly fell under Christian rule and the Emirate of Granada became a tributary state of the Kingdom of Castile two years later. In 1249, the Portuguese Reconquista culminated with the conquest of the Algarve by Afonso III, leaving Granada as the last Muslim state on the Iberian Peninsula. Finally, on January 2, 1492, Emir Muhammad XII surrendered the Emirate of Granada to Queen Isabella I of Castile, completing the Christian Reconquista of the peninsula. Although al-Andalus ended as a political entity, the nearly eight centuries of Islamic rule has left a significant effect on culture and language in Andalusia.


The Alhambra (; Spanish: [aˈlambɾa]; Arabic: الْحَمْرَاء‎ [ʔælħæmˈɾˠɑːʔ], Al-Ḥamrāʾ, lit. "The Red One") is a palace and fortress complex located in Granada, Andalusia, Spain. It was originally constructed as a small fortress in AD 889 on the remains of Roman fortifications, and then largely ignored until its ruins were renovated and rebuilt in the mid-13th century by the Nasrid emir Mohammed ben Al-Ahmar of the Emirate of Granada, who built its current palace and walls. It was converted into a royal palace in 1333 by Yusuf I, Sultan of Granada. After the conclusion of the Christian Reconquista in 1492, the site became the Royal Court of Ferdinand and Isabella (where Christopher Columbus received royal endorsement for his expedition), and the palaces were partially altered in the Renaissance style. In 1526 Charles I & V commissioned a new Renaissance palace better befitting the Holy Roman Emperor in the revolutionary Mannerist style influenced by humanist philosophy in direct juxtaposition with the Nasrid Andalusian architecture, but it was ultimately never completed due to Morisco rebellions in Granada.

Alhambra's last flowering of Islamic palaces was built for the last Muslim emirs in Spain during the decline of the Nasrid dynasty, who were increasingly subject to the Christian Kings of Castile. After being allowed to fall into disrepair for centuries, the buildings occupied by squatters, Alhambra was rediscovered following the defeat of Napoleon, who had conducted retaliatory destruction of the site. The rediscoverers were first British intellectuals and then other north European Romantic travelers. It is now one of Spain's major tourist attractions, exhibiting the country's most significant and well-known Islamic architecture, together with 16th-century and later Christian building and garden interventions. The Alhambra is a UNESCO World Heritage Site and the inspiration for many songs and stories.Moorish poets described it as "a pearl set in emeralds", an allusion to the colour of its buildings and the woods around them. The palace complex was designed with the mountainous site in mind and many forms of technology were considered. The park (Alameda de la Alhambra), which is overgrown with wildflowers and grass in the spring, was planted by the Moors with roses, oranges, and myrtles; its most characteristic feature, however, is the dense wood of English elms brought by the Duke of Wellington in 1812. The park has a multitude of nightingales and is usually filled with the sound of running water from several fountains and cascades. These are supplied through a conduit 8 km (5.0 mi) long, which is connected with the Darro at the monastery of Jesus del Valle above Granada.Despite long neglect, willful vandalism, and some ill-judged restoration, the Alhambra endures as an atypical example of Muslim art in its final European stages, relatively uninfluenced by the direct Byzantine influences found in the Mezquita of Córdoba. The majority of the palace buildings are quadrangular in plan, with all the rooms opening on to a central court, and the whole reached its present size simply by the gradual addition of new quadrangles, designed on the same principle, though varying in dimensions, and connected with each other by smaller rooms and passages. Alhambra was extended by the different Muslim rulers who lived in the complex. However, each new section that was added followed the consistent theme of "paradise on earth". Column arcades, fountains with running water, and reflecting pools were used to add to the aesthetic and functional complexity. In every case, the exterior was left plain and austere. Sun and wind were freely admitted. Blue, red, and a golden yellow, all somewhat faded through lapse of time and exposure, are the colors chiefly employed.The decoration consists for the upper part of the walls, as a rule, of Arabic inscriptions—mostly poems by Ibn Zamrak and others praising the palace—that are manipulated into geometrical patterns with vegetal background set onto an arabesque setting ("Ataurique"). Much of this ornament is carved stucco (plaster) rather than stone. Tile mosaics ("alicatado"), with complicated mathematical patterns ("tracería", most precisely "lacería"), are largely used as panelling for the lower part. Similar designs are displayed on wooden ceilings (Alfarje). Muqarnas are the main elements for vaulting with stucco, and some of the most accomplished dome examples of this kind are in the Court of the Lions halls. The palace complex is designed in the Nasrid style, the last blooming of Islamic Art in the Iberian Peninsula, that had a great influence on the Maghreb to the present day, and on contemporary Mudejar Art, which is characteristic of western elements reinterpreted into Islamic forms and widely popular during the Reconquista in Spain.

Army Museum of Toledo

The Museum of the Army (Spanish: Museo del Ejército) is a mid-level museum located in Toledo, Spain. It is housed in two linked buildings, the city's historic Alcázar (castle) and a purpose-built extension. This museum contains a lot of miniature replicas of battles, and other things.

The history of the museum goes back to 1803 when the royal military museum was established in a building in Madrid known as the Palacio de Monteleón. The building also served as a barracks for artillery units and it was attacked and looted by the French when they suppressed the Dos de Mayo Uprising of 1808. The museum was set up again, but in 1827 it was divided into two sections: the Museo de Artillería and the Museo de Ingenieros. Later the collections were unified and housed in the Hall of Realms.

In the twenty-first century the collections were moved from Madrid to Toledo. The new premises offered much more space, although the site was not without controversy because of its associations with the Siege of the Alcázar, an episode in the Spanish Civil War. The new museum was opened in 2010 by Felipe, Prince of Asturias.

Battle of Lucena

The Battle of Lucena, also called Battle of Martín González, was a war event in which Christian forces of the Crown of Castile were faced against the Muslim forces of the Nasrid Emirate of Granada. It took place in the month of April of the year 1483, in the course of the Granada War. During which the Christian forces took Muhammad XII of Granada as prisoner.

Emirate of Granada

The Emirate of Granada (Arabic: إمارة غرﻧﺎﻃﺔ‎, trans. Imārat Ġarnāṭah), also known as the Nasrid Kingdom of Granada (Spanish: Reino Nazarí de Granada), was an emirate established in 1230 by Muhammad ibn al-Ahmar. After Prince Idris left Iberia to take the Almohad Caliphate leadership, the ambitious Ibn al-Ahmar established the last Muslim dynasty on the Iberian peninsula, the Nasrids. The Nasrid emirs were responsible for building the Alhambra palace complex as it is known today. By 1250, the Emirate was the last part of the Iberian peninsula held by the Muslims. It roughly corresponded to the modern Spanish provinces of Granada, Almería, and Málaga. Andalusian Arabic was the mother tongue of the majority of the population. For two more centuries, the region enjoyed considerable cultural and economic prosperity.

It was gradually conquered by the Crown of Castile and dissolved with the 1491 Treaty of Granada, ending the Granada War. In January 1492 Muhammad XII of Granada, the last Nasrid ruler of Granada, formally relinquished his sovereignty and surrendered his territories to Castile, eventually moving to Morocco in exile.


Granada ( grə-NAH-də, Spanish: [ɡɾaˈnaða]) is the capital city of the province of Granada, in the autonomous community of Andalusia, Spain. Granada is located at the foot of the Sierra Nevada mountains, at the confluence of four rivers, the Darro, the Genil, the Monachil and the Beiro. It sits at an average elevation of 738 m (2,421 ft) above sea level, yet is only one hour by car from the Mediterranean coast, the Costa Tropical. Nearby is the Sierra Nevada Ski Station, where the FIS Alpine World Ski Championships 1996 were held.

In the 2005 national census, the population of the city of Granada proper was 236,982, and the population of the entire urban area was estimated to be 472,638, ranking as the 13th-largest urban area of Spain. About 3.3% of the population did not hold Spanish citizenship, the largest number of these people (31%; or 1% of the total population) coming from South America. Its nearest airport is Federico García Lorca Granada-Jaén Airport.

The Alhambra, an Arab citadel and palace, is located in Granada. It is the most renowned building of the Islamic historical legacy with its many cultural attractions that make Granada a popular destination among the tourist cities of Spain. The Almohad influence on architecture is also preserved in the Granada neighborhood called the Albaicín with its fine examples of Moorish and Morisco construction. Granada is also well-known within Spain for the University of Granada which has an estimated 82,000 students spread over five different campuses in the city. The pomegranate (in Spanish, granada) is the heraldic device of Granada.

Granada War

The Granada War (Spanish: Guerra de Granada) was a series of military campaigns between 1482 and 1491, during the reign of the Catholic Monarchs (Spanish: los Reyes Católicos) Isabella I of Castile and Ferdinand II of Aragon, against the Nasrid dynasty's Emirate of Granada. It ended with the defeat of Granada and its annexation by Castile, ending all Islamic rule on the Iberian peninsula.

The ten-year war was not a continuous effort but a series of seasonal campaigns launched in spring and broken off in winter. The Granadans were crippled by internal conflict and civil war, while the Christians were generally unified. The Granadans were also bled economically by Castile, with the tribute (Old Spanish: paria) they had to pay to avoid being attacked and conquered. The war also saw the effective use of artillery by the Christians to rapidly conquer towns that would otherwise have required long sieges. On January 2, 1492, Muhammad XII of Granada (King Boabdil) surrendered the Emirate of Granada, the city of Granada, and the Alhambra palace to the Castilian forces.

The war was a joint project between Isabella's Crown of Castile and Ferdinand's Crown of Aragon. The bulk of the troops and funds for the war came from Castile, and Granada was annexed into Castile's lands. The Crown of Aragon was less important: apart from the presence of King Ferdinand himself, Aragon provided naval collaboration, guns, and some financial loans. Aristocrats were offered the allure of new lands, while Ferdinand and Isabella centralized and consolidated power. The aftermath of the war ended convivencia ("live and let live") between religions In the Iberian peninsula: the Jews were forced to convert to Christianity or be exiled in 1492, and by 1501, all of Granada's Muslims were obliged to convert to Christianity, become slaves, or be exiled; by 1526 this prohibition spread to the rest of Spain. "New Christians" (conversos) came to be accused of crypto-Islam and crypto-Judaism. Spain would go on to model its national aspirations as the guardian of Christianity and Catholicism. The fall of the Alhambra is still celebrated every year by the City Council of Granada, and the Granada War is considered in traditional Spanish historiography as the final war of the Reconquista.

Islam in Spain

Islam was a widespread religion in what is now Spain and Portugal for nine centuries, beginning with the Umayyad conquest of Hispania and ending (at least overtly) with its prohibition by the modern Spanish state in the mid-16th century and the expulsion of the Moriscos in the early 17th century. Although a significant proportion of Moriscos returned to Spain or avoided expulsion through various means, and the decree never affected the country's large enslaved Muslim population, the practice of Islam had faded into obscurity by the 19th century.Nevertheless, throughout modern history there has always been a constant presence of Muslims in Spain, many of which were former slaves (known as 'moros cortados') freed in the early 18th century. Furthermore, Spain's proximity to North Africa and its small land border with the Kingdom of Morocco (as well as a colonial presence in North Africa lasting between 1912 and 1975) made Muslim presence in Spain possible. Moroccan Muslims played a significant role in Spain's Civil War (1936–1939), fighting on the National side, including a Lieutenant General Mohamed Meziane, a close friend of General Francisco Franco, who later became Captain General of Ceuta, Galicia and the Canary Islands during his post-war career.

Moroccans did not require a visa to enter Spain until 1985. This however changed with Spain's growing economic development and its entry into the European Union, after which stricter immigration controls were imposed. Immigration to Spain exploded in the 1990s, with Moroccans of both sexes arriving in large numbers and becoming Spain's first important economic immigrant community. In the 2000s, migrants started arriving in some numbers from other Muslim-majority countries (as well as from Latin America and Eastern Europe). Moroccans are currently Spain's oldest and most integrated Muslim immigrant community and second-largest foreign population after Romanians.

As of 2016, Spain officially had 1,919,141 Muslims out of a total population of 46,438,422, or slightly above 4%, of the total population. Out of these, 1,115,124, or 58.7%, were immigrants without Spanish citizenship. Spain's Muslim community includes 804,017 Spanish citizens (42% of total) and 753,425 Moroccan citizens (39.2% of the Muslim community and over 67.5% of Muslim foreigners). Other smaller communities include Pakistanis, Bangladeshis, Algerians, Senegalese and Nigerians.

As for Muslims with Spanish citizenship, in 2016 these included 277,409 naturalized citizens (mainly from Morocco), 430,990 descendants of naturalized citizens, 64,334 Ceuta/Melilla Muslims (naturalized by decree in the early 80s) and 23,624 were Spaniards of Catholic Christian background who had converted to Islam for marriage or out of personal religious conviction.

Khalid Abdalla

Khalid Abdalla (Arabic: خالد عبد الله‎, Khālid ‘Abd Allāh; born 26 October 1980) is a British Egyptian actor and activist. He came to international prominence after starring in the 2006 Academy Award-nominated and BAFTA-winning film, United 93. Written and directed by Paul Greengrass, it chronicles events aboard United Airlines Flight 93, which was hijacked as part of the September 11 attacks. Abdalla played Ziad Jarrah, the pilot and leader of the four hijackers on board the flight. He starred as Amir in The Kite Runner and acted with Matt Damon in Green Zone, his second film with director Paul Greengrass. Abdalla appears as himself in Jehane Noujaim's documentary on the ongoing Egyptian revolution, The Square, which won the Audience Award at Sundance Festival in 2013.Abdalla is on the board of the National Student Drama Festival. In 2011, Abdalla became one of the founding members of the Mosireen Collective in Cairo: a group of revolutionary filmmakers and activists dedicated to supporting citizen media across Egypt in the wake of Mubarak's fall. Three months after it began, Mosireen became the most watched non-profit YouTube channel in Egypt of all time, and in the whole world in January 2012.


Maryam bint Ibrahim al-’Attar (Arabic: مريم بنت إبراهيم العطّار‎) (1467 – 1493) was the last sultana of Granada as the spouse of Muhammad XII of Granada. She has been used as an inspiration by many authors and often portrayed within fiction.

Muhammad (name)

Muhammad (Arabic: محمد‎) is the primary transliteration of the Arabic given name مُحَمَّد that comes from the passive participle of the Arabic verb ḥammada (حَمَّدَ), praise, which comes from the triconsonantal root Ḥ-M-D. The word can therefore be translated as "praised, commendable, laudable".

Muhammad XIII, Sultan of Granada

Abū 'Abd Allāh Muhammad az-Zaghall (the Valiant) (c. 1444 – c. 1494) was the 23rd Nasrid ruler of Granada in Spain. Christians called him Mahoma XIII el Zagal.

Patrick de Suarez d'Aulan

Patrick de Suarez, Count d'Aulan is an aristocrat, entrepreneur, and industrialist ( born November 29, 1971 in Paris, France).

He is the only male child of Francois de Suarez, 10th Marquis d'Aulan ( 1933- ) and Countess Sonia Czernin von und zu Chudentitz ( 1940–2007 ) (house of Czernin, being the heir of the 11th title of Marquis of Aulan, one of the oldest and most prestigious titles of Provence (France). Currently he holds the title of Count d’Aulan (Earl of Aulan).

The origin of the de Suarez d'Aulan family comes from the Kingdom of Spain as being a primary branch of the Suarez Figueroa noble family, one of the oldest aristocratic families in Spain, with records dating it back to 1090. The genesis of the family is unknown (assumed to be one of the origional power families within Europe).

The ‘de Suarez’ (of Suarez) name originates from the Spanish aristocracy which held the title Duke of Suarez and Duke of Feria, whilst the ‘d’Aulan’ (of Aulan) name originates from the French aristocracy which holds the titles of Marquis and Count.

Rebellion of the Alpujarras (1499–1501)

The Rebellion of the Alpujarras (1499–1501) was a series of uprisings by the Muslim population of the Kingdom of Granada, Crown of Castile (formerly, the Emirate of Granada) against their Catholic rulers. They began in 1499 in the city of Granada in response to mass forced conversion of the Muslim population to the Catholic faith, which were perceived as violations of the 1491 Treaty of Granada. The uprising in the city quickly died down, but it was followed by more serious revolts in the nearby mountainous area of the Alpujarras. The Catholic forces, on some occasions led personally by King Ferdinand, succeeded in suppressing the revolts and inflicted severe punishment on the Muslim population.

The Catholic rulers used these revolts as a justification to abolish the Treaty of Granada and the rights of the Muslims guaranteed by the treaty. All Muslims of Granada were subsequently required to convert to Catholicism or be expelled, and in 1502 these forced conversions applied to all of Castile. However, they did not apply in the kingdoms of Valencia or Aragón.


Salobreña (pronounced [saloˈβɾeɲa]) is a town on the Costa Tropical in Granada, Spain. It claims a history stretching back 6,000 years.

There are two main parts of Salobreña; The first is The Old Town which sits atop a rocky prominence and is a cluster of whitewashed houses and steep narrow streets leading up to a tenth-century Moorish castle, called 'Castillo de Salobreña' and it is one of its main tourist attractions.

The second part of Salobreña is new developments which spread from the bottom of the Old Town right to the beach. The whole town is almost surrounded by sugarcane fields on each side along the coast and further inland.

Another tourist attraction in Salobreña is 'El Peñón' (The Rock), which divides two of Salobreña's five beaches and juts out between Playa La Guardia and Playa de la Charca/Solamar and into the sea.

San Telmo Museoa

San Telmo Museoa, or STM is a museum of the Basque society located in Donostia-San Sebastián, addressing old and contemporary Basque culture, arts and history in a European, global context. Since 1932, it is located at the Zuloaga plaza in the old town, at the foot of the hill Urgull.

San Telmo is presented as a museum and, at the same time, as a place to disseminate knowledge and create thought; it is an instrument to understand the present and build the future from encounters with the past and with our roots. In 2011, a major makeover of its facilities took place by adding an extension to the convent and reshaping its facilities along the lines of its new conceptual approach as a museum of the Basque society and citizenship. The museum received a Special Mention in the 2013 best European museum contest organized annually by the Museum Forum.

The Conquest of Granada

The Conquest of Granada is a Restoration era stage play, a two-part tragedy written by John Dryden that was first acted in 1670 and 1671 and published in 1672. It is notable both as a defining example of the "heroic drama" pioneered by Dryden, and as the subject of later satire.

The plot deals with the Spanish conquest of Granada in 1492 and the fall of Muhammad XII of Granada, the last Islamic ruler on the Iberian Peninsula.

Treaty of Granada (1491)

The Treaty of Granada was signed and ratified on November 25, 1491 between Boabdil, the sultan of Granada, and Ferdinand and Isabella, the King and Queen of Castile, León, Aragon and Sicily. It ended the Granada War which had started in 1482, culminating in the siege and battle of Granada beginning in spring 1491.

Also known as the Capitulation of Granada, the treaty provided a short truce, followed by the relinquishment in January 1492 of the sovereignty of the Moorish Emirate of Granada (founded five centuries earlier) to the Catholic monarchs of Spain. The treaty guaranteed a set of rights to the Moors, including religious tolerance and fair treatment in return for their surrender and capitulation.

The Catholics' subsequent policy inviting the Moors to either convert or be expelled triggered an uprising by the Moors in 1500, and the Catholic side used this uprising to argue that the Moors had violated the Treaty and justify revoking its provisions. See Morisco rebellions in Granada.

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