Muhammad Ali of Egypt

Muhammad[a] Ali Pasha al-Mas'ud ibn Agha (Ottoman Turkish: محمد علی پاشا المسعود بن آغا‎; Arabic: محمد علي باشا‎ / ALA-LC: Muḥammad ‘Alī Bāshā; Albanian: Mehmet Ali Pasha; Turkish: Kavalalı Mehmet Ali Paşa;[3] 4 March 1769 – 2 August 1849) was an Ottoman Albanian commander who rose to the rank of Pasha, and became Wāli, and self-declared Khedive of Egypt and Sudan with the Ottomans' temporary approval. Though not a modern nationalist, he is regarded as the founder of modern Egypt because of the dramatic reforms in the military, economic and cultural spheres that he instituted. He also ruled Levantine territories outside Egypt. The dynasty that he established would rule Lower Egypt, Upper Egypt and Sudan until the 1952 coup d'état led by Muhammad Naguib and Gamal Abdel Nasser.

Muhammad Ali Pasha
محمد علی پاشا المسعود بن آغا
محمد علي باشا
Wāli of Egypt, Sudan, Sham, Hejaz, Morea, Thasos, Crete
ModernEgypt, Muhammad Ali by Auguste Couder, BAP 17996
An 1840 portrait of Muhammad Ali Pasha by Auguste Couder
Reign17 May 1805 – 2 March 1848
PredecessorAhmad Khurshid Pasha
SuccessorIbrahim Pasha
Born4 March 1769
Kavala, Macedonia, Rumeli eyalet, Ottoman Empire (present-day Greece)
Died2 August 1849 (aged 80)
Ras el-Tin Palace, Alexandria, Egypt Eyalet, Ottoman Empire (present day Egypt)
  • Emina of Nosratli
  • Shams uz-Zafar
  • Nuraj
  • Shams-i-Nur
  • Zepha
  • Mah-Duran
  • Khadija Ziba
  • Mumtaz
  • Shama Nour
Ibrahim Pasha
Tusun Pasha
Hatice (a.k.a. Nazli)
Sa'id Pasha
Ali Sadik Bey
Muhammad Abdel Halim
Muhammad Ali the Younger
Fatma al-Ruhiya
Arabicمحمد علي باشا
DynastyMuhammad Ali Dynasty
FatherIbrahim Agha
ReligionBektashi Islam, Alevi Islam

Early life

Kavala Mehemet Pacha's house
Muhammad Ali's birthplace in Kavala, now in northeastern Greece.

Muhammad Ali was born in Kavala, in Macedonia, Rumeli Eyalet of the Ottoman Empire, today a city in Greece. He was born to an Albanian family whose origins were from Korçë.[4][5] He was the second son of a tobacco and shipping merchant named Ibrahim Agha, who also served as an Ottoman commander of a small unit in Kavala.[6][7] His mother was Zeynep, the daughter of the "Ayan of Kavala" Çorbaci Husain Agha. When his father died at a young age, Muhammad was taken and raised by his uncle with his cousins. As a reward for Muhammad Ali's hard work, his uncle gave him the rank of "Bolukbashi" for the collection of taxes in the town of Kavala.[7]

After Muhammad's promising success in collecting taxes, he gained Second Commander rank under his cousin Sarechesme Halil Agha in the Kavala Volunteer Contingent of Albanian mercenaries that was sent to re-occupy Egypt following General Napoleon Bonaparte's withdrawal.[7] He later married Ali Agha's daughter, Emine Nosratli, a wealthy widow, who was his maternal Cousin, because her Mother Kadriye and his Mother Zeynep were sisters, both daughters of Çorbaci Husain Agha. In 1801, his unit was sent, as part of a much larger Ottoman force, to re-occupy Egypt following a brief French occupation that threatened the way of life in Egypt. The expedition landed at Aboukir in the spring of 1801.[8] One of his trusted army commanders was Miralay Mustafa Bey, who had married Muhammad's sister Zubayda and was the Ancestor of the Yakan family.[9]

Rise to power

The French withdrawal left a power vacuum in Egypt. Mamluk power had been weakened, but not destroyed, and Ottoman forces clashed with the Mamluks for power.[10] During this period of turmoil Muhammad Ali used his loyal Albanian troops to work with both sides, gaining power and prestige for himself.[11] As the conflict drew on, the local populace grew weary of the power struggle. In 1801, he allied with the Egyptian leader Umar Makram and Egypt's Grand Imam of al-Azhar. During the infighting between the Ottomans and Mamluks between 1801 and 1805, Muhammad Ali carefully acted to gain the support of the general public.[12]

In 1805, a group of prominent Egyptians led by the ulema demanded the replacement of Wāli (viceroy) Ahmad Khurshid Pasha by Muhammad Ali, and the Ottomans yielded. In 1809, though, Ali exiled Makram to Damietta. According to Abd al-Rahman al-Jabarti, Makram had discovered Muhammad Ali's intentions to seize power for himself.[11]

Sultan Selim III could not oppose Muhammad Ali's ascension. By appearing as the champion of the people Muhammad Ali was able to forestall popular opposition until he had consolidated his power.

Mamluks, Horace Vernet
Massacre of the Mamelukes at the Cairo citadel by Horace Vernet.

The Mamluks still posed the greatest threat to Muhammad Ali. They controlled Egypt for more than 600 years, and over that time they extended their rule systematically south along the Nile River to Upper Egypt. Muhammad Ali's approach was to eliminate the Mamluk leadership, then move against the rank and file. Muhammad Ali invited the Mamluk leaders to a celebration at the Cairo Citadel in honour of his son, Tusun Pasha, who was to lead a military expedition into Arabia. The event was held on March 1, 1811. When the Mamluks had gathered at the Citadel, and were surrounded by Muhammad Ali's troops, he had his troops kill them.[b] After the leaders were killed, Muhammad Ali dispatched his army throughout Egypt to rout the remainder of the Mamluk forces.

Muhammad Ali transformed Egypt into a regional power which he saw as the natural successor to the decaying Ottoman Empire. He summed up his vision for Egypt as follows:

I am well aware that the (Ottoman) Empire is heading by the day toward destruction... On its ruins I will build a vast kingdom... up to the Euphrates and the Tigris.[15]

Reinventing Egypt

Mouhamed ali army&navy
Muhammad Ali of Egypt establishes a modern Navy.

Sultan Selim III (reigned 1789–1807) had recognized the need to reform and modernize the Ottoman Empire, specifically the military, along European lines to ensure that his state could compete. Selim III, however, faced stiff local opposition from an entrenched clergy and military apparatus, especially from the Janissaries, the Ottoman infantry formed from the devshirme system. Consequently, Selim III was deposed and ultimately killed in 1808. Muhammad Ali, too, recognized the need to modernize, and unlike Selim, he had dispatched his chief rivals, giving him a free hand to attempt reforms similar to those first begun by Selim III.[16]

Muhammad Ali's goal was for Egypt to leave the Ottoman Empire and be ruled by his own hereditary dynasty.[17] To do that, he had to reorganize Egyptian society, streamline the economy, train a professional bureaucracy, and build a modern military.[18]

His first task was to secure a revenue stream for Egypt. To accomplish this, Muhammad Ali 'nationalized' all the iltizam lands of Egypt, thereby officially owning all the production of the land. He accomplished the state annexation of property by raising taxes on the 'tax-farmers' who had previously owned the land throughout Egypt. The new taxes were intentionally high and when the tax-farmers could not extract the demanded payments from the peasants who worked the land, Muhammad Ali confiscated their properties. The other major source of revenue Muhammad Ali created was a new tax on waqf endowments, which were previously tax-free. Through these endowments, personal income could be set aside for schools or other charitable purposes. As well as raising revenue to fund his new military, this tax took revenue away from the local elite, Mamluks and the ulama, weakening opposition to Muhammad Ali's reforms.[19]

Jean-François Portaels - Sketch for the portrait of Muhammad Ali, viceroy of Egypt
Muhammad Ali by Jean-François Portaels, 1847

In practice, Muhammad Ali's land reform amounted to a monopoly on trade in Egypt. He required all producers to sell their goods to the state. The state in turn resold Egyptian goods, within Egypt and to foreign markets, and retained the surplus. The practice proved very profitable for Egypt with the cultivation of long staple cotton, a new cash crop. To help improve production, he expanded the land used for agriculture and overhauled the irrigation system, largely completed by the corvée, or forced peasant labor. The new-found profits also extended down to the individual farmers, as the average wage increased fourfold.[20]

In addition to bolstering the agricultural sector, Muhammad Ali built an industrial base for Egypt. His motivation for doing so was primarily an effort to build a modern military. Consequently, he focused on weapons production. Factories based in Cairo produced muskets and cannons. With a shipyard he built in Alexandria, he began construction of a navy. By the end of the 1830s, Egypt's war industries had constructed nine 100-gun warships and were turning out 1,600 muskets a month.[21]

However, the industrial innovations were not limited to weapons production. Muhammad Ali established a textile industry in an effort to compete with European industries and produce greater revenues for Egypt. While the textile industry was not successful, the entire endeavour employed tens of thousands of Egyptians.[21] Muhammad Ali used contracts called concessions to build cheap infrastructure - dams and railroads - whereby foreign European companies would raise capital, build projects, and collect most of the operating revenue but would provide Ali's government with a portion of that revenue. Ali also granted Barthélemy Prosper Enfantin permission to build technical schools modeled after Ecole Polytechnique.[22] Additionally, by hiring European managers, he was able to introduce industrial training to the Egyptian population. To staff his new industries, Muhammad Ali employed a corvée labor system. The peasantry objected to these conscriptions and many ran away from their villages to avoid being taken, sometimes fleeing as far away as Syria. A number of them maimed themselves so as to be unsuitable for combat: common ways of self-maiming were blinding an eye with rat poison and cutting off a finger of the right hand, so as to be unable to fire a rifle.

Muhammad Ali Dynasty portrait
Muhammad Ali of Egypt with his officials in Cairo.

Beyond building a functioning, industrial economy, Muhammad Ali also made an effort to train a professional military and bureaucracy. He sent promising citizens to Europe to study. Again the driving impulse behind the effort was to build a European-style army. Students were sent to study European languages, primarily French, so they could in turn translate military manuals into Arabic. He then used both educated Egyptians and imported European experts to establish schools and hospitals in Egypt. The European education also provided talented Egyptians with a means of social mobility.

A by-product of Muhammad Ali's training program was the establishment of a professional bureaucracy. Establishing an efficient central bureaucracy was an essential prerequisite for the success of Muhammad Ali's other reforms. In the process of destroying the Mamluks, the Wāli had to fill the governmental roles that the Mamluks had previously filled. In doing so, Muhammad Ali kept all central authority for himself. He partitioned Egypt into ten provinces responsible for collecting taxes and maintaining order.[21] Muhammad Ali installed his sons in most key positions; however, his reforms did offer Egyptians opportunities beyond agriculture and industry.

A 2015 study found that Ali's economic policies had a positive impact on industrialization in Egypt.[23]

Mehemed Ali Egypt
Muhammad Ali of Egypt, drawn by Louis Dupré.

Law under Muhammad Ali

The purpose of the law was to represent Muhammad Ali in his absence.[24] Muhammad Ali started his renovations in law by moving towards a more effective control over crime within Egypt. Most notably he did this by passing his first penal legislation in 1829, in an effort to get a stronger hold over the population. By this time, Muhammad Ali was already moving towards an establishment of an independent state, which he first expressed in 1830, by creating a state of "law and order", where Christians within Egypt can be safe, which was a way Muhammad was able to pull influence from Europe.[25] He started gradually renovating more of the government for him to hold more sway over it rather than the sultan. He implemented a police force, mostly well known within Cairo and Alexandria, that functioned not just as a form of authority over the law, but also as a form of a public prosecutor's office.[25] Renovation of evidence used within the courts, that previously would not be used, started to be part of the system, the biggest one being autopsy reports, becoming an important asset among investigations and trials alike. With the use of non Shari'a evidence allowed the process of law to work around the strict Shari'a rule of evidence, which restricted the use of certain forms of evidence.[25] Autopsy became an important form of evidence used within criminal law in Egypt, even being used after Muhammad's reign amongst his successors in the 1850s.[25]

Hakimas and the school of medicine for women

In 1832, Muhammad Ali allowed Antoine Clot, known as "Clot Bey" in Egypt, to establish a School of Medicine for women.[26] Clot-Bey had been invited in 1827 by Muhammad Ali to found the Qasral-‘Ayni School of Medicine at the Army hospital of Abou Zabel which later transferred to Cairo. The Army Medical School had a difficult beginning with religious officials against dissection of corpses for anatomy lessons.[27]

The medical school for women would produce hakimas, "doctoress",[26] to treat women and children. French women adherents of the Saint-Simonian social reform movement were living in Egypt during 1833-36 and studied or provided medical care under Clot Bey's direction. French sage-femme (midwife) Suzanne Voilquin writes of assisting during the cholera epidemic of 1834.[28] Several of the French women contracted cholera and died.

Ali's military and economic goals required a healthy army and population from which young boys could be conscripted. Venereal diseases, especially syphilis, were common among soldiers and smallpox outbreaks led to high childhood mortality rates. Clot Bey argued that female-provided health care for women and children was crucial to maintain a healthy population.[26] He believed that the untrained local dayas (midwives) were unable to provide appropriate care and under Egyptian law, male doctors could not treat women.[29] Clot Bey's solution was a school to train female doctors.

The school of medicine for women followed a French model. The first two years of training provided Arabic literacy in order to communicate with patients. The following four included training in: obstetrics, pre- and post-natal care, dressing wounds, cauterization, vaccination, scarification, cupping, application of leeches, identification / preparation of common medicines. Students were provided housing, food, clothes and a monthly allowance from the state.[26]

Graduates served at the Civil Hospital in Cairo or at health centres throughout Egypt. Some stayed at the school to serve as instructors.[26] Marriages were arranged by the state to male doctors. Once married, hakimas were given the title of Effendi, the rank of second lieutenant, and a monthly salary of 250 piasters.[26]

Licensed hakimas treated women and children, providing vaccinations and delivering children. They served a fundamental role in reducing the incidence of smallpox during the 19th century by vaccinating approximately 600 children a month in the Civil Hospital.[26] They checked and treated women, mainly prostitutes, for venereal diseases.[30] Another important task was the “forensic examination”[29] of women. In this respect, hakimas operated in legal setting. Their examination was used as evidence in cases involving unnatural death, suspected premarital loss of virginity, or miscarriage.[29]

Although one task of the hakimas was overseeing childbirth, the majority of the population continued to use the dayas.[26] Hakimas performed almost no deliveries and often were only called upon during difficult deliveries.[29] However, dayas were required to have a certificate to perform deliveries, which could only be obtained from hakimas.[30] They were also expected to report statistics on births to the hakimas.[30]

A significant issue was recruitment of students. Egyptian culture at the time opposed the education of women.[29] Therefore, the first students at the medical school were young slave girls.[26] Slaves continued to be recruited through slave auctions as well as orphans from hospices.[30] Despite the modest success of the school and its graduates, increasing enrolment remained a consistent problem, though the limit of 60 students was reached in 1846.[26]

Contemporary and modern historians have viewed the creation of a school of medicine for women and the position of hakima as an example of modernization and reform for women under Muhammad Ali.[30] Khaled Fahmy argues against this view.[30] Fahmy states that, because the reasons for the creation of the school are primarily for the maintenance of a healthy army, the school was not a sign of reform but Ali furthering his military goals.[30] For example, their treatment of venereal diseases was intended to curb its incidence among soldiers and smallpox vaccinations increased the pool of potential soldiers by reducing childhood mortality rate. Furthermore, the hakimas allowed for increased state control over social life. This is observed in the use of hakimas to collect statistics on childbirth, either personally or through dayas, as well as in the cases where a hakima was used to examine a woman.[30]

Role in the Arabic literary renaissance

In the 1820s, Muhammad Ali sent the first educational "mission" of Egyptian students to Europe. This contact resulted in literature that is considered the dawn of the Arabic literary renaissance, known as the Nahda.

To support the modernization of industry and the military, Muhammad Ali set up a number of schools in various fields where French texts were studied. Rifa'a al-Tahtawi supervised translations from French to Arabic on topics ranging from sociology and history to military technology, and these translations have been considered the second great translation movement, after the first from Greek into Arabic.

In 1819/21, his government founded the first indigenous press in the Arab World, the Bulaq Press.[31] The Bulaq press published the official gazette of Muhammad Ali's government.

Among his personal interests was the accumulation and breeding of Arabian horses. In horses obtained as taxes and tribute, Muhammad Ali recognised the unique characteristics and careful attention to bloodlines of the horses bred by the Bedouin, particularly by the Anazeh in Syria and those bred in the Nejd. While his immediate successor had minimal interest in the horse breeding program, his grandson, who became Abbas I shared this interest and further built upon his work.

Military campaigns

Flag of Muhammad Ali
Muhammad Ali's flag.

Though Muhammad Ali's chief aim was to establish a European-style military, and carve out a personal empire, he waged war initially on behalf of the Ottoman Sultan, Mahmud II, in Arabia and Greece, although he later came into open conflict with the Ottoman Empire. He used several new strategies to ensure the success of his new military. First new recruits were isolated from the environment they were used to. They began housing soldiers in barracks, leadership enforced a strict regime of surveillance, roll call was done several times a day, and use of corporal punishment to ensure the new fighting force grew to become a strong disciplined military.[32] The army often used the bastinado and the whip to control and punish the soldiers.[33] Muhammad not only wanted his soldiers to be disciplined, he also created many military codes to regulate the definitions of crime and punishment, this helped to create blind obedience to the laws.[34] A large part of Ali's goal of a European-style military was through the creation of new labelling and organizational systems to identify soldiers, distinguish officers from enlisted men, structure units, and properly distribute salaries.[35] Soldiers were given a unique number that identified their unit and their role within it, and officers were expected to use lists with these numbers to keep a close watch on the men and ensure every man performed his clearly assigned duty.[36] This was particularly useful in identifying deserters who often fled in the chaos of massed movement, such as during forced marches or relocation to a new encampment.[37] The soldiers were placed under strict surveillance in the barracks. In order to accomplish this Muhammad Ali relied on the Bedouins to guard the troops that were sent to the training camps.[18] Despite being hired to control the troops the Bedouins were actually a menace to the government who often had to use the army to control the Bedouins.[38] In order to combat this the government slowly switched from using Bedouins to guard the soldiers and to capture deserters and instead attempted to set up the expectation of internment from the beginning of the soldiers stay at the training camps in order to deter them from deserting the military in the first place.[39] His first military campaign was an expedition into the Arabian Peninsula. The holy cities of Mecca, and Medina had been captured by the House of Saud, who had recently embraced a literalist Hanbali interpretation of Islam. Armed with their newfound religious zeal, the Saudis began conquering parts of Arabia. This culminated in the capture of the Hejaz region by 1805.

With the main Ottoman army tied up in Europe, Mahmud II turned to Muhammad Ali to recapture the Arabian territories. Muhammad Ali in turn appointed his son, Tusun, to lead a military expedition in 1811. The campaign was initially turned back in Arabia; however, a second attack was launched in 1812 that succeeded in recapturing Hejaz.[40]

While the campaign was successful, the power of the Saudis was not broken. They continued to harass Ottoman and Egyptian forces from the central Nejd region of the Peninsula. Consequently, Muhammad Ali dispatched another of his sons, Ibrahim, at the head of another army to finally rout the Saudis. After a two-year campaign, the Saudis were crushed and most of the Saudi family was captured. The family leader, Abdullah ibn Saud, was sent to Istanbul, and executed.[41]

Muhammad Ali next turned his attention to military campaigns independent of the Porte, beginning with the Sudan which he viewed as a valuable addition resource of territory, gold, and slaves. The Sudan at the time had no real central authority, as since the 18th century many petty kingdoms and tribal sheikhdoms had seceded from the declining Sultanate of Sennar, fighting each other with Medieval weaponry. In 1820 Muhammad Ali dispatched an army of 5,000 troops commanded by his third son, Ismail and Abidin Bey, south into Sudan with the intent of conquering the territory and subjugating it to his authority.[42] Ali's troops made headway into Sudan in 1821, but met with fierce resistance by the Shaigiya. Ultimately, the superiority of the Egyptian troops and firearms ensured the defeat of the Shaigiya and the subsequent conquest of the Sudan. Ali now had an outpost from which he could expand to the source of the Nile in Ethiopia, and Uganda. His administration captured slaves from the Nuba Mountains, and west and south Sudan, all incorporated into a foot regiment known as the Gihadiya which were composed of the recently defeated Shaigiya who now took service under the invaders in exchange for keeping their domains. (pronounced Jihadiya in non-Egyptian Arabic). Ali's reign in Sudan, and that of his immediate successors, is remembered in Sudan as brutal and heavy-handed, contributing to the popular independence struggle of the self-proclaimed Mahdi, Muhammad Ahmad, in 1881.

While Muhammad Ali was expanding his authority into Africa, the Ottoman Empire was being challenged by ethnic rebellions in its European territories. The rebellion in the Greek provinces of the Ottoman Empire began in 1821. The Ottoman army proved ineffectual in its attempts to put down the revolt as ethnic violence spread as far as Constantinople. With his own army proving ineffective, Sultan Mahmud II offered Muhammad Ali the island of Crete in exchange for his support in putting down the revolt.

Muhammad Ali sent 16,000 soldiers, 100 transports, and 63 escort vessels under command of his son, Ibrahim Pasha.[43] Britain, France, and Russia intervened to protect the Greeks. On 20 October 1827 at the Battle of Navarino, while under the command of Muharram Bey, the Ottoman representative, the entire Egyptian navy was sunk by the European Allied fleet, under the command of Admiral Edward Codrington. If the Porte was not in the least prepared for this confrontation, Muhammad Ali was even less prepared for the loss of his highly competent, expensively assembled and maintained navy. With its fleet essentially destroyed, Egypt had no way to support its forces in Greece and was forced to withdraw. Ultimately the campaign cost Muhammad Ali his navy and yielded no tangible gains.

In compensation for this loss, Muhammad Ali asked the Porte for the territory of Syria. The Ottomans were indifferent to the request; the Sultan himself asked blandly what would happen if Syria was given over and Muhammad Ali later deposed.[44] But Muhammad Ali was no longer willing to tolerate Ottoman indifference. To compensate for his and Egypt's losses, the wheels for the conquest of Syria were set in motion.

Like other rulers of Egypt before him, Ali desired to control Bilad al-Sham (the Levant), both for its strategic value and for its rich natural resources; nor was this a sudden, vindictive decision on the part of the Wāli since he had harboured this goal since his early years as Egypt's unofficial ruler. For not only had Syria abundant natural resources, it also had a thriving international trading community with well-developed markets throughout the Levant; in addition, it would be a captive market for the goods now being produced in Egypt. Yet perhaps most of all, Syria was desirable as a buffer state between Egypt and the Ottoman Sultan.

A new fleet was built, a new army was raised and on 31 October 1831, under Ibrahim Pasha, the Egyptian invasion of Syria initiated the First Turko-Egyptian War. For the sake of appearance on the world stage, a pretext for the invasion was vital. Ultimately, the excuse for the expedition was a quarrel with Abdullah Pasha of Acre. The Wāli alleged that 6,000 fellahin had fled to Acre to escape the draft, corvée, and taxes, and he wanted them back.[45] (See also: 1834 Arab revolt in Palestine)

The Egyptians overran most of Syria and its hinterland with ease. The strongest and only really significant resistance was put up at the port city of Acre. The Egyptian force eventually captured the city after a six-month siege, which lasted from 3 November 1831 to 27 May 1832. Unrest on the Egyptian home front increased dramatically during the course of the siege. Ali was forced to squeeze Egypt more and more in order to support his campaign and his people resented the increased burden.

After the fall of Acre, the Egyptian army marched north into Anatolia. At the Battle of Konya (21 December 1832), Ibrahim Pasha soundly defeated the Ottoman army led by the sadr azam Grand Vizier Reshid Pasha. There were now no military obstacles between Ibrahim's forces and Constantinople itself.

Through the course of the campaign, Muhammad Ali paid particular focus to the European powers. Fearing another intervention that would reverse all his gains, he proceeded slowly and cautiously. For example, Muhammad Ali continued the practice of using the sultan's name at Friday prayers in the newly captured territories and continued to circulate Ottoman coins instead of issuing new ones bearing his likeness.[46] So long as Muhammad Ali's march did not threaten to cause the complete collapse of the Ottoman state, the powers in Europe remained as passive observers.[47]

Despite this show, Muhammad Ali's goal was now to remove the current Ottoman Sultan Mahmud II and replace him with the sultan's son, the infant Abdülmecid. This possibility so alarmed Mahmud II that he accepted Russia's offer of military aid resulting in the Treaty of Hünkâr İskelesi.[48] Russia's gain dismayed the British and French governments, resulting in their direct intervention. From this position, the European powers brokered a negotiated solution in May 1833 known as the Convention of Kutahya.[49] The terms of the peace were that Ali would withdraw his forces from Anatolia and receive the territories of Crete (then known as Candia) and the Hijaz as compensation, and Ibrahim Pasha would be appointed Wāli of Syria. The peace agreement fell short, however, of granting Muhammad Ali an independent kingdom for himself, leaving him wanting.[50]

Interview with Mehmet Ali in his Palace at Alexandria (1839) by David Roberts.

Sensing that Muhammad Ali was not content with his gains, the sultan attempted to pre-empt further action against the Ottoman Empire by offering him hereditary rule in Egypt and Arabia if he withdrew from Syria and Crete and renounced any desire for full independence.[51] Muhammad Ali rejected the offer, knowing that Mahmud could not force the Egyptian presence from Syria and Crete.

On 25 May 1838, Muhammad Ali informed Britain, and France that he intended to declare independence from the Ottoman Empire.[52] This action was contrary to the desire of the European powers to maintain the status quo within the Ottoman Empire.[51] With Muhammad Ali's intentions clear, the European powers, particularly Russia, attempted to moderate the situation and prevent conflict. Within the Empire, however, both sides were gearing for war. Ibrahim already had a sizable force in Syria. In Constantinople, the Ottoman commander, Hafiz Pasha, assured the Sultan that he could defeat the Egyptian army.

When Mahmud II ordered his forces to advance on the Syrian frontier, Ibrahim attacked and destroyed them at the Battle of Nezib (24 June 1839) near Urfa. In an echo of the Battle of Konya, Constantinople was again left vulnerable to Ali's forces. A further blow to the Ottomans was the defection of their fleet to Muhammad Ali.[51] Mahmud II died almost immediately after the battle took place and was succeeded by sixteen-year-old Abdülmecid. At this point, Ali and Ibrahim began to argue about which course to follow; Ibrahim favoured conquering the Ottoman capital and demanding the imperial seat while Muhammad Ali was inclined simply to demand numerous concessions of territory and political autonomy for himself and his family.

At this point, the European powers again intervened (see Oriental Crisis of 1840). On 15 July 1840, the British Government, which had colluded with Austria, Prussia, and Russia to sign the Convention of London, offered Muhammad Ali hereditary rule of Egypt as part of the Ottoman Empire if he withdrew from the Syrian hinterland and the coastal regions of Mount Lebanon. Muhammad Ali hesitated, believing he had support from France. His hesitation proved costly. France eventually backed down as King Louis-Philippe did not want his country to find itself involved and isolated in a war against the other powers, especially at a time when he also had to deal with the Rhine crisis. So British naval forces moved against Syria, and Alexandria.[53] In the face of European military might, Muhammad Ali acquiesced.

After the British, and Austrian navies blockaded the Nile delta coastline, shelled Beirut (11 September 1840), and after Acre had capitulated (3 November 1840), Muhammad Ali agreed to the terms of the Convention on 27 November 1840. These terms included renouncing his claims over Crete, and Hejaz, downsizing his navy, and reducing his standing army to 18,000 men, provided that he and his descendants would enjoy hereditary rule over Egypt and Sudan: an unheard-of status for an Ottoman viceroy.[54]

Final years

After 1843, fast on the heels of the Syrian debacle, and the treaty of Balta Liman, which forced the Egyptian government to tear down its import barriers, and to give up its monopolies, Muhammad Ali's mind became increasingly clouded and tended towards paranoia. Whether it was genuine senility or the effects of the silver nitrate he had been given years before to treat an attack of dysentery remains a subject of debate.[55]

In 1844 the tax receipts were in, and Sherif Pasha, the head of the diwan al-maliyya (financial ministry), was too fearful for his life to tell the Wāli the news that Egyptian debt now stood at 80 million francs (£2,400,000). Tax arrears came to 14,081,500 piastres[c] out of a total estimated tax of 75,227,500 pts.[56] Timidly he approached Ibrahim Pasha with these facts, and together came up with a report and a plan. Anticipating his father's initial reaction, İbrahim arranged for Muhammad Ali's favourite daughter to break the news. It did little, if any, good. The resulting rage was far beyond what any had been expected, and it took six full days for a tenuous peace to take hold.

A year later while Ibrahim, progressively crippled by rheumatic pains and tuberculosis (he was beginning to cough up blood), was sent to Italy to take the waters, Muhammad Ali, in 1846, travelled to Constantinople. There he approached the Sultan, expressed his fears, and made his peace, explaining: "[My son] Ibrahim is old and sick, [my grandson] Abbas is indolent (happa), and then children will rule Egypt. How will they keep Egypt?"[57] After he secured hereditary rule for his family, the Wali ruled until 1848, when senility made further governance by him impossible.

Tomb Muhammad Ali Pasha 2
Tomb of Muhammad Ali in Alabaster Mosque in Cairo

It soon came to the point where his son and heir, the mortally ailing Ibrahim, had no choice but to travel to Constantinople and request that the Sultan recognize him ruler of Egypt and Sudan even though his father was still alive. However, on the ship returning home, Ibrahim, gripped by fever and guilt, succumbed to seizures and hallucinations. He survived the journey but within six months was dead. He was succeeded by his nephew (Tosun's son) Abbas I.

By this time Muhammad Ali had become so ill and senile that he was not informed of his son's death. Lingering a few months more, Muhammad Ali died at Ras el-Tin Palace in Alexandria on 2 August 1849, and ultimately was buried in the imposing mosque he had commissioned in the Cairo Citadel.

But the immediate reaction to his death was noticeably low key, thanks in no small part to the contempt the new wāli Abbas Pasha had always felt towards his grandfather.

Eyewitness British consul John Murray wrote:

... the ceremonial of the funeral was a most meagre, miserable affair; the [diplomatic] Consular was not invited to attend, and neither the shops nor the Public offices were closed – in short, a general impression prevails that Abbas Pasha has shown a culpable lack of respect for the memory of his illustrious grandfather, in allowing his obsequies to be conducted in so paltry a manner, and in neglecting to attend them in person.
...[the] attachment and veneration of all classes in Egypt for the name of Muhammad Ali are prouder obsequies than any of which it was in power of his successor to confer. The old inhabitants remember and talk of the chaos and anarchy from which he rescued this country; the younger compare his energetic rule with the capricious, vacillating government of his successor; all classes whether Turk, or Arab, not only feel, but do not hesitate to say openly that the prosperity of Egypt has died with Muhammad Ali...In truth my Lord, it cannot be denied, that Muhammad Ali, notwithstanding all his faults was a great man.[58]

Historical debate

A portrait of Muhammad Ali of Egypt by David Wilkie.

The prevailing historical view of Muhammad Ali is as the 'Father of Modern Egypt', being the first ruler since the Ottoman conquest in 1517 to permanently divest the Porte of its power in Egypt. While failing to achieve formal independence for Egypt during his lifetime, he was successful in laying the foundation for a modern Egyptian state. In the process of building an army to defend and expand his realm, he built a central bureaucracy, an educational system that allowed social mobility, and an economic base that included an agricultural cash crop, cotton, and military-based manufacturing. His efforts established his progeny as the rulers of Egypt and Sudan for nearly 150 years and rendered Egypt a de facto independent state.[59]

Others, however, view him not as a builder, but rather as a conqueror. He was of Albanian origin rather than Egyptian, and throughout his reign, Turkish was the official language of his court rather than Arabic. Some argue that he exploited Egyptian manpower and resources for his own personal ends, not Egyptian national ones, with the manpower requirements that he placed on Egyptians being particularly onerous. Taken together in this light, Muhammad Ali is cast by some as another in a long line of foreign conquerors dating back to the Persian occupation in 525 B.C.[60] This view, however, is at odds with the majority opinion of Egyptian, and other Arab historians, and Egyptian public opinion.[61]

Much of the historical debate regarding Muhammad Ali reflects the simultaneous political struggles which occurred in Egypt during the 20th century. Fuad I of Egypt in the 1930s sponsored the collection, arrangement, and translation of the available historical documents relating to his predecessors, which became the Royal Archives of Egypt. These Royal Archives represented the primary and, in the case of some important works,[62] the only source of information for Egyptian history until the sharia court records became available in the 1970s. Fuad's portrayal of Muhammad Ali as a nationalist and benevolent monarch therefore heavily influenced the historical debate. Later, Nasser and his revolutionary republican regime promoted an alternative narrative which portrayed Muhammad Ali as the nationalist founder of modern Egypt but also an ambitious monarch with little regard for his people whose policies ultimately benefited himself and his dynasty at the expense of Egypt.[63]

Family tree

  • İbrahim Agha
    • Osman Agha
      • İbrahim Agha
        • Muhammad Ali Pasha the Great

See also


  1. ^ The spelling of Muhammad Ali's first name in both Arabic and Ottoman Turkish was consistent: محمد (Muhammad). This is the name by which he was known to his Egyptian subjects, and the name used uniformly in Egyptian and Arab historical scholarship. However, given his original status as a commander in the Ottoman military, his first name is often rendered as Mehmed, which is the standard rendition of that name in Ottoman Turkish, or Mehmet in Albanian and Modern Turkish. Current English-language historical scholarship is divided as to which is preferable, with the majority opinion favoring the former. Typically, historians accentuating the Egyptian character of his rule opt for 'Muhammad', whilst those accentuating the Ottoman character opt for 'Mehmed' or 'Mehmet'. This distinction is an issue for those writing in the Latin alphabet, but not in Arabic.[2]
  2. ^ Reports vary about how many died. William Cleveland claims 74 killed while H. Wood Jarvis claims nearly 500. Whatever the actual number, it is clear that the event dealt a serious blow to the Mamluks.[13][14]
  3. ^ A piastre is forty paras. A para is the smallest Egyptian silver coin. In this instance, a piastre can be viewed as approximately 40% of a British pound sterling.


  1. ^ Albert Hourani et al., The Modern Middle East: A Reader, (University of California Press: 2004), p.71
  2. ^ Khalid Fahmy (1998). All the Pasha's Men: Mehmed Ali, his Army and the Making of Modern Egypt. Cambridge University Press.
  3. ^ Blackwood's Edinburgh Magazine January–June 1841 (indexed by Google Books)
  4. ^ Gibb, Sir Hamilton (1954). The Encyclopaedia of Islam. Brill. p. 266.
  5. ^ Kiel, Machiel (1990). Ottoman architecture in Albania, 1385-1912. Research Centre for Islamic History, Art and Culture.
  6. ^ Kia, Mehrdad (2017). The Ottoman Empire: A Historical Encyclopedia [2 volumes]. ABC-CLIO. p. 87. ISBN 9781610693899. His father... was the commander of a small army unit that served the governor of Kavala
  7. ^ a b c Robert Elsie (2012). A Biographical Dictionary of Albanian History. I.B.Tauris. p. 303. ISBN 9781780764313.
  8. ^ Cleveland, William L, A History of the Modern Middle East, (Boulder: Westview Press, 2009), 65–66
  9. ^ Terri DeYoung (2015). Mahmud Sami al-Barudi: Reconfiguring Society and the Self. Syracuse University Press. p. 161. ISBN 978-0-8156-5315-8.
  10. ^ Tom Little, Egypt, (New York: Frederick A. Praeger, 1958), 57.
  11. ^ a b Little, 57.
  12. ^ P.J. Vatikiotis, The History of Egypt, (Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1985), 51.
  13. ^ Cleveland, 67.
  14. ^ H. Wood Jarvis, Pharaoh to Farouk, (London: John Murray, 1956), 124.
  15. ^ Georges Douin, ed. Une Mission militaire francaise aupres de Mohamed Aly, correspondance des Generaux Belliard et Boyer (Cairo: Société Royale de Geographie d'Egypte, 1923)
  16. ^ William L. Cleveland, A History of the Modern Middle East (Boulder: Westview Press, 2013), 57.
  17. ^ Cleveland, 62.
  18. ^ a b All the Pasha’s Men: Mehmed Ali, his army and the making of modern Egypt, Khaled Famy
  19. ^ Vatikiotis, 55; Cleveland, 63.
  20. ^ Little, 59; Cleveland, 63–64.
  21. ^ a b c Cleveland, 69.
  22. ^ Karabell, Zachary (2003). Parting the desert: the creation of the Suez Canal. Alfred A. Knopf. p. 34,36. ISBN 978-0-375-40883-0.
  23. ^ Panza, Laura; Williamson, Jeffrey G. (2015-02-01). "Did Muhammad Ali foster industrialization in early nineteenth-century Egypt?". The Economic History Review. 68 (1): 79–100. doi:10.1111/1468-0289.12063. ISSN 1468-0289.
  24. ^ All the Pasha's Men: Mehmed Ali, his Army and the Making of Modern Egypt, 133
  25. ^ a b c d Fahmy, Khaled (1999-01-01). "The Anatomy of Justice: Forensic Medicine and Criminal Law in Nineteenth-Century Egypt". Islamic Law and Society. 6 (2): 224–271. JSTOR 3399313.
  26. ^ a b c d e f g h i j Kuhnke, LaVerne. Lives at Risk: Public Health in Nineteenth-Century Egypt. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1990.
  27. ^ M. Paul Merruau, L’Egypte Contemporaine de Mehemet-ali a Said Pacha, Paris, Librarie Internationale, 1860, p. 84.
  28. ^ Voilquin, Suzanne. Souvenirs d'une fille du peuple: ou, La Saint-Simonienne en Egypte, Intro by Lydia Elhadad. Paris: F. Maspero, 1978.
  29. ^ a b c d e Kozma, Liat. Policing Egyptian Women: Sex, Law, and Medicine in Khedival Egypt. Syracuse, NY, USA: Syracuse University Press, 2011. ProQuest ebrary. Web. 24 May 2016.
  30. ^ a b c d e f g h Fahmy, Khaled. “Women, Medicine, and Power in Nineteenth-Century Egypt.” Remaking Women: Feminism and Modernity in the Middle East. Lila Abu-Lughod. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1998. 35–63. Print.
  31. ^ Verdery, Richard (1971). "The Publications of the Būlāq Press under Muhammad 'Alī of Egypt" (PDF). Journal of the American Oriental Society. 91 (1): 129–132. doi:10.2307/600448. JSTOR 600448. Retrieved 22 May 2014.
  32. ^ All the Pasha's Men: Mehmed Ali, his Army and the Making of Modern Egypt
  33. ^ All the Pasha's Men: Mehmed Ali, his Army and the Making of Modern Egypt 127
  34. ^ Khaled Fahmy, All the Pasha’s Men: Mehmed Ali, his army and the making of modern Egypt (Cambridge, 1997), 119–47.
  35. ^ Khaled Fahmy, All the Pasha’s Men: Mehmed Ali, his army and the making of modern Egypt (Cambridge, 1997), 142–146.
  36. ^ Khaled Fahmy, All the Pasha’s Men: Mehmed Ali, his army and the making of modern Egypt (Cambridge, 1997), 142.
  37. ^ Khaled Fahmy, All the Pasha’s Men: Mehmed Ali, his army and the making of modern Egypt (Cambridge, 1997), 144.
  38. ^ All the Pasha's Men: Mehmed Ali, his Army and the Making of Modern Egypt, 123
  39. ^ All the Pasha's Men: Mehmed Ali, his Army and the Making of Modern Egypt, 124
  40. ^ Henry Dodwell, The Founder of Modern Egypt: A Study of Muhammal ‘Ali, (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1967), 43–44.
  41. ^ Dodwell, 48.
  42. ^ Dodwell, 51.
  43. ^ Dodwell, 71.
  44. ^ 12 Bahr Barra, Jamad I 1243/1828
  45. ^ Afaf Lutfi al-Sayyid Marsot, Egypt in the reign of Muhammad Ali, University of Cambridge, 1983
  46. ^ Dodwell, 111.
  47. ^ Dodwell, 112–113.
  48. ^ Cleveland, 72.
  49. ^ Charles Kupchan (2001). Power in Transition: The Peaceful Change of International Order. United Nations University Press. p. 117.
  50. ^ Dodwell, 122–123.
  51. ^ a b c Vatikiotis, 66.
  52. ^ Dodwell, 171.
  53. ^ Jarvis, 134.
  54. ^ Morroe Berger, Military Elite and Social Change: Egypt Since Napoleon, (Princeton, New Jersey: Center for International Studies, 1960), 11.
  55. ^ "...the silver nitrate his doctors gave him earlier to cure his dysentery was taking its toll...", Afaf Lutfi as-Sayyid Marsot, Egypt in the reign of Muhammad Ali, Chapter 11, page 255; Cambridge Press, 1983
  56. ^ Afaf Lutfi as-Sayyid Marsot, Egypt in the reign of Muhammad Ali, Chapter 11, page 252; Cambridge Press, 1983
  57. ^ Nubar Pasha,Memoirs, p.63.
  58. ^ F.O. 78/804. Murray to Palmerston, September 1849
  59. ^ The 'Father of Modern Egypt' school includes: Henry Dodwell, The Founder of Modern Egypt: A Study of Muhammad ‘Ali (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1965); Arthur Goldschmidt, Jr., Modern Egypt: The Formation of a Nation-State (Boulder, CO: Westview Press, 1988); Albert Haurani, A History of the Arab Peoples (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 2002); Jean Lacouture and Simonne Lacouture, Egypt in Transition, trans. Francis Scarfe (New York: Criterion Books, 1958); P.J. Vatikiotis, The History of Modern Egypt: From Muhammad Ali to Mubarak (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1991). The following internet sources, while not necessarily scholarly, show how widespread this interpretation is. "History," The Egyptian Presidency, 2008, "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2008-05-17. Retrieved 2009-04-12.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link) (accessed 29 October 2008); Metz, Helen, Chapin. "Muhammad Ali of Egypt 1805–48," Egypt: a Country Study, 1990, (accessed 29 October 2008); "Muhammad Ali of Egypt 1805–48: The Father of Modern Egypt," Travel to Egypt – Egypt Travel Guide, 2007, (accessed 29 October 2008); "Muhammad Ali of Egypt,", 2008, (accessed 29 October 2008).
  60. ^ The 'Foreign Ruler' school includes: Morroe Berger, Military Elite and Social Change: Egypt Since Napoleon (Princeton, NJ: Woodrow Wilson School of Public and International Affairs, 1960); William L. Cleveland, A History of the Modern Middle East (Boulder, CO: Westview Press, 1994); Khaled Fahmy, All the Pash'a Men: Mehmed Ali, His Army and the Making of Modern Egypt (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1997); Haseeba, Khadijah. "Year's Lesson". UCLA Center for Near East Studies. 2003. Retrieved 29 October 2008. Tom Little, Modern Egypt (London: Ernest Benn Limited, 1967); Afaf Lutfi Al-Sayyid Marsot, Egypt in the Reign of Muhammad Ali (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1984); John Marlowe, A History of Modern Egypt and Anglo-Egyptian Relations 1800–1953 (New York: Praeger, 1954).
  61. ^ Mohammed Heikal, Origins of Establishment.
  62. ^ For example, Henry Dodwell, The Founder of Modern Egypt: A Study of Muhammad 'Ali (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1931)
  63. ^ Khaled Fahmy, Mehmed Ali: From Ottoman Governor to Ruler of Egypt (Oxford: Oneworld Publications, 2009)


  • Ahmed, Jamal Mohammed. The Intellectual Origins of Egyptian Nationalism. New York: Oxford University Press, 1960.
  • Berger, Morroe. Military Elite and Social Change: Egypt Since Napoleon. Princeton, New Jersey: Center for International Studies: Woodrow Wilson School for Public and International Affairs, 1960.
  • Dodwell, Henry. The Founder of Modern Egypt: A Study of Muhammad ‘Ali. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1967.
  • Fahmy, Khaled. 1997. All The Pasha's Men: Mehmed Ali, his army and the making of modern Egypt. New York: American University in Cairo Press. ISBN 977-424-696-9
  • Fahmy, Khaled. 1998. "The era of Muhammad 'Ali Pasha, 1805–1848" in The Cambridge History of Egypt: Modern Egypt, from 1517 to the end of the twentieth century. in M.W. Daly, ed. pp. 139–179, Vol. 2. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-47211-3 online
  • Goldschmidt, Arthur, Jr. Modern Egypt: The Formation of a Nation-State. Boulder, Colorado: Westview Press, 1988.
  • Hill, Richard. Egypt in the Sudan 1820–1881. London: Oxford University Press, 1959.
  • Hourani, Albert. 2002. A History of the Arab Peoples. London: Faber and Faber. ISBN 0-446-39392-4
  • al-Jabarti, Abd al-Rahman. 1994. 'Abd al-Rahman al-Jabarti's History of Egypt. 4 vols. T. Philipp and M. Perlmann, translators. Stuttgart: Franz Steiner Verlag. ISBN 3-515-05756-0
  • Jarvis, H. Wood. Pharaoh to Farouk. London: John Murray Limited, 1956.
  • Lacouture, Jean and Simonne Lacouture. Egypt in Transition. Translated by Francis Scarfe. New York: Criterion Books, 1958.
  • Marlowe, John. A History of Modern Egypt and Anglo-Egyptian Relations 1800–1953. New York: Praeger, 1954.
  • Marsot, Afaf Lutfi al-Sayyid. Egypt in the Reign of Muhammad Ali. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1984.
  • Pollard, Lisa. Nurturing the Nation: The Family Politics of Modernizing, Colonizing, and Liberating Egypt, 1805–1923. Berkeley, California: University of California Press, 2005.
  • Rivlin, Helen Anne B. The Agricultural Policy of Muhammad ‘Alī in Egypt. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press, 1961.
  • Vatikiotis, P.J. 1991. The History of Modern Egypt: From Muhammad Ali to Mubarak. Baltimore: The Johns Hopkins University Press. ISBN 0-8018-4215-8 online free to borrow
  • Finkel, Caroline, Osman's Dream, (Basic Books, 2005), 57; "Istanbul was only adopted as the city's official name in 1930..".

Further reading

  • Aharoni, Reuven. The Pasha's Bedouin: tribes and state in the Egypt of Mehemet Ali, 1805–1848 (Routledge, 2014)
  • Batou, Jean. "Nineteenth-Century attempted escapes from the periphery: the cases of Egypt and Paraguay." Review (Fernand Braudel Center) (1993): 279–318. in JSTOR
  • El Ashmouni, Marwa, and Katharine Bartsch. "Egypt's Age of Transition: Unintentional Cosmopolitanism during the Reign of Muhammad'Alī (1805–1848)." Arab Studies Quarterly (2014) 36#1 pp: 43–74. in JSTOR
  • Fahmy, Khaled. All the Pasha's men: Mehmed Ali, his army and the making of modern Egypt (Cambridge University Press, 1997)
  • Karabell, Zachary (2003). Parting the desert: the creation of the Suez Canal. Alfred A. Knopf. ISBN 978-0-375-40883-0.
  • Kelly, J. B. "Mehemet ‘Ali's expedition to the Persian Gulf 1837–1840, part I." Middle Eastern Studies (1965) 1#4 pp: 350–381.
  • Panza, Laura, and Jeffrey G. Williamson. "Did Muhammad Ali foster industrialization in early nineteenth‐century Egypt?." The Economic History Review (2014). online
  • Sayyid-Marsot, Afaf Lutfi. Egypt in the reign of Muhammad Ali (Cambridge University Press, 1984)
  • Silvera, Alain. "Edme‐Framçois Jomard and Egyptian reforms in 1839." Middle Eastern Studies (1971) 7#3 pp: 301–316.
  • Toledano, Ehud R. "Mehmet Ali Paşa or Muhammad Ali Basha? An historiographic appraisal in the wake of a recent book." Middle Eastern Studies (1985) 21#4 pp: 141–159.
  • Ufford, Letitia W. The Pasha: How Mehemet Ali Defied the West, 1839–1841 (McFarland, 2007)

External links

Muhammad Ali of Egypt
Born: 4 March 1769 Died: 2 August 1849
Preceded by
Hurshid Ahmed Pasha
as Ottoman Governor of Egypt
Wāli of Egypt and Sudan
Succeeded by
Ibrahim Pasha
Ahmed Dino

Ahmed Dino (1785–1849) was an Albanian military leader and politician.

He was born in 1785 in Preveza to the notable Dino family of the town. He was a close friend and ally of Ali Pasha. In Egypt he was one of the highest ranking generals of Muhammad Ali of Egypt during his conquest of Egypt. In 1844 he funded and built in Preveza the Yeni mosque, which was proclaimed a cultural monument of Preveza in the 2000s. In 1847 he took part in the Albanian Revolt of 1847 led by Zenel Gjoleka. Although the revolt was initially successful Gjoleka was eventually defeated and Ahmed Dino was exiled in Konya where he died in 1849. He was married to Saliha Çapari of the notable Çapari family. His son Abedin Dino became one of the founders of the League of Prizren and for a short period Minister of Foreign Affairs of the Ottoman Empire.

Albania–Egypt relations

Albania–Egypt relations refer to current and historical relations between Albania and Egypt. Albania has an embassy in Cairo, and Egypt has an embassy in Tirana. The history of diplomatic relations of Albania and Egypt dates back to the early modern history, when Muhammad Ali of Egypt (Albanian: Mehmet Ali Pasha) became governor, and self-declared viceroy of Egypt and Sudan with the Ottomans temporary approval.

Alexandria expedition of 1807

The Alexandria expedition of 1807 or Fraser expedition (Arabic:حملة فريزر) was an operation by the Royal Navy and the British Army during the Anglo-Turkish War (1807–1809) of the Napoleonic Wars to capture Alexandria in Egypt with the purpose of securing a base of operations against the Ottoman Empire in the Mediterranean Sea. It was a part of a larger strategy against the Ottoman-French alliance of the Ottoman Sultan Selim III. It resulted in the occupation of Alexandria from 18 March to 25 September 1807. The people of Alexandria, being disaffected towards Muhammad Ali, opened the gates of the city to the British forces, allowing for one of the easiest conquests of a city by the British forces during the Napoleonic Wars. However, due to lack of supplies, and inconclusive operations against the Egyptian forces, the Expedition was forced to embark the transports again, and leave Alexandria, not having reached any specific goals towards influencing the Ottoman Empire's improving relations with France.


Almeh (Egyptian Arabic: عالمة‎ ʕálma IPA: [ˈʕælmæ], plural ʕawālim عوالم [ʕæˈwæːlem, -lɪm], from Arabic: علم ʻālima "to know, be learned")

was the name of a class of courtesans or female entertainers in Arab Egypt, women educated to sing and recite classical poetry and to discourse wittily, connected to the qayna slave singers of pre-Islamic Arabia.

They were educated girls of good social standing, trained in dancing, singing and poetry, present at festivals and entertainments, and hired as mourners at funerals.In the 19th century, almeh came to be used as a synonym of ghawazi, the erotic dancers of Dom ethnicity whose performances were banned in 1834 by Muhammad Ali of Egypt. As a result of the ban, the ghawazi dancers were forced to pretend that they were in fact awalim.

Transliterated into French as almée, the term came to be synonymous with "belly dancer" in European Orientalism of the 19th century.

Convention of London (1840)

The Convention of London of 1840 was a treaty with the title of Convention for the Pacification of the Levant, signed on 15 July 1840 between the Great Powers of United Kingdom, Austria, Prussia, Russia on one hand and the Ottoman Empire on the other. The Convention lent some support to the Ottoman Empire, which was having difficulties with its Egyptian possessions.

Because Muhammad Ali of Egypt did not accept the terms of the convention, the Oriental Crisis of 1840 resulted. Thus, Muhammad Ali finally had to accept the convention on 27 November 1840.

Egyptian–Ottoman War (1831–1833)

The First Egyptian-Ottoman War, First Turco-Egyptian War or First Syrian War (1831–1833) was a military conflict between the Ottoman Empire and Egypt brought about by Muhammad Ali Pasha's demand to the Sublime Porte for control of Greater Syria, as reward for aiding the Sultan during the Greek War of Independence. As a result, Muhammad Ali's forces temporarily gained control of Syria, advancing as far north as Kütahya.

Egyptian–Ottoman War (1839–1841)

The Second Egyptian–Ottoman War or Second Turko–Egyptian War lasted from 1839 until 1841 and was fought mainly in Syria, whence it is sometimes referred as the (Second) Syrian War.

In 1839, the Ottoman Empire moved to reoccupy lands lost to Muhammad Ali in the First Turko-Egyptian War. The Ottoman Empire invaded Syria, but after suffering a defeat at the Battle of Nezib appeared on the verge of collapse. On 1 July, the Ottoman fleet sailed to Alexandria and surrendered to Muhammad Ali. Britain, Austria and other European nations, rushed to intervene and force Egypt into accepting a peace treaty. From September to November 1840, a combined naval fleet, made up of British and Austrian vessels, cut off Ibrahim's sea communications with Egypt, followed by the occupation of Beirut and Acre by the British. On 27 November 1840, the Convention of Alexandria took place. British Admiral Charles Napier reached an agreement with the Egyptian government, where the latter abandoned its claims to Syria and returned the Ottoman fleet.

Egypt–Pakistan relations

Egypt–Pakistan relations refers to the bilateral relations between the Arab Republic of Egypt and the Islamic Republic of Pakistan. Modern relations traced back to 1947 when founder of Pakistan Muhammad Ali Jinnah paid a farewell visit to Egypt on the special invitation sent by King Fuad II. Egypt has an embassy in Islamabad and Pakistan has an embassy in Cairo. Both countries are members of the OIC (Organisation of Islamic Cooperation) and the "D8". Pakistan and Egypt are both designated Major Non-NATO allies, giving them access to certain levels of hardware and surplus military equipment from the United States.

Both Egypt and Pakistan have a close nationalist bond, the two nations were founded as modern nation-states in an era of nationalism, with a pre-dominant Muslim population. Modern Egypt regards its founder as Muhammad Ali of Egypt while Muhammad Ali Jinnah is regarded as Pakistan's founder.

Mehmed Ali Pasha

Mehmed Ali Pasha may refer to:

Kavalalı Mehmet Ali Pasha, better known as Muhammad Ali of Egypt (1769–1849)

Çerkes Mehmed Ali Pasha (died 1625), Ottoman statesman and grand vizier

Mehmed Emin Aali Pasha (1815–1871), Ottoman statesman and grand vizier

Mehmed Ali Pasha (1827–1878), German-born Ottoman soldier and marshal

Mehmet Ali

Mehmet Ali, Memet Ali or Mehmed Ali () is a Turkish given name for males. People with the name include:

Memet Ali Alabora (born 1977), Turkish actor

Mehmet Ali Ağca (born 1958), Turkish assassin

Mehmet Ali Aybar (1908–1995), Turkish sprinter

Mehmet Ali Birand (1941–2013), Turkish journalist

Mehmet Ali Erbil (born 1957), Turkish comedian

Mehmet Ali İrtemçelik (born 1950), Turkish politician

Mehmet Ali Pasha, various people

Muhammad Ali of Egypt (1769–1849), Albanian-Ottoman governor of Egypt

Çerkes Mehmed Ali Pasha (died 1625), Ottoman statesman and grand vizier

Mehmed Ali Pasha (1827–1878), German-born Ottoman soldier and marshal

Mehmed Emin Aali Pasha (1815–1871), Ottoman statesman and grand vizier

Mehmet Ali Şahin (born 1950), Turkish politician

Mehmet Ali Talat (born 1952), Turkish Cypriot politician

Memet Ali (born 1993), Uyghur-Chinese footballer

Moharam (family)

Moharam of Judham of Murrah of Sheba of Kahlan of Qahtanite origin (also Moharram, Muharram, Aal Moharam, Aal Maharema) (Arabic: مُحَرَّم or المحارمة) is a family lineage from Egypt with ancestors from Yemen.

The family descends from Moharram from Judham (Jutham) (جذام) ibn Uday ibn Hareth of Murrah ibn Adad ibn Yashjob ibn Oreib ibn Zeid of Kahlan of Sheba (Sabaa') of Yashgiob of Yareeb from Qahtan from the Arab peninsula (Arabic: بنو جذام (عمرو) بن عدي بن الحارث بن مرة بن أدد بن زيد بن يشجب بن عريب بن زيد بن كهلان بن سبأ بن يشجب بن يعرب بن قحطان)From Judham descend the dynasties Hud (Banu Hud) and


who ruled Andalusia and Valencia.

Moharam first entered Egypt with the Arab conquest of Egypt in December 639 with Amr Bin-Al Aas, settled in Kafr Ali Kaly (قرية كفر على غالى) Al Sharkia, and owned lands. Saladin granted them more lands, which they still hold today.

Moharram in Egypt comprises five houses: Soweid, Baagah, Nathel, Refaa, and Bardaa (سويد، وبعجة، وناثل، ورفاعة، وبردعة )

Although the family settled in Al-sharkia in Egypt, they eventually spread over Egypt and over the middle east, especially in Jordan and Syria.

The major cause of their spread into Egypt was their refusal to pay taxes in the era of Muhammad Ali of Egypt, who ordered the destruction of their houses. Once they heard that the army was marching towards their homes, they abandoned them and took refuge in the neighboring cities.

After the campaign, some of the family houses returned to Al-sharkia while others made their homes in other places in Egypt.

Muhammad Ali's seizure of power

The process of Muhammad Ali's seizure of power in Egypt was a long three-way civil war between the Ottoman Turks, Egyptian Mamluks who had ruled Egypt for centuries, and Albanian mercenaries in the service of the Ottomans. It ended in victory for the Albanians led by Muhammad Ali of Egypt (1769–1849).

The three-way struggle followed the French invasion of Egypt by Napoleon. After the French defeat a power vacuum was created in Egypt. The Mamluks had governed Egypt before the French invasion and still retained much power. Egypt was officially a part of the Ottoman Empire and Egypt still had many Ottoman Turkish troops who had been sent to evict the French. Many of the best Ottoman troops were from Albania, then a province of the Ottoman Empire.

Muhammad Ali, Prince of the Sa'id

Mohamed Ali, Prince of the Sa'id (Arabic: الأمير محمد على, أمير الصعيد‎ [mæˈħæm.mæd ˈʕæli]; born 5 February 1979) is the heir apparent to the abolished thrones of Egypt and Sudan.

Ottoman Crete

The island of Crete (Ottoman Turkish: گریت‎ Girīt) was declared an Ottoman province (eyalet) in 1646, after the Ottomans managed to conquer the western part of the island as part of the Cretan War, but the Venetians maintained their hold on the capital Candia until 1669, when Francesco Morosini surrendered the keys of the town. The offshore island fortresses of Souda, Granbousa, and Spinalonga would remain under Venetian rule until in 1715, when they too were captured by the Ottomans.Crete took part in the Greek War of Independence, but the local uprising was suppressed with the aid of Muhammad Ali of Egypt. The island remained under Egyptian control until 1840, when it was restored to full Ottoman authority. Following the Cretan Revolt (1866–1869) and especially the Pact of Halepa in 1878, the island received significant autonomy, but Ottoman violations of the autonomy statutes and Cretan aspirations for eventual union with the Kingdom of Greece led to the Cretan Revolt of 1897–98 and the Greco-Turkish War (1897). Despite an Ottoman victory in the war, Crete became an autonomous state in 1898 because of intervention in favor of Greece by European powers and was united with Greece after the Balkan Wars.

Sa'id of Egypt

Mohamed Sa'id Pasha (Arabic: محمد سعيد باشا‎, Turkish: Mehmed Said Paşa, March 17, 1822 – January 17, 1863) was the Wāli of Egypt and Sudan from 1854 until 1863, officially owing fealty to the Ottoman Sultan but in practice exercising virtual independence. He was the fourth son of Muhammad Ali Pasha. Sa'id was a Francophone, educated in Paris.

Under Sa'id's rule there were several law, land and tax reforms. Some modernization of Egyptian and Sudanese infrastructure also occurred using western loans. In 1854 the first act of concession of land for the Suez Canal was granted, to a French businessman Ferdinand de Lesseps. The British opposed a Frenchman building the canal and persuaded the Ottoman Empire to deny its permission for two years.

Sudan had been conquered by his father in 1821 and incorporated into his Egyptian realm, mainly in order to seize slaves for his army. Slave raids (the annual 'razzia') also ventured beyond Sudan into Kordofan and Ethiopia. Facing European pressure to abolish official Egyptian slave raids in the Sudan, Sa'id issued a decree banning raids. Freelance slave traders ignored his decree.

When the American Civil War brought a cotton famine, the export of Egyptian cotton surged during Sa'id's rule to become the main source for European mills. At the behest of Napoleon III in 1863, Sa'id dispatched part of a Sudanese battalion to help put down a rebellion against the Second Mexican Empire.

Under Sa'id's rule the influence of sheikhs was curbed and many Bedouin reverted to nomadic raiding.

In 1854 he established the Bank of Egypt. In the same year Egypt's first standard gauge railway was opened, between Kafr el-Zayyat on the Rosetta branch of the Nile and Alexandria. In addition, he founded the Medjidieh, a precursor to the Khedivial Mail Line.

Sa'id's heir presumptive, Ahmad Rifaat, drowned in 1858 at Kafr el-Zayyat when a railway train on which he was travelling fell off a car float into the Nile. Therefore, when Sa'id died in January 1863 he was succeeded by his nephew Ismail.

The Mediterranean port of Port Said is named after him.

He married twice, to a first wife Inji Hanimefendi without issue, and to a second wife Melekber Hanimefendi with two sons, Mohamed Toussoun Pasha and Mahmoud Pasha.

Tafil Buzi

Tafil Buzi (1792 - 1844) was an Albanian leader and fighter, known for his role in various rebellions against Ottoman government in South Albania during the Albanian Revolts of 1833-1839. During his activity he had relations with Muhammad Ali of Egypt and Greek politicians. For his continuous conspiracies he was captured and interned in 1840 by the Ottoman government. In 1842 he was pardoned and acted leader in service of Ottoman government in Syria. He died there in 1844.

Tusun Pasha

Tusun Pasha (1794–28 September 1816) — (Turkish: Tosun Paşa, Ahmet Tosun Paşa, Ottoman Turkish: طوسون پاشا‎, Arabic: طوسون باشا‎) — was the son of Muhammad Ali Pasha, wali of Egypt between 1805-1849.

Zarafa (giraffe)

Zarafa (1825 – 12 January 1845) was a female Nubian giraffe who lived in the Jardin des Plantes in Paris for 18 years. A gift from Muhammad Ali of Egypt to King Charles X of France, she was one of three giraffes Muhammad Ali sent to European rulers in 1827. These were the first giraffes to be seen in Europe for over three centuries, since the Medici giraffe was sent to Lorenzo de' Medici in Florence in 1486. She didn't receive the name "Zarafa" until 1985.


İliç is a town and district of Erzincan Province in the Eastern Anatolia Region of Turkey. It covers an area of 1,397 km² and the elevation is 1,060 m. The district has a population of 6,349 of which 2,503 live in the town of İliç (2010). The mayor is Muhlis Doğan (MHP). Muhammad Ali of Egypt Ancestors came from this City.

The town is just upstream of the Bağıştaş 1 Dam.

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