Mudiriyah

Mudiriyah (Arabic: مديرية‎, plural Mudiriyat), meaning "directorate" (from مدير mudir, meaning "director"), is an administrative subdivision also known in English as mudirate,[1] and often translated as "province".[2][3] It was used in Egypt and in Anglo-Egyptian Sudan.[1] The term was also used in Yemen.[4] The mudiriya were subdivided into markaz, or districts.[3] In modern Egypt, these subdivisions were replaced by governorates (muhafazat).

Notes

  1. ^ a b Nachtigal, Gustav (1971) Sahara and Sudan: Wadai and Darfur (Volume 4 of Sahara and Sudan) Hurst, London, page 413, OCLC 27836995
  2. ^ Amery, Harold François Saphir (1905) English-Arabic vocabulary for the use of officials in the Anglo-Egyptian Sudan Intelligence Department, Egyptian Ministry of War, Al-Mokattam Printing Office, Cairo, page 435, OCLC 7582223
  3. ^ a b Johnson, Amy J. (2004) Reconstructing Rural Egypt: Ahmed Hussein and the history of Egyptian development Syracuse University Press, Syracuse, New York, page 281, ISBN 0-8156-3014-X
  4. ^ Salmoni, Barak A.; Loidolt, Bryce and Wells, Madeleine (2010) Regime and periphery in Northern Yemen: the Huthi phenomenon (Rand Corporation monograph series, MG-962-DIA) Rand Corporation, Santa Monica, California, pages 81-82, ISBN 978-0-8330-4933-9

See also

2017 Jakarta bombings

On 24 May 2017, two explosions occurred at a bus terminal in Kampung Melayu, East Jakarta. Police confirmed that the explosions were caused by multiple explosive devices found in the toilet and in another part of the terminal. The bombings killed 5 people, 3 policemen and 2 attackers. The 11 injured people were taken to multiple hospitals across the Eastern Jakarta area.

The attack occurred just two days after an ISIS-linked suicide bombing targeting young girls occurred in Manchester, United Kingdom, which killed 22 people and occurred on the day after government clashes with ISIS-linked militants began in Marawi, Philippines.

According to the Indonesian Police Watch, the attack was the deadliest attack on the Indonesian National Police. This was later surpassed in 2018 when a standoff between police officers and terrorists occurred in Mako Brimo.

Directorate General of Antiquities

The Directorate General of Antiquities (DGA) or La Direction Générale des Antiquités et des Musées is a Lebanese government directorate, technical unit of the Ministry of Culture and is responsible for the protection, promotion and excavation activities in all sites of national heritage in Lebanon. Mr. Sarkis Khoury is the Director General with other staff including Joumana Nakhle and Laure Salloum.

Kreševo

Kreševo (Croatian pronunciation: [krêʃeʋo]) is a town and municipality located in Central Bosnia Canton of the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina, an entity of Bosnia and Herzegovina. Kreševo is a mountainous town, located in a narrow valley of the Kreševica river on the slope of Mount Bitovnje.

Maya Haïdar Boustani

Maya Abdallah Haïdar Boustani is a Lebanese archaeologist and curator of the Museum of Lebanese Prehistory at Saint Joseph University, Beirut.

Palmyra

Palmyra (; Palmyrene: Tadmor; Arabic: تَدْمُر‎ Tadmur) is an ancient Semitic city in present-day Homs Governorate, Syria. Archaeological finds date back to the Neolithic period, and documents first mention the city in the early second millennium BC. Palmyra changed hands on a number of occasions between different empires before becoming a subject of the Roman Empire in the first century AD.

The city grew wealthy from trade caravans; the Palmyrenes became renowned as merchants who established colonies along the Silk Road and operated throughout the Roman Empire. Palmyra's wealth enabled the construction of monumental projects, such as the Great Colonnade, the Temple of Bel, and the distinctive tower tombs. Ethnically, the Palmyrenes combined elements of Amorites, Arameans, and Arabs. The city's social structure was tribal, and its inhabitants spoke Palmyrene (a dialect of Aramaic), while using Greek for commercial and diplomatic purposes. Greco-Roman culture influenced the culture of Palmyra, which produced distinctive art and architecture that combined eastern and western traditions. The city's inhabitants worshiped local Semitic deities, Mesopotamian and Arab gods.

By the third century AD Palmyra had become a prosperous regional center. It reached the apex of its power in the 260s, when the Palmyrene King Odaenathus defeated Persian Emperor Shapur I. The king was succeeded by regent Queen Zenobia, who rebelled against Rome and established the Palmyrene Empire. In 273, Roman emperor Aurelian destroyed the city, which was later restored by Diocletian at a reduced size. The Palmyrenes converted to Christianity during the fourth century and to Islam in the centuries following the conquest by the 7th-century Rashidun Caliphate, after which the Palmyrene and Greek languages were replaced by Arabic.

Before AD 273, Palmyra enjoyed autonomy and was attached to the Roman province of Syria, having its political organization influenced by the Greek city-state model during the first two centuries AD. The city became a Roman colonia during the third century, leading to the incorporation of Roman governing institutions, before becoming a monarchy in 260. Following its destruction in 273, Palmyra became a minor center under the Byzantines and later empires. Its destruction by the Timurids in 1400 reduced it to a small village. Under French Mandatory rule in 1932, the inhabitants were moved into the new village of Tadmur, and the ancient site became available for excavations. During the Syrian Civil War in 2015, the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant (ISIL) destroyed large parts of the ancient city, which was recaptured by the Syrian Army on 2 March 2017.

South Yemen

South Yemen is the common English name for the People's Democratic Republic of Yemen (Arabic: جمهورية اليمن الديمقراطية الشعبية‎ Jumhūriyat al-Yaman ad-Dīmuqrāṭīyah ash-Sha'bīyah), which existed from 1967 to 1990 as a state in the Middle East in the southern and eastern provinces of the present-day Republic of Yemen, including the island of Socotra. It was also referred to as Democratic Yemen or Yemen (Aden).

South Yemen's origins can be traced to 1874 with the creation of the British colony of Aden and the Aden Protectorate, which consisted of two-thirds of the present-day Yemen. However, Aden became a province within the British Raj in 1937. After the collapse of Aden Protectorate, the state of emergency was declared in 1963 when the National Liberation Front (NLF) and the Front for the Liberation of Occupied South Yemen (FLOSY) rebelled against British rule.

The Federation of South Arabia and the Protectorate of South Arabia merged to become South Yemen on 30 November 1967 and became a Marxist socialist republic in 1970 supported by the Soviet Union. Despite its efforts to bring stability into the region, it was involved in a brief civil war in 1986. With the collapse of communism, South Yemen was unified with the Yemen Arab Republic (commonly known as "North Yemen") on 22 May 1990, to form the present-day Yemen. After four years, however, South Yemen declared its secession from the north, which resulted in the north occupying south Yemen and the 1994 civil war. Another attempt to restore South Yemen continues on since 2017.

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