Mozhaysk (Russian: Можайск, IPA: [mɐˈʐajsk]) is a town and the administrative center of Mozhaysky District in Moscow Oblast, Russia, located 110 kilometers (68 mi) to the west of Moscow, on the historic road leading to Smolensk and then to Poland. Population: 31,363 (2010 Census); 31,459 (2002 Census); 30,735 (1989 Census).
Coat of arms
Location of Mozhaysk
Location of Mozhaysk
Mozhaysk (Moscow Oblast)
|Federal subject||Moscow Oblast|
|Administrative district||Mozhaysky District|
|Town status since||1708|
|• Total||15 km2 (6 sq mi)|
|Elevation||210 m (690 ft)|
| • Estimate |
|• Density||2,100/km2 (5,400/sq mi)|
|• Capital of||Mozhaysky District, Town of Mozhaysk|
|• Municipal district||Mozhaysky Municipal District|
|• Urban settlement||Mozhaysk Urban Settlement|
|• Capital of||Mozhaysk Municipal District, Mozhaysk Urban Settlement|
|Dialing code(s)||+7 49638|
First mentioned in 1231 as an appanage of Chernigov; Mozhaysk took its name from the Mozhay (Mozhaya) River, whose name is of Baltic origin (compare Lithuanian mažoja "small" - in contrast to the larger Moskva River nearby). Later Mozhaysk became an important stronghold of the Smolensk dynasty, in the 13th century ruled by Duke (later Saint) Theodore the Black. The Muscovites seized Mozhaysk in 1303, but in the course of the following century had serious troubles defending it against Algirdas (Grand Duke of Lithuania from 1345 to 1377). A younger brother of the ruling Grand Duke of Moscow usually held the Principality of Mozhaysk - until the practice was dropped in 1493. In 1562 Denmark and Russia signed the Treaty of Mozhaysk there during the Livonian War of 1558–1583. In 1708 the administration of Peter the Great granted town status to Mozhaysk.
Mozhaysk played a role in defending the Western approaches to Moscow in the 19th and 20th centuries. During the French invasion of Russia in 1812 the Battle of Borodino took place 12 kilometers (7.5 mi) from the town. In World War II the German Wehrmacht took Mozhaysk on October 16, 1941; the Soviet Red Army re-captured it on January 20, 1942.
Within the framework of administrative divisions, Mozhaysk serves as the administrative center of Mozhaysky District. As an administrative division, it is, together with twenty-one rural localities, incorporated within Mozhaysky District as the Town of Mozhaysk. As a municipal division, the Town of Mozhaysk is incorporated within Mozhaysky Municipal District as Mozhaysk Urban Settlement.
The first stone cathedral was built in the kremlin in the early 14th century; in 1849, it was demolished stone by stone and then reconstructed exactly as it used to be. A larger blood-red cathedral in the Gothic Revival style was completed in 1814. The church of St. Joachim and Anna preserves some parts from the early 15th century. Another important landmark is the Luzhetsky Monastery, founded in 1408 by St. Ferapont and rebuilt in brick in the 16th century. The monastery cathedral, erected during the reign of Vasily III, was formerly known for its frescoes, ascribed to Dionisius' circle.
The fact that Mozhaysk was frequently the last major stop on the way to the capital, gave birth to the expression "to push beyond Mozhay" (загнать за Можай, zagnat' za Mozhay), which literally means "push (people, enemy) away (from Moscow) further than Mozhaysk."
Mozhaysk is twinned with:
Alexei Vladimirovich Tereshchenko (Russian: Алексей Владимирович Терещенко; born 16 December 1980 in Mozhaysk, Russian SFSR, Soviet Union) is a Russian professional ice hockey forward, who is currently playing for the HC Dinamo Minsk of the Kontinental Hockey League (KHL).Andrei Vladimirovich Bogdanov
Andrey Vladimirovich Bogdanov (Russian Андре́й Влади́мирович Богда́нов) (born January 31, 1970 in Mozhaysk) is a Russian politician. He is the chairman of the Communist Party of Social Justice and a prominent Freemason, serving as Grand Master of the Grand Lodge of Russia since 2007. As a candidate for the 2008 presidential election, he received 968,344 votes or 1.30% of the Russian electorate.Battle of Mozhaysk
Battle of Mozhaisk was a series of battles at the final stage of the Polish-Muscovite War (1605-1618). on the western approaches to Moscow. The battle is part of the Moscow campaign of Wladyslaw IV. During months of fighting, the Russian armies managed to maintain their combat capability and prevent the rapid seizure of Moscow. However, the threat of encirclement forced the Russian troops to retreat, opening the way to the enemy for the capital.Boris Pilnyak
Boris Pilnyak (Russian: Бори́с Пильня́к) (October 11 [O.S. September 29] 1894 – April 21, 1938) was a Russian writer.Inna Dyubanok
Inna Nikolayevna Dyubanok (Russian: Инна Николаевна Дюбанок; born 20 February 1990 in Mozhaysk, Russian SSR, Soviet Union) is a Russian ice hockey defender.
On December 12, 2017 she and five other Russian hockey players were disqualified with their results at the 2014 Olympics annulled.Ivan Gorokhov
Ivan Lavrentievich Gorokhov (Russian: Иван Лаврентьевич Горохов; 23 January 1863, Beli, Moscow Governorate - 6 October 1934, Mozhaysk) was a Russian genre and landscape painter; associated with the Peredvizhniki.Klushino
Klushino (Russian: Клу́шино, IPA: [ˈkluʂɨnə]) is a village in Smolensk Oblast, Russia, situated on the old road between Vyazma and Mozhaysk, not far from Gzhatsk (now named Gagarin). It was the site of a major battle during the Polish–Muscovite War (1605–18).
The village is best known as the birthplace of Yuri Gagarin, the first Soviet cosmonaut and the first man in space, born there in 1934. The Gagarin house has been converted into a museum.Luzhetsky Monastery
Luzhetsky Monastery , whose complete name is the Nativity of the Theotokos and St.Therapont Luzhetsky Monastery (Russian: Богородице-Рождественский Ферапонтов Лужецкий монастырь), is a medieval fortified monastery in Mozhaysk, Moscow Oblast, Russia. It is protected as a cultural monument of federal significance.The monastery was founded in 1408 by Therapont of Belozersk. Therapont founded the Ferapontov Monastery in 1398, located in the Principality of Beloozero, which at the time was administered jointly with the Principality of Mozhaysk. The prince, Andrey of Mozhaysk, resided in Mozhaysk, and was a brother of Vasily, the Grand Prince of Moscow. He was also one of the main sponsors of the monastery. In 1408, he sent a letter to Therapont urging him to come to Mozhaysk, and Therapont was obliged to obey. Even though Therapont, after arriving to Mozhaysk, expressed very clearly his wish to return to the White Lake, the prince never let him go. They made a deal, and Therapont founded the Luzhetsky Monastery in Mozhaysk. He died in the monastery in 1426 and was buried there. He was canonized by the Russian Orthodox Church.
The original cathedral was demolished in the first half of the 16th century, and a five-dome stone cathedral was built in 1524-1547, which still stands today. Mozhaysk, together with the monastery, was transferred to the Grand Duchy of Moscow in the middle of the 16th century. The history of the monastery in the 15th century is somewhat unclear; it is known that in 1523 the hegumen of Luzhetsky Monastery was Makary, who later became the Metropolitan of Moscow. The monastery was considerably damaged during the Time of Troubles in the 1610s, when it was plundered. Most of the current architecture of the monastery, including the bell-tower, the Transfiguration Church, and the cells, were built in the 17th century. In 1812, during the Napoleonic Wars, the Luzhetsky monastery was briefly occupied and plundered by the advancing French army. In 1929, it was closed by the Soviets. During the Soviet period it was plundered and badly damaged, though some restoration work was done in the 1960s and 1970s. In 1994 it was given back to the Russian Orthodox Church. On 26 May 1999 the relics of Therapont were found.M1 highway (Russia)
The Russian route M1 (also known as the Belarus Highway, road to Minsk) is a major trunk road that runs from Moscow through Smolensk before reaching the border with Belarus. The length is 440 kilometers (270 mi). The highway runs south of Odintsovo, Kubinka, Mozhaysk, Gagarin, north of Vyazma, through Safonovo and Yartsevo. After crossing the border with Belarus, the highway continues (as olimpijka) to Minsk, Brest, and Warsaw. The entire route is part of European route E30 and AH6.
During the 1980 Summer Olympics, a 50-kilometer (31 mi) stretch between the 23-kilometer (14 mi) mark and the 73-kilometer (45 mi) mark was used for the road team time trial cycling event.Mikola
Mikola is the name of:
SurnameAnanda Mikola (born 1980), Indonesian racecar driver
István Mikola (born 1947), Hungarian physician and politician, Minister of Health from 2001 to 2002
Nándor Mikola (1911–2006), Finnish-Hungarian painterGiven nameSaint Nicholas of Mozhaysk or Mikola Mozhaiski, a Russian variation of the Saint Nikolaus traditions
Mikola Abramchyk (1903–1970), Belarusian journalist and politician
Mikola Statkevich (born 1956), Belarusian politician
Mikola Yermalovich (1921–2000), Belarusian writer and historianMostransavto
Unitary enterprise Mostransavto (Russian: Мострансавто) is a state-owned company for passenger bus transport in Moscow Oblast with daily throughput of 2.3 million passengers. It operates 1224 different routes with total length of 33,800,000 km as well as 44 bus terminals and terminal stations.Mozhaysky District, Moscow
Mozhaysky District (Russian: Можа́йский райо́н) is a territorial division (a district, or raion) in Western Administrative Okrug, one of the 125 in the federal city of Moscow, Russia. It is located in the west of the federal city. The area of the district is 17.526 square kilometers (6.767 sq mi). As of the 2010 Census, the total population of the district was 132,373. Mozhaysky District takes its name after Mozhayskoe Highway, the district's major road, which in turn was named after the old Mozhayskaya road which lead to Mozhaysk town, located 110 kilometers (68 mi) to the west of Moscow, which was protecting west approach routes to Moscow since 13th century.From 1 July, 2012, the district also includes the territory of the Skolkovo Innovation Center.
As a municipal division, the district is incorporated as Mozhaysky Municipal Okrug.Mozhaysky District, Moscow Oblast
Mozhaysky District (Russian: Можа́йский райо́н) is an administrative and municipal district (raion), one of the thirty-six in Moscow Oblast, Russia. It is located in the west of the oblast and borders with Smolensk Oblast in the west, Kaluga Oblast in the south, Shakhovskoy District in the north, Volokolamsky District in the northeast, Ruzsky District in the east, and with Naro-Fominsky District in the southeast. The area of the district is 2,627.28 square kilometers (1,014.40 sq mi). Its administrative center is the town of Mozhaysk. Population: 72,745 (2010 Census); 70,303 (2002 Census); 42,593 (1989 Census). The population of Mozhaysk accounts for 43.1% of the district's total population.Saint Nicholas of Mozhaysk
Saint Nikolai of Mozhaisk, or Mikola Mozhaiski, is a Russian variation of the Saint Nikolaus traditions. According to the legend, during the 14th-century siege of Mozhaysk city by Mongols, the residents prayed to Saint Nicholas, who announced himself as a huge figure holding a sword in the right hand and the city of Mozhaisk on the palm of the left hand. After seeing such a frightful vision the Mongols retreated. The grateful citizen erected a wooden monument to Saint Nicholas as he was seen during his announcement. The motive became a popular plot for Russian icons and high-reliefs.Sergei Shumilin
Sergei Ivanovich Shumilin (Russian: Серге́й Иванович Шумилин; born 21 February 1990) is a Russian professional football player.Sergey Vasilyevich Gerasimov
Sergey Vasilyevich Gerasimov (Russian: Серге́й Васи́льевич Гера́симов; 26 September [O.S. 14 September] 1885 in Mozhaysk, current Moscow Oblast – 20 April 1964 in Moscow) was a Soviet Russian painter.
Gerasimov was a student of artist Konstantin Korovin, and as a young artist he later went on to join the Makovets group. His early watercolors are considered masterpieces and show a tendency toward modernism that is less pronounced in his later work. In the 1920s and 1930s, he taught at the state art school Vkhutemas, and designed posters and painted works sympathetic to the new Communist government in a style later known as Socialist realism.
Despite this he was known throughout the Russian art world to be a liberal thinker whose paintings showed the influences of Impressionism and other modern movements. Under Joseph Stalin these tendencies placed him in aesthetic opposition to his nemesis (and ironic namesake) Aleksandr Gerasimov.
During the Stalin era, Sergey Gerasimov was demoted from his position of director of the Russian Artists' Union and replaced by Aleksandr Gerasimov. During the period of World War II, Sergey Gerasimov, along with most of the faculty and student body of the Surikov Art Institute were moved from Moscow to the ancient caravan city of Samarkand.
Some of Gerasmov's most famous works were painted during this period and show scenes of the old oriental city of Samarkand. Many of these paintings are on display to this day at the Tretyakov Gallery in Moscow. With the death of Stalin and the rise of Nikita Khrushchev, Sergey Gerasmimov was re-instated as the head of the Russian Artists' Union, a position he held until his death in 1964.
Some of Gerasimov's most famous students that he came in contact with and taught at the Surikov Art Institute include; Fedor Z. Zakharov, Vladimir Stozharov, Alexey and Sergey Tkachyov, Yury P. Kugach, Aleksei Gritsai, Gely Korzhev, and many other important Soviet artists.Svetlana Rozhkova
Svetlana Anatolievna Rozhkova (Russian: Светлана Анатольевна Рожкова; February 16, 1965, Mozhaisk) is a Russian humorist, an actress of a conversational genre. Honored Artist of Russia (August 30, 1996).Born February 16, 1965 in Mozhaisk in the family of Elena Mikhailovna Rozhkova and Anatoly Ivanovich Rozhkov.He studied at Russian State Institute of Performing Arts. Graduated GITIS in 1986.
Since the late 1990s, she has been a regular participant in humorous programs and concerts, including appearances on the show of Yevgeny Petrosyan and Regina Dubovitskaya.Therapont of Belozersk
Therapont of Belozersk (1331 – 1426) (Russian: Ферапонт Бело(е)зерский, Therapont Belo(e)zersky), also known as Therapont of Mozhaysk, known to the world Feodor Poskochin, was a Russian Orthodox monk credited with the foundation of the Ferapontov Monastery in Northern Russia, now close to Kirillov in Vologda Oblast, and the Luzhetsky Monastery in Mozhaysk close to Moscow. Therapont is venered as a saint of the Russian Orthodox Church.
Therapont was born as Fyodor Poskochin in a noble family in Volokolamsk in 1430s. Being already an adult, he decided to become a monk and arrived to the Simonov Monastery in Moscow. There he get acquainted with Cyril, who was to become later Cyril of White Lake. Apparently, Therapont was once commissioned by the monastery to travel to the North of Russia, to the Lake Beloye area. At a certain point, Cyril decided to leave the monastery and seek for a remote area where he could become a hermit. Ferapont agreed to accompany him and suggested that the Lake Beloye area would be most appropriate for that.Between 1390 and 1397 Cyril and Therapont left the Simonov monastery and travelled north to Lake Siverskoye, where they stayed in the place which eventually became Kirillo-Belozersky Monastery. For a year they lived together, and then Therapont left and moved to a location in about a dozen kilometers to the northeast now known as Ferapontovo. 1398 is considered as the year when the Ferapontov Monastery was founded. At the beginning, there were not more than 15 monks living in the monastery. Ferapont refused to become a hegumen, but lived for ten years at the monastery.The monastery was located in the Principality of Beloozero, which at the time was administered jointly with the Principality of Mozhaysk. The prince, Andrey of Mozhaysk, resided in Mozhaysk, and was a brother of Vasily, the Grand Prince of Moscow. He was also one of the main sponsors of the monastery. In 1408, he sent a letter to Therapont urging him to come to Mozhaysk, and Therapont was obliged to obey. Even though Therapont, after arriving to Mozhaysk, expressed very clearly his wish to return to White Lake, the prince never let him go. They made a deal, and Therapont founded Luzhetsky Monastery in Mozhaysk. He died in the monastery in 1426.Therapont was venered as a saint since 1549.Treaty of Mozhaysk
The Treaty of Mozhaysk (also Moshaisk or other transliterations of Можайск) was a Danish-Russian treaty concluded on 7 August 1562, during the Livonian War. While not an actual alliance, the treaty confirmed the amicable Dano-Russian relation and obliged the parties to not support the other parties in the war, to respect each other's claims in Old Livonia, and to grant free passage to each other's merchants.
By 1562, Frederick II of Denmark and Ivan IV of Russia were two of several parties claiming superiority rights in Livonia, none of whom was able to decide the conflict for themselves. Instead of engaging in open war, Frederick II and Ivan IV preferred to uphold the long tradition of amicable Dano-Russian relations. The treaty has been noted for the circumstances that a European great power met the Russian tsardom on equal footing, and that no prior military decision forced the parties to conclude it.
In practice, the treaty was not wholly implemented. This was in part due to Frederick II's limited engagement in Livonia, where his brother Magnus pursued his own policies. In the subsequent war years, while not antagonizing Frederick II, Ivan IV would deal with Magnus directly, eventually making him king of Livonia as his vassal.
|Cities and towns|
Historical towns and monasteries of the former Grand Duchy of Moscow