Mount Kailash

Mount Kailash (also Kailasa; Kangrinboqê or Gang Rinpoche; Tibetan: གངས་རིན་པོ་ཆེ; simplified Chinese: 冈仁波齐峰; traditional Chinese: =岡仁波齊峰; Hindi: कैलाश पर्वत ), is a 6,638 m (21,778 ft) high peak in the Kailash Range (Gangdisê Mountains), which forms part of the Transhimalaya in the Tibet Autonomous Region of China.

The mountain is located near Lake Manasarovar and Lake Rakshastal, close to the source of some of the longest Asian rivers: the Indus, Sutlej, Brahmaputra, and Karnali also known as Ghaghara (a tributary of the Ganges) in India. Mount Kailash is considered to be sacred in four religions: Bon, Buddhism, Hinduism and Jainism.

Mount Kailash
Kailash north
The north face of Mount Kailash
Highest point
Elevation6,638 m (21,778 ft)
Prominence1,319 m (4,327 ft)
Coordinates31°4′0″N 81°18′45″E / 31.06667°N 81.31250°ECoordinates: 31°4′0″N 81°18′45″E / 31.06667°N 81.31250°E
Native nameGang Rinpoche / གངས་རིན་པོ་ཆེ (Tibetan)
Parent rangeTranshimalaya


The mountain is known as “Kailāsa” (कैलास; var. Kailāśa कैलाश) in Sanskrit.[1][2] The name also could have been derived from the word “kelāsa” (केलास), which means "crystal".[3]

In his Tibetan-English dictionary, Chandra (1902: p. 32) identifies the entry for 'kai la sha' (Wylie: kai la sha) which is a loan word from Sanskrit.[4]

The Tibetan name for the mountain is Gangs Rin-po-che (Tibetan: གངས་རིན་པོ་ཆེ་; simplified Chinese: 冈仁波齐峰; traditional Chinese: =岡仁波齊峰). Gangs or Kang is the Tibetan word for snow peak analogous to alp or hima; rinpoche is an honorific meaning "precious one" so the combined term can be translated "precious jewel of snows". Alice Albinia lists some of the names for the mountain, and its religious significance to various faiths:

"Tibetan Buddhists call it Kangri Rinpoche; 'Precious Snow Mountain'. Bon texts have many names: Water's Flower, Mountain of Sea Water, Nine Stacked Swastika Mountain. For Hindus, it is the home of the wild mountain god Shiva and a symbol of his penis; for Jains it is where their first leader was enlightened; for Buddhists, the navel of the universe; and for adherents of Bon, the abode of the sky goddess Sipaimen."[5]

Another local name for the mountain is Tisé mountain, which derives from ti tse in the Zhang-Zhung language, meaning "water peak" or "river peak", connoting the mountain's status as the source of the mythical Lion, Horse, Peacock and Elephant Rivers, and in fact the Indus, Yarlung Tsangpo/Dihang/Brahmaputra, Karnali and Sutlej all begin in the Kailash-Lake Manasarovara region.[6]

Bharata Chakravartin - Chandragiri
Emperor Bharata Chakravartin, after whom India was named Bharatvarsha attained nirvana at Mount Kailash.[7]

Religious significance

An illustration depicting the Hindu holy family of Shiva

In Hinduism

In Hinduism, it is traditionally recognized as the abode of Lord Shiva, who resided there along with his consort goddess Parvati and their children, lord Ganesh and lord Kartikeya.

According to Charles Allen, one description in the Vishnu Purana of the mountain states that its four faces are made of crystal, ruby, gold, and lapis lazuli.[8] It is a pillar of the world and is located at the heart of six mountain ranges symbolizing a lotus.[8]

In Jainism

Photo of lord adinath bhagwan at kundalpur
Rishabhadeva attained nirvana near Mount Kailash

According to Jain scriptures, Ashtapada, the mountain next to Mt. Kailash, is the site where the first Jain Tirthankara, Rishabhadeva attained moksha (liberation).[9] In Jain tradition, it is believed that after Rishabhdeva attained nirvana, his son emperor Bharata Chakravartin had constructed three stupas and twenty four shrines of the 24 tirthankaras over there with their idols studded with precious stones and named it Sinhnishdha.[10]

In Jain tradition the 24th and last Tirthankara, Vardhamana Mahavira was taken to the summit of Meru by Indra shortly after his birth, after putting his mother Queen Trishala into deep slumber. There he was bathed and anointed with precious unctions.[11][12]

In Buddhism

Tibetan and Nepalese Thangka depicting Mount Kailash

Mount Kailash (Kailasa) is known as Mount Meru in Buddhist texts. It is central to its cosmology, and a major pilgrimage site for some Buddhist traditions.[13]

Vajrayana Buddhists believe that Mount Kailash is the home of the buddha Cakrasaṃvara (also known as Demchok),[14] who represents supreme bliss.

There are numerous sites in the region associated with Padmasambhava, whose tantric practices in holy sites around Tibet are credited with finally establishing Buddhism as the main religion of the country in the 7th–8th century AD.[15]

It is said that Milarepa (c. 1052 – c. 1135), champion of Vajrayana, arrived in Tibet to challenge Naro Bönchung, champion of the Bön religion of Tibet. The two magicians engaged in a terrifying sorcerers' battle, but neither was able to gain a decisive advantage. Finally, it was agreed that whoever could reach the summit of Kailash most rapidly would be the victor. While Naro Bönchung sat on magic drum and soared up the slope, Milarepa's followers were dumbfounded to see him sitting still and meditating. Yet when Naro Bönchung was nearly at the top, Milarepa suddenly moved into action and overtook him by riding on sunlight, thus winning the contest. He did, however, fling a handful of snow on to the top of a nearby mountain, since known as Bönri, bequeathing it to the Bönpo and thereby ensuring continued Bönpo connections with the region.[16][17][18]

In Bön

Bön, a religion native to Tibet, maintain that the entire mystical region and Kailash, which they call the "nine-story Swastika Mountain", is the axis mundi, Tagzig Olmo Lung Ring.


Jains at Kailash
Jain pilgrims paying obeisance to Tirthankar Rishabhdeva.

Every year, thousands make a pilgrimage to Kailash, following a tradition going back thousands of years. Pilgrims of several religions believe that circumambulating Mount Kailash on foot is a holy ritual that will bring good fortune. The peregrination is made in a clockwise direction by Hindus and Buddhists, while Jains and Bönpos circumambulate the mountain in a counterclockwise direction.[19]

The path around Mount Kailash is 52 km (32 mi) long. Some pilgrims believe that the entire walk around Kailash should be made in a single day, which is not considered an easy task. A person in good shape walking fast would take perhaps 15 hours to complete the entire trek. Some of the devout do accomplish this feat, little daunted by the uneven terrain, altitude sickness and harsh conditions faced in the process. Indeed, other pilgrims venture a much more demanding regimen, performing body-length prostrations over the entire length of the circumambulation: The pilgrim bends down, kneels, prostrates full-length, makes a mark with his fingers, rises to his knees, prays, and then crawls forward on hands and knees to the mark made by his/her fingers before repeating the process. It requires at least four weeks of physical endurance to perform the circumambulation while following this regimen. The mountain is located in a particularly remote and inhospitable area of the Tibetan Himalayas. A few modern amenities, such as benches, resting places, and refreshment kiosks, exist to aid the pilgrims in their devotion. According to all religions that revere the mountain, setting foot on its slopes is a dire sin. It is a popular belief that the stairways on Mount Kailash lead to heaven.

2005 Chortens and Kailash High reso
Stupas, with the north face of Mount Kailash (background)

Because of the Sino-Indian border dispute, pilgrimage to the legendary abode of Shiva was stopped from 1954 to 1978. Thereafter, a limited number of Indian pilgrims have been allowed to visit the place, under the supervision of the Chinese and Indian governments either by a lengthy and hazardous trek over the Himalayan terrain, travel by land from Kathmandu or from Lhasa where flights from Kathmandu are available to Lhasa and thereafter travel over the great Tibetan plateau by car. The journey takes four night stops, finally arriving at Darchen at an elevation of 4,600 m (15,100 ft), a small outpost that swells with pilgrims at certain times of the year. Despite its minimal infrastructure, modest guest houses are available for foreign pilgrims, whereas Tibetan pilgrims generally sleep in their own tents. A small regional medical center serving far-western Tibet and funded by the Swiss Ngari Korsum Foundation was built here in 1997.

Walking around the mountain—a part of its official park—has to be done on foot, pony or domestic yak, and takes some three days of trekking starting from a height of around 15,000 ft (4,600 m) past the Tarboche (flagpole) to cross the Drölma pass 18,200 ft (5,500 m), and encamping for two nights en route. First, near the meadow of Dirapuk gompa, some 2 to 3 km (1.2 to 1.9 mi) before the pass and second, after crossing the pass and going downhill as far as possible (viewing Gauri Kund in the distance).


Mt Kailash sat
Satellite view of Mount Kailash with lakes Rakshastal (left) and Manasarovar (right)

The region around Mount Kailash and the Indus headwaters area is typified by wide-scale faulting of metamorphosed late Cretaceous to mid Cenozoic sedimentary rocks which have been intruded by igneous Cenozoic granitic rocks. Mt. Kailash appears to be a metasedimentary roof pendant supported by a massive granite base. The Cenozoic rocks represent offshore marine limestones deposited before subduction of the Tethys oceanic crust. These sediments were deposited on the southern margin of the Asia block during subduction of the Tethys oceanic crust prior to the collision between the Indian and Asian continents.[20][21]


2005 Kailash with moon Tibet
North View of Mount Kailash

Mount Everest is 8,848 meters (29,029 feet) in height, and its summit has been scaled by over 4,000 people. Mount Kailash is 6,638 meters (21,778 feet), and its summit is unclimbed.

In 1926, Hugh Ruttledge studied the north face, which he estimated was 6,000 feet (1,800 m) high and "utterly unclimbable"[22] and thought about an ascent of the northeast ridge, but he ran out of time. Ruttledge had been exploring the area with Colonel R. C. Wilson, who was on the other side of the mountain with his Sherpa named Tseten. According to Wilson, Tseten told Wilson, "'Sahib, we can climb that!' ... as he too saw that this [the SE ridge] represented a feasible route to the summit."[23] Further excerpts from Wilson's article in the Alpine Journal (vol. 40, 1928) show that he was serious about climbing Kailash, but Colonel Wilson, “Just when I discovered an easy walk to the summit of the mountain, heavy snow began to fall, making the ascent impossible.”. Herbert Tichy was in the area in 1936, attempting to climb Gurla Mandhata. When he asked one of the Garpons of Ngari whether Kailash was climbable, the Garpon replied, "Only a man entirely free of sin could climb Kailash. And he wouldn't have to actually scale the sheer walls of ice to do it – he'd just turn himself into a bird and fly to the summit."[24] Reinhold Messner was given the opportunity by the Chinese government to climb in the mid-1980s but he declined.[25]

In 2001, reports emerged that the Chinese had given permission for a Spanish team to climb the peak, which caused an international backlash. Chinese authorities disputed the reports, and stated that any climbing activities on Mt Kailash were strictly prohibited.[25] Reinhold Messner, who condemned the reported Spanish plans, said:

If we conquer this mountain, then we conquer something in people's souls. I would suggest they go and climb something a little harder. Kailas is not so high and not so hard.[26]

See also


  1. ^ Monier-Williams Sanskrit Dictionary, page 311 column 3
  2. ^ Entry for कैलासः in Apte Sanskrit-English Dictionary
  3. ^ Williams, Monier. "Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary". kelāsa m. crystal W
  4. ^ Sarat Chandra Das (1902). Tibetan-English Dictionary with Sanskrit Synonyms. Calcutta, India: Bengal Secretariat Book Depot, page 32.
  5. ^ Alice Albinia (2008). Empires of the Indus: The Story of a River. John Murray. p. 288. ISBN 9780719560033.
  6. ^ Camaria, Pradeep (1996), Kailash Manasarovara on the Rugged Road to Revelation, New Delhi: Abhinav, ISBN 9788170173366, retrieved 11 June 2010
  7. ^ Jain Pooja-Kavya: Ek Chintan. ISBN 9788126308187.
  8. ^ a b Allen, Charles. (1982). A Mountain in Tibet, pp. 21–22. André Deutsch. Reprint: 1991. Futura Publications, London. ISBN 0-7088-2411-0.
  9. ^ "To heaven and back – Times Of India". 11 January 2012. Retrieved 2 March 2012.
  10. ^ Jain, Arun Kumar (2009). Faith & Philosophy of Jainism. ISBN 9788178357232.
  11. ^ Welch, Stuart Cary; Metropolitan Museum Of Art (New York, N.Y.) (1985). India: Art and Culture, 1300-1900. ISBN 9780030061141.
  12. ^ "Jainism Literature Center - Rituals".
  13. ^ Robert E. Buswell (2004). Encyclopedia of Buddhism: A-L. Macmillan Reference. pp. 407–408. ISBN 978-0-02-865719-6.
  14. ^ "Heruka Chakrasamvara". Retrieved 2 March 2012.
  15. ^ The Sacred Mountain, pp. 39, 33, 35, 225, 280, 353, 362–363, 377–378
  16. ^ The Sacred Mountain, pp. 31, 33, 35
  17. ^ The World's Most Mysterious Places Published by Reader's Digest ISBN 0-276-42217-1 pg.85
  18. ^ The Sacred Mountain, pp. 25–26
  19. ^ "Mt Kailash and Lake Manasarovar pilgrim tour in 2018 - Explore China Tibet Travel". Tibet & China Travel Services by Locals.
  20. ^ Geology and Geography of the Mt. Kailash area and Indus River headwaters in southwestern Tibet Pete Winn, Science Director Earth Science Expeditions. Accessed January 2014.
  21. ^ Plate Tectonic & northern Pacific Accessed January 2014.
  22. ^ The Sacred Mountain, p. 120
  23. ^ The Sacred Mountain, p. 116
  24. ^ The Sacred Mountain, p. 129
  25. ^ a b "China to Ban Expeditions on Mt Kailash". Archived from the original on 18 July 2011. Retrieved 16 September 2016.
  26. ^ "Scaling a Mountain to Destroy The Holy Soul of Tibetans". Archived from the original on 27 April 2011. Retrieved 18 September 2016.

Further reading

  • Albinia, Alice. (2008) Empires of the Indus: The Story of a River. First American Edition (2010) W. W. Norton & Company, New York. ISBN 978-0-393-33860-7.
  • Nomachi, Kazuyoshi. Tibet. Boston: Shambhala, 1997.
  • Thurman, Robert and Tad Wise, Circling the Sacred Mountain: A Spiritual Adventure Through the Himalayas. New York: Bantam, 1999. ISBN 0-553-37850-3 — Tells the story of a Western Buddhist making the trek around Mount Kailash.
  • Snelling, John. (1990). The Sacred Mountain: The Complete Guide to Tibet's Mount Kailas. 1st edition 1983. Revised and enlarged edition, including: Kailas-Manasarovar Travellers' Guide. Forwards by H.H. the Dalai Lama of Tibet and Christmas Humphreys. East-West Publications, London and The Hague. ISBN 0-85692-173-4.
  • (Elevation) Chinese Snow Map "Kangrinboqe", published by the Lanzhou Institute of Glaciology, Chinese Academy of Sciences.
  • Allen, Charles (1982) A Mountain in Tibet: The Search for Mount Kailas and the Sources of the Great Rivers of Asia. (London, André Deutsch).
  • Allen, Charles. (1999). The Search for Shangri-La: A Journey into Tibetan History. Little, Brown and Company. Reprint: Abacus, London. 2000. ISBN 0-349-11142-1.
  • "A Tibetan Guide for Pilgrimage to Ti-se (Mount Kailas) and mTsho Ma-pham (Lake Manasarovar)." Toni Huber and Tsepak Rigzin. In: Sacred Spaces and Powerful Places In Tibetan Culture: A Collection of Essays. (1999) Edited by Toni Huber, pp. 125–153. The Library of Tibetan Works and Archives, Dharamsala, H.P., India. ISBN 81-86470-22-0.
  • Stein, R. A. (1961). Les tribus anciennes des marches Sino-Tibétaines: légends, classifications et histoire. Presses Universitaires de France, Paris. (In French)
  • Johnson, Russell, and Moran, Kerry. (1989). The Sacred Mountain of Tibet: On Pilgrimage to Kailas. Park Street Press, Rochester, Vermont. ISBN 0-89281-325-3.
  • Govinda, Lama Anagarika. (1966). The Way of the White Clouds: A Buddhist Pilgrim in Tibet. Shambhala Publications, Inc. Boulder, Colorado. Reprint with foreword by Peter Matthiessen: Shambhala Publications, Inc. Boston, Massachusetts. 1988. ISBN 0-87773-007-5
  • Thubron, Colin. (2011). "To a Mountain in Tibet." Chatto & Windus, London. ISBN 978-0-7011-8380-6

According to Hindu epics, Bhringi was an ancient sage (rishi), and a great devotee of Shiva, the Hindu God. According to epics, all the rishis paid homage to both Shiva and Parvati,consort of Shiva , but Bhringi would not worship Parvati and dedicated himself solely to Shiva .

The story goes that Bhringi one day, came to Mount Kailash, the abode of Shiva , and expressed his desire to go around Shiva . As he was going around, Shiva 's consort, Shakti, said, “You cannot just go around him. You have to go around me too. We are two halves of the same truth.”

Bhringi, however, was so focussed on Shiva that he had no desire to go around Shakti. Seeing this, Shakti sat on Shiva’s lap making it difficult for Bhringi to go around Shiva alone. Bhringi, determined to go around Shiva took the form of a Bhring (Black Bee) and tried to slip in between the two.

Amused by this, Shiva made Shakti one half of his body – the famous Ardhanarishvara form of Shiva . This was God whose one half is the Goddess. But Bhringi was adamant. He would go around Shiva alone. So he took the form of a rat, some say a bee, and tried to gnaw his way between the two.

This annoyed the Goddess so much that she said, “May Bhringi lose all parts of the body that come from the mother.” In Tantra, the Indian school of alchemy, it is believed that the tough and rigid parts of the body such as nerves and bones come from the father while the soft and fluid parts of the body such as flesh and blood come from the mother. Instantly, Bhringi lost all flesh and blood and he became a bag of bones. He collapsed on the floor, unable to get up.

Bhringi realized his folly. Shiva and Shakti make up the whole. They are not independent entities. One cannot exist without the other. Without either there is neither. He apologized.

So the world never forgets this lesson. Bhringi was denied flesh and blood forever. To enable him to stand upright he was given a third leg, so that his legs served as a tripod.

Burang Town

Burang, known as Purang in Tibetan, is the administrative center of Burang County, Ngari Prefecture of in the Tibet Autonomous Region (TAR) (China). The town lies at 4,755 metres (13,205 feet) altitude in the valley of the Sarayu Karnali River. To the south are Gurla Mandhata (Mount Namonanyi) and the Abi Gamin ranges. Lake Manasarovar and Mount Kailash are to the north. This region is the mythological and actual river nexus of the Himalaya with sources of the Indus, Ganges and Yarlung Tsangpo/Brahmaputra all within 110 kilometres (70 mi) of Burang.


In the Hindu epic Ramayana, the Chandrahasa sword is an indestructible sword that Lord Shiva gifts Ravana.

It is believed that Ravana went traveling in his chariot, he came across Mount Kailash. He became furious as his chariot could not cross over this mountain, so in a state of fury, he ordered the mountain to give way to him. The mountain refused as it was the residing place of Lord Shiva and Goddess Parvati. Ravana stepped down the chariot and lifted the mountain to remove it from his path but he found he could not lift it. Lord Shiva had placed his toe on the mountain and explained how Shiva carried the moon on his head, so how could Ravana ever hope to move him when he could not move his toe. This caused Ravana's little finger to crush under the mountain. Ravana realized his mistake and to impress Lord Shiva sang the Shiva Tandava Stotram for the first time. Lord Shiva, impressed by his offering, gifted him the Chandrahasa sword which is indestructible.

China National Highway 219

China National Highway 219 (G219) runs along the southwestern border of the People's Republic of China, from Yecheng (Karghilik) in the Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region to Lhatse in the Tibet Autonomous Region. It is 1,296 miles (2,086 kilometers) in length. Construction of this road was started in 1951. It was completed in 1957. The road passes through disputed area of Aksai Chin, an area administered by the People's Republic of China but also claimed by India, and its construction was one of the triggers for the Sino-Indian War of 1962. Originally made of gravel, it was fully paved with asphalt in 2013.

As one of the highest motorable roads in the world, the breathtaking scenery of Rutok county also ranks as some of the most inhospitable terrain on the planet. Domar township—a town of concrete blocks and nomad tents—is one of the bleakest and most remote outposts of the People's Liberation Army at the edge of the Aksai Chin. Near the town of Mazar many trekkers turn off for both the Karakorum range and K2 base camp. Approaching the Xinjiang border, past the final Tibetan settlement of Tserang Daban is a dangerous 5,050-meter-high pass. Tibetan nomads in the area herd both yaks and two-humped camels. Descending through the western Kunlun Shan, the road crosses additional passes of 4,000 and 3,000 meters, and the final pass offers brilliant views of the Taklamakan Desert far below before descending into the Karakax River basin.

The road passes through Jammu and Kashmir near Mount Kailash and Lake Manasarovar and Pangong Tso.


The word gaṇa (; Sanskrit: गण) in Sanskrit and Pali means "flock, troop, multitude, number, tribe, series or class". It can also be used to refer to a "body of attendants" and can refer to "a company, any assemblage or association of men formed for the attainment of the same aims". The word "gana" can also refer to councils or assemblies convened to discuss matters of religion or other topics.

In Hinduism, the Gaṇas are attendants of Shiva and live on Mount Kailash. Ganesha was chosen as their leader by Shiva, hence Ganesha's title gaṇeśa or gaṇapati, "lord or leader of the ganas".

Kailasanathar Temple

Kailasanathar Temple is the name of several famous megalith rock cut kovils dedicated to the deity Shiva in the form Kailasanathar, whose primary abode is Mount Kailash from which the temples take their names and inspiration.

Kailasanathar Temple may refer to:

Kanchi Kailasanathar Temple, Pallava rock-cut Shiva temple in Kanchipuram, Tamil Nadu

Kailasa temple, Ellora, Rastrakuta-Pallava rock cut black granite megalithic Shiva temple of the Ellora Caves, near Aurangabad in Maharashtra

Kailasanathar Temple, Uthiramerur, Pallava rock-cut Shiva temple in Uthiramerur, Kanchipuram district, Tamil Nadu

Kailasanathar Temple, Thingalur, a Chola temple and a Paadal Petra Sthalam in Thingalur

Kailasanathar temple, Srivaikuntam, a temple in Srivaikuntam

Lake Manasarovar

Lake Manasarovar (Tibetan: མ་ཕམ་གཡུ་མཚོ།, Wylie: ma pham g.yu mtsho; Chinese: 玛旁雍错

(simplified), 瑪旁雍錯(traditional) also called Mapam Yumtso, is a high altitude freshwater lake fed by the Kailash Glaciers near Mount Kailash in the Tibet Autonomous Region, China. The lake is revered a sacred place in four religions: Bön, Buddhism, Hinduism, and Jainism.

Lake Rakshastal

Lake Rakshastal (Tibetan: ལག་ངར་མཚོ།, ZYPY: Lagngar Co; Wylie transliteration: lag-ngar mtsho; Chinese: 拉昂错, Pinyin: Lā'áng Cuò; La'nga Co) is a lake in Tibet Autonomous Region, China, lying just west of Lake Manasarovar and south of Mount Kailash. The Sutlej River (also known by the Tibetan name Langqen Zangbo in this area) originates at Rakshastal's northwestern tip. Despite its close proximity to Lake Manasarovar (about 3.7 kilometres or 2.3 miles), Lake Rakshastal does not share the historic religious significance of its eastern neighbor.


Moincêr, Monster or Mencixiang is a village in the Tibet Autonomous Region of China. It is located along Route G219, close to the Tirthapuri Monastery in the Ngari Region of Western Tibet. The village is located south-west of Mount Kailash (Mount Ti-se).

Moincêr depends on its small coal-mining industry; from which it once produced large amounts of ore from its nearby mines. The village is small and its villagers live depending heavily on yaks for agriculture and trade.

Ngamring County

Ngamring County (Tibetan: ངམ་རིང་རྫོང་།, Wylie: ngam ring rdzong, ZYPY: Ngamring Zong; Chinese: 昂仁县; pinyin: Ángrén Xiàn) is a county of Xigazê in the Tibet Autonomous Region. "Ngamring County, sometimes referred to as the gateway to Mount Kailash and Far West Tibet, is the barren area which divides the Raga Tsangpo and the Brahmaputra."The office place of the county is located in Kagar (卡嘎), population 1,700, at an elevation of 4,380 m (14,370 ft).

Ngari Gunsa Airport

Ngari Gunsa Airport (IATA: NGQ, ICAO: ZUAL) is a dual-use military and civil airport serving the town of Shiquanhe in Ngari Prefecture, in the southwest of China's Tibet Autonomous Region near the Indian border. It started operations on 1 July 2010, becoming the fourth civil airport in Tibet after Lhasa, Nyingchi, and Qamdo airports.Situated at 4,274 m (14,022 ft) above sea level, Gunsa Airport is the fourth highest airport in the world after Daocheng Yading Airport, Qamdo Bamda Airport, and Kangding Airport. Gunsa airport has a 4,500-meter runway. It is expected to handle 120,000 passengers by 2020. Construction began in May 2007 and cost an estimated 1.65 billion yuan (241.22 million U.S. dollars).As Shiquanhe (Ali) is only a one-day bus drive (about 330 km) from the settlement of Darchen situated just north of Lake Manasarovar, facing Mount Kailash, it is expected to benefit pilgrims to these two sites, which are considered sacred by Hindus, Buddhists, Bonpa and Jains. With the opening of Shigatse Peace Airport in October 2010, the five airports, coupled with the Qinghai–Tibet railway and a network of roads, are expected to increase tourism to scenic and holy sites in Tibet.


Paryang is a village and township in Zhongba County, Shigatse, Tibet. It is about a 7-hour drive from Saga County and one of the popular stops for a Mount Kailash trip. Most of the local residents are migrant nomads from its neighboring villages situated below Dangue Tsangpo.


Ravananugraha or Ravananugraha-murti ("form showing favour to Ravana") is a benevolent aspect of the Hindu god Shiva, depicted seated on his abode Mount Kailash with his consort Parvati, while the rakshasa-king (demon-king) Ravana of Lanka tries to shake it. The depiction is labelled variously as Ravana Lifting Mount Kailash or Ravana Shaking Mount Kailash. According to Hindu scriptures, Ravana once tried to lift Mount Kailash, but Shiva pushed the mountain into place and trapped Ravana beneath it. For a thousand years, the imprisoned Ravana sang hymns in praise of Shiva, who finally blessed him and granted him an invincible sword or a powerful linga (Shiva's aniconic symbol) to worship.

The theme is "very popular" in Indian art and occurs as early as Gupta era (300–600 CE).

Sacred mountains

Sacred mountains are central to certain religions and are the subjects of many legends. For many, the most symbolic aspect of a mountain is the peak because it is believed that it is closest to heaven or other religious worlds. Many religions have traditions centered on sacred mountains, which either are or were considered holy (such as Mount Olympus in Greek mythology) or are related to famous events (like Mount Sinai in Judaism and descendant religions). In some cases, the sacred mountain is purely mythical, like the Hara Berezaiti in Zoroastrianism. Mount Kailash is believed to be the abode of the Hindu deity Shiva. Volcanoes, such as Mount Etna in Italy, were also considered sacred, Mount Etna being believed to have been the home of Vulcan, the Roman god of fire and the forge.

Saltoro Mountains

The Saltoro Mountains (Hindi: सालतोरो) (Urdu: سلسلہ کوہ سالتورو‎) are a subrange of the Karakoram Range. They are located in the heart of the Karakoram, on the southwest side of the Siachen Glacier, one of the two longest glaciers outside the polar regions. The name given to this range is shared with the Saltoro Valley which is located to the west of this range, downslope on the Pakistan side of the Actual Ground Position Line.

The Saltoro Mountains are part of the Lesser Karakorams on the southern and western side of the large Karakoram-glaciers (Siachen, Baltoro, Biafo and Hispar Glacier from east to west) while the main ridge of the Karakorams lies north resp. east of these glaciers. The subranges of the main ridges are called Muztagh whereas the mountain groups of the Lesser Karakorams are denominated as Mountains, Ranges or Groups.They are claimed as part of Jammu and Kashmir by India and as part of Gilgit–Baltistan by Pakistan. Between 1984 and 1987, India assumed military control of the main peaks and passes of the range, with Pakistani forces holding the glacial valleys just to the west. Hence, despite high peaks and dramatic climbing opportunities, they are little visited except by military forces due to the ongoing Siachen Conflict.

On the southwest side, the Saltoro Mountains drop steeply to the valleys of the Kondus and Dansam Rivers, which join to form the Saltoro River, a tributary of the Shyok River. This in turn flows into the Indus River. To the northwest, the Kondus Glacier separates the range from the neighboring Masherbrum Mountains, while on the southeast, the Gyong River, Glacier, and Pass (Gyong La) separate the northern Saltoro Mountains from the southern Saltoro Mountains or "Kailas Mountains" (not to be confused with Tibet's sacred Mount Kailash).

Simikot Airport

Simikot Airport (IATA: IMK, ICAO: VNST) is an airport serving Simikot, headquarter of Humla district of Karnali Pradesh in Nepal. It is the main tourist gateway on the Nepalese side to the Mount Kailash and Lake Manasarovar. As road access in this area of Nepal is weak, the airport facilitates travel in the whole district of Humla.

Tagzig Olmo Lung Ring

Tagzig Olmo Lung Ring is a non-dual spiritual realm (plane or dimension) of the Bon tradition which resides beyond dualism. It is understood to be a timeless perfected realm where peace and joy are the very fabric of being.

The Beyul realm of Tagzig Olmo Lung Ring is fabled to be located to the west of Mount Kailash and shaped like an eight-petaled lotus and divided into four regions: inner, middle, outer and boundary area.Tagzig ( now Tajikistan,it is mountain range connects himalaya,they have native language relates to zhangzhung.until arab invaded ) The sky of this realm is likened to an eight-spoked wheel (refer Dharmachakra) and the land itself is fragrant and coloured by beautiful flora and landscaping, chorten and snow-capped mountains.

Central to Tagzig Olmo Lung Ring is Yungdrung Gutsek, a pyramidal-shaped mountain serving as axis mundi with nine Yungdrungs (refer sauwastika) ascending like a staircase evocative of the Nine Ways (or stages) of Bon. The four faces of the pyramidal mountain, face the four cardinal directions. At the corner-joints of Yungdrung Gutsek (cross-quarter directions) four rivers flow from simulacra of archetypal thoughtforms:

from the simulacrum of a snowlion the river Narazara flows from the East;

from the simulacrum of a horse the river Pakshi flows from the North;

from the simulacrum of a peacock the river Gyim Shang flows from the West; and

from the simulacrum of an elephant the river Sindhu flows from the South.

Wheel of Time (film)

Wheel of Time is a 2003 documentary film about Tibetan Buddhism by German director Werner Herzog. The title refers to the Kalachakra sand mandala that provides a recurring image for the film.

The film documents the two Kalachakra initiations of 2002, presided over by the fourteenth Dalai Lama. The first, in Bodhgaya India, was disrupted by the Dalai Lama's illness. Later that same year, the event was held again, this time without disruption, in Graz, Austria. The film's first location is the Bodhgaya, the site of the Mahabodhi Temple and the Bodhi tree. Herzog then turns to the pilgrimage at Mount Kailash, after which the film then focuses on the second gathering in Graz.

Herzog includes a personal interview with the Dalai Lama, as well as Tibetan former political prisoner Takna Jigme Zangpo, who served 37 years in a Chinese prison for his support of the International Tibet Independence Movement.


Ü-Tsang or Tsang-Ü, is one of the four traditional provinces of Tibet, the other being Amdo in the North-East, the Kham in the East and the Ngari (including former Guge kingdom) in the North-West. Geographically Ü-Tsang covered the south-central of the Tibetan cultural area, including the Brahmaputra River watershed. The western districts surrounding and extending past Mount Kailash are included in Ngari, and much of the vast Changtang plateau to the north. The Himalayas defined Ü-Tsang's southern border. The present Tibet Autonomous Region corresponds approximately to what was ancient Ü-Tsang and western Kham.

Ü-Tsang was formed by the merging of two earlier power centers: Ü (Wylie: dbus) in central Tibet, controlled by the Gelug lineage of Tibetan Buddhism under the early Dalai Lamas, and Tsang (Wylie: gtsang) which extended from Gyantse to points west, controlled by the rival Sakya lineage. Military victories by the powerful Khoshut Mongol Güshi Khan that backed 5th Dalai Lama and founded Ganden Phodrang government in 1642, consolidated power over the combined region, followed by the rule of the Qing Dynasty started in 1720 by the Qianlong Emperor that continued until the British expedition to Tibet (1903-1904).

Ü-Tsang is the cultural heartland of the Tibetan people, originally governed by Rinpungpa dynasty. The Tsangpa dynasty had ruled the Tsang part between 1565 and 1642. The dispute between Tsang kings, Karma Tenkyong Wangpo followers of karmapa and Khoshut khans, Güshi Khan, follower of gelugpa and Dalai Lamas ended by the rule on Tibet from the Potala and Norbulingka palaces in Lhasa from the last one. Jokhang, perhaps the most holy temple in Tibetan Buddhism, is also located there. The Lhasa dialect is used as a lingua franca in Ü-Tsang and the Tibetan Exile koiné language is also based largely on it.

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