Motorsport

Motorsport or motor sport is a global term used to encompass the group of competitive sporting events which primarily involve the use of motorised vehicles, whether for racing or non-racing competition. The terminology can also be used to describe forms of competition of two-wheeled motorised vehicles under the banner of motorcycle racing, and includes off-road racing such as motocross.

Four- (or more) wheeled motorsport competition is globally governed by the Fédération Internationale de l'Automobile (FIA); and the Fédération Internationale de Motocyclisme (FIM) governs two-wheeled competition. Likewise, the Union Internationale Motonautique (UIM) governs powerboat racing while the Fédération Aéronautique Internationale (FAI) governs air sports; including airplane racing.

Motorsport
FIA F1 Austria 2018 Nr. 44 Hamilton
A modern-day Formula One car (the Mercedes AMG F1 W09 EQ Power+ of 2018)
Highest governing bodyFIA (four- or more wheeled)
FIM (two-wheeled)
UIM (powerboats)
FAI (Air racing)
First competitive race1894
GlossaryGlossary of motorsport terms
Presence
Country or regionWorldwide
Olympic1900 (demonstration only)

History

In 1894, a French newspaper organised a race from Paris to Rouen and back, starting city to city racing.[1] In 1900, the Gordon Bennett Cup was established. Closed circuit racing arose as open road racing, on public roads, was banned. Brooklands was the first dedicated motor racing track in the United Kingdom.[2]

Following World War I, European countries organised Grand Prix races over closed courses. In the United States, dirt track racing became popular.[3]

After World War II, the Grand Prix circuit became more formally organised. In the United States, stock car racing and drag racing became firmly established.[4]

Motorsports ultimately became divided by types of motor vehicles into racing events, and their appropriate organisations.

Racing

Motor racing[5] is the subset of motorsport activities which involve competitors racing against each other.

Open wheel racing

Formula racing

Sebastian Vettel 2012 Malaysia FP2

Sebastian Vettel 2012 Malaysia FP2

The Red Bull RB8, the 2012 Formula One World Championship winning car

Formula racing is a set of classes of motor vehicles, with their wheels outside, and not contained by, any bodywork of their vehicle. These have been globally classified as specific 'Formula' series - the most common being Formula One, and many others include the likes of Formula 3, Formula Ford, Formula Renault and Formula Palmer Audi. However, in North America, the IndyCar series is their pinnacle open-wheeled racing series. More recently, new open-wheeled series have been created, originating in Europe, which omit the 'Formula' moniker, such as GP2 and GP3. Former 'Formula' series include Formula 5000 and Formula Two.

Formula One is a class of single-seat and open-wheel grand prix closed course racing, governed by the Fédération Internationale de l'Automobile (FIA), and currently organized by the privately owned company Formula One Group. The formula regulations contain a very strict set of rules which govern vehicle power, weight and size.[6]

5 Stoffel Vandoorne at Lung Wo Rd, Man Yiu St (20190310161031)
A second generation Formula E car in 2019.

Formula E is a class of open-wheel auto racing that uses only electric-powered cars. The series was conceived in 2012, and the inaugural championship started in Beijing on 13 September 2014.[7] The series is also sanctioned by the FIA and races a spec chassis/battery combination with manufacturers allowed to develop their own electric power-trains. The series has gained significant traction in recent years.[8]

A series originated on June 12th, 1909 in Portland, Oregon[9] at its first race. Shortly after, Indianapolis Motor Speedway opened in 1909 and held races that ranged from 50-200 miles. Its premier race is the Indianapolis 500 which began on May 11th, 1911 and a tradition was born. Today, Indycar operates a full schedule with over 20 teams and 40 different drivers. The current schedule includes 14 tracks over the course of 17 races per season [10]. Josef Newgarden was crowned current champion of the Indycar Series at Sonoma Raceway on September 17th, 2017 in Sonoma, California.

Enclosed wheel racing

Neste Oil Rally 2010 - Jari-Matti Latvala in shakedown
A Ford Focus WRC rally racing car during 2010 Rally Finland

Enclosed wheel racing is a set of classes of vehicles, where the wheels are primarily enclosed inside the bodywork of the vehicle, similar to a North American 'stock car'.

Sports car racing

Sports car racing is a set of classes of vehicles, over a closed course track, including sports cars, and specialised racing types. The premiere race is the 24 Hours of Le Mans which takes place annually in France during the month of June. Sports car racing rules and specifications differentiate in North America from established international sanctioning bodies.[11]

Stock car racing

Stock car racing is a set of vehicles that race over a speedway track, organized by NASCAR. While once stock cars, the vehicles are now purpose built, but resemble the body design and shape of production cars. Bootleggers throughout the Carolinas are often credited for the origins of NASCAR due to the resistance during the prohibition.[12] Many of the vehicles were modified to increase top speed and handling, to provide the bootleggers with an advantage toward the vehicles local law enforcement would use in the area.[13] An important part to the modifications of stock cars, was to increase the performance of the vehicle while also maintaining the same exterior look giving it the name Stock car racing. Many legends in NASCAR originated as bootleggers in the Great Smoky Mountains of North Carolina like Junior Johnson.[14] Organized oval racing began on Daytona Beach in Florida as a hobby but quickly gained interest from all over the country. As oval racing became larger and larger, a group gathered in hopes to form a sanctioning body for the sport.[15] NASCAR was organized in 1947, to combine flat track oval racing of production cars.[16] Daytona Beach and Road Course was founded where land speed records were set on the beach, and including part of A1A. The highlight of the stock car calendar is the season-opening Daytona 500, also nicknamed 'The Great American Race' which is held at Daytona International Speedway in Daytona Beach, Florida.[17] NASCAR has now held over 2,500 sanctioned events over the course of 70 seasons[15]. Richard Petty is known as the king of NASCAR with over 200 recorded wins in the series and has competed in 1,184 races in his career.[18]

Touring car racing

Touring car racing is a set of vehicles,[19] modified street cars, that race over closed purpose built race tracks and street courses.

Off-Road Racing

Off-Road Racing is a group of vehicles that specialize in off-road racing and are modified street cars that can race on close purpose built off-road tracks and courses. Off-Road racing is popular all over the world. Premier off-road events include the Dakar Rally and the Baja 1000 desert race.[20] Series like the National Off-Road Racing Association (NORRA) which was founded in 1967, sanctions events utilizing off-road vehicles racing through the Baja Desert.[21] The first event sanctioned by the organization was the 1967 Mexican 1000 rally that began in Tijuana and ended in La Paz.

Other racing

Speedway Extraliiga 22. 5. 2010 - erä 17
Finnish speedway riders in the Speedway Extraliiga competition

Motor sports which involve competitors racing against each other include:

Non-racing disciplines

Forms of motorsport which do not involve racing include drifting, demolition derby, regularity rally, motorcycle trials, gymkhana, Freestyle Motocross and tractor pulling.

Olympics

Motorsport was a demonstration event at the 1900 Summer Olympics.

See also

Notes

  1. ^ Gifford, p. 7.
  2. ^ Gifford, p. 9.
  3. ^ Gifford, p. 10.
  4. ^ Gifford, p. 11.
  5. ^ "motor racing (noun) definition and synonyms - Macmillan Dictionary". www.macmillandictionary.com. Retrieved 18 April 2018.
  6. ^ Jonathan Noble; Mark Hughes. "Discovering What Makes Formula One, Formula One". Formula One Racing For Dummies.
  7. ^ Telegraph Sport (13 September 2014). "Formula E opens with spectacular crash involving Nick Heidfeld and Nicolas Prost as Lucas di Grassi claims win". Daily Telegraph. Retrieved 13 September 2014.
  8. ^ Formula E (31 July 2017). "Agag: This has been our take-off season". Retrieved 4 September 2017.
  9. ^ Straver, Haiko Benthem, Patrick. "OpenWheelWorld.Net >> Indy Car historie". www.openwheelworld.net. Retrieved 18 April 2018.
  10. ^ "Schedule - Verizon IndyCar Series, Indy Lights, Pro Mazda & Cooper Tires USF2000". IndyCar.com. Retrieved 18 April 2018.
  11. ^ "Regulations". Federation Internationale de l'Automobile. Retrieved 2015-10-09.
  12. ^ "How Prohibition Gave Birth to NASCAR". history.com. Retrieved 23 April 2018.
  13. ^ Billock, Jennifer. "How Moonshine Bootlegging Gave Rise to NASCAR". smithsonianmag.com. Retrieved 23 April 2018.
  14. ^ "Racing legend outran the law". newsobserver.com. Retrieved 23 April 2018.
  15. ^ a b "NASCAR founded - Feb 21, 1948 - HISTORY.com". history.com. Retrieved 23 April 2018.
  16. ^ Layford, Bob. Built for Speed. Courage Books. p. 29. ISBN 0762404418.
  17. ^ "History of the Daytona 500". usatoday.com. Retrieved 23 April 2018.
  18. ^ "Driver Richard Petty Career Statistics - Racing-Reference.info". racing-reference.info. Retrieved 23 April 2018.
  19. ^ "Car Facts | Pirelli World Challenge". www.World-Challenge.com. Archived from the original on 2015-10-10. Retrieved 2015-10-09.
  20. ^ "Off-Road Racer: The Grandfather of Off-Road Racing: BAJA 1000 - race-deZert.com". race-dezert.com. 21 December 2014. Retrieved 18 April 2018.
  21. ^ "NORRA: National Off-Road Racing Association, Home of the Mexican 1000 Rally". www.norra.com. Retrieved 18 April 2018.

References

  • Gifford, Clive (2006). Racing: The Ultimate Motorsports Encyclopedia. Kingfisher. ISBN 9780753460405.

External links

2018–19 Formula E season

The 2018–19 FIA Formula E season was the fifth season of the FIA Formula E championship, a motor racing championship for electrically-powered vehicles recognised by motorsport's governing body, the Fédération Internationale de l'Automobile (FIA), as the highest class of competition for electric open-wheel racing cars.

The 2018–19 season saw the introduction of the all-new Gen2, second generation Formula E car, which boasted significant technological advances over the previous Spark-Renault SRT 01E chassis – its power output rose from 200 kW to 250 kW and top speeds rose to around 280 km/h (174 mph). The arrival of the Gen2 car also saw an end to the series’ mid-race car-swaps.Frenchman Jean-Éric Vergne entered as the defending Drivers’ Champion after securing his first title at the New York City ePrix, while Audi Sport Abt Schaeffler returned as defending Teams’ Champions – having beaten Vergne's Techeetah team by a narrow two point margin.The 2019 Hong Kong ePrix was the 50th race of Formula E since its inception in 2014. Formula E has raced in 22 cities in 17 countries across five continents and has seen 13 global manufactures compete in the series. Four drivers have started every Formula E race; they are Lucas di Grassi, Sam Bird, Daniel Abt and Jérôme d'Ambrosio.The 2018–19 season was the first to have an official support category since Greenpower ran the Schools Series during Formula E's debut 2014-15 season. The Jaguar I-Pace eTrophy will feature at 10 of the 13 Rounds of this year's calendar.

2019 FIA Formula 2 Championship

The 2019 FIA Formula 2 Championship is the third season of the FIA Formula 2 Championship, a motor racing championship for Formula 2 cars that is sanctioned by the Fédération Internationale de l'Automobile (FIA). It is an open-wheel racing category that serves as the second tier of formula racing in the FIA Global Pathway. The category is scheduled to be run in support of the 2019 FIA Formula 1 World Championship.

George Russell is the reigning drivers' champion, having won the title at the final round of the 2018 championship in Abu Dhabi. Russell did not return to defend his title as he graduated to Formula 1. Carlin are the reigning teams' champions, having secured their first Formula 2 title in Abu Dhabi.

After 14 races ART Grand Prix driver Nyck de Vries leads the championship ahead of DAMS driver Nicholas Latifi and UNI-Virtuosi Racing driver Luca Ghiotto. While in the teams' standings DAMS have a 33-point gap to UNI-Virtousi Racing.

2019 FIA Formula 3 Championship

The 2019 FIA Formula 3 Championship is the inaugural season of the FIA Formula 3 Championship, a multi-event motor racing championship for single-seat open-wheel formula racing cars. The championship features drivers competing in three-point-four litre Formula 3 racing cars which conform to the technical regulations, or formula, of the championship. It is due to run in support of the Formula 1 World Championship and its sister series, the FIA Formula 2 Championship. It serves as the third tier of formula racing in the FIA Global Pathway. The championship was formed by the merger of the GP3 Series and the FIA Formula 3 European Championship in 2018, which brought the two championships under the umbrella of the Fédération Internationale de l'Automobile (FIA).After eight races Robert Shwartzman leads in the drivers' championship ahead of his Prema Racing teammate Jehan Daruvala and Hitech Grand Prix driver Jüri Vips. While in the teams' championship Prema had a 166-point margin over Hitech Grand Prix.

2019 Formula One World Championship

The 2019 FIA Formula One World Championship is an ongoing motor racing championship for Formula One cars which marks the 70th running of the Formula One World Championship. It is recognised by the governing body of international motorsport, the Fédération Internationale de l'Automobile (FIA), as the highest class of competition for open-wheel racing cars. Starting in March and ending in December, the championship is being contested over twenty-one Grands Prix. Drivers are competing for the title of World Drivers' Champion, and teams for the World Constructors' Champion. The 2019 championship saw the running of the 1000th World Championship race, which was held in China.Lewis Hamilton is the defending World Drivers' Champion, after winning his fifth championship title in the previous season, and Mercedes are the defending World Constructors' Champions, after winning their fifth consecutive championship in 2018.

2019–20 Formula E season

The 2019–20 FIA Formula E World Championship will be the sixth season of the FIA Formula E championship, a motor racing championship for electrically-powered vehicles recognised by motorsport's governing body, the Fédération Internationale de l'Automobile (FIA), as the highest class of competition for electric open-wheel racing cars.

Autosport

Autosport is a global motorsport publishing brand headquartered based in Richmond, London. Established in 1950 at the same time as the origins of the Formula One World Championship, Autosport is recognised as an opinion-forming and enduring journalistic authority in the world of motor racing for almost seventy years.

Autosport began life as a weekly magazine in 1950 and expanded into digital publishing with the creation of Autosport.com in 1997. In 2016, Haymarket Media Group sold Autosport and the rest of its motorsport portfolio to Motorsport Network.

Canadian Tire Motorsport Park

Canadian Tire Motorsport Park (formerly Mosport Park and Mosport International Raceway) is a multi-track motorsport venue located north of Bowmanville, in Ontario, Canada. The facility features a 2.459-mile (3.957 km), (length reduced through wider track re-surfacing done in 2003) 10-turn road course; a 2.9 km advance driver and race driver training facility with a quarter-mile skid pad (Driver Development Centre) and a 1.5 km kart track (Mosport Kartways). The name "Mosport" is a portmanteau of Motor Sport, came from the enterprise formed to build the track; it is pronounced as the two words actually sound, "Mo-Sport" (but is often incorrectly pronounced "Moss-Port").

Circuit of the Americas

Circuit of the Americas (COTA) is a grade 1 FIA-specification 3.427-mile (5.515 km) motor racing track and facilities located within the ETJ of Austin, Texas. The facility is home to the Formula One United States Grand Prix, the IndyCar Classic, and the Motorcycle Grand Prix of The Americas, a round of the FIM Road Racing World Championship, as well a round of the Americas Rallycross Championship. It previously hosted the Australian V8 Supercars, the American Le Mans Series, the Rolex Sports Car Series, the FIA World Endurance Championship, and the IMSA WeatherTech SportsCar Championship.

The circuit and Grand Prix were first proposed in the middle of 2010. The circuit was the first in the United States to be purpose-built for Formula One. The layout was conceived by promoter Tavo Hellmund and 1993 Motorcycle World Champion Kevin Schwantz with the assistance of German architect and circuit designer Hermann Tilke, who has also designed the Sepang, Shanghai, Yas Marina, Istanbul, Bahrain, Yeongam, and Buddh circuits, as well as the reprofiling of the Hockenheimring and Fuji Speedway. The circuit has FIA Grade 1 license.

Confederation of Australian Motor Sport

The Confederation of Australian Motor Sport (CAMS), is the official governing body of motor sport in Australia. It is affiliated with the Federation Internationale de l'Automobile (FIA).

Fastest lap

In motorsport, the fastest lap is the quickest lap run during a race. Some racing series, like Formula One; and Formula 2, and A1 Grand Prix series, award championship points for a driver and/or team that set the fastest lap.

In Grand Prix motorcycle racing no point is awarded for the fastest lap. Giacomo Agostini holds the current record for the most fastest laps with 117.

Forza (series)

Forza ( FORTS-ə; Italian for "power") is a series of semi-sim racing video games for Xbox consoles and Microsoft Windows published by Xbox Game Studios. The franchise is primarily divided into two series; the original Forza Motorsport series developed by American developer Turn 10 Studios, which focuses on primarily professional-style track racing events and series, and the open world-styled Forza Horizon series mainly developed by British developer Playground Games, which revolves around a fictitious "annual" music and racing festival called the "Horizon Festival" that is held in fictional representations of real world areas. Each main installment of both series have so far been released on a biennial basis, with Motorsport entries releasing in odd-numbered years and Horizon entries releasing in even-numbered years.

Forza seeks to emulate the performance and handling characteristics of a large number of real-life production, modified and racing cars. Forza Motorsport is often seen as Microsoft's answer to Sony's Gran Turismo series for the PlayStation systems.

Frank Williams (Formula One)

Sir Francis Owen Garbett Williams (born 16 April 1942) is a British businessman, former racing car driver and mechanic. He is the founder and team principal of the Williams F1 racing team.

Glossary of motorsport terms

The following is a glossary of terminology used in motorsport, along with explanations of their meanings.

List of 2007 motorcycling champions

This list of 2007 motorcycling champions is a list of national or international touring motorcycle sport series with a Championship decided by the points or positions earned by a driver from multiple races.

Maserati in motorsport

Throughout its history, the Italian auto manufacturer Maserati has participated in various forms of motorsports including Formula One, sportscar racing and touring car racing, both as a works team and through private entrants.

Mercedes-Benz in Formula One

Mercedes-Benz, through its subsidiary Mercedes-Benz Grand Prix Limited, is currently involved in Formula One as a constructor under the name of Mercedes-AMG Petronas Motorsport. The team is based in Brackley, Northamptonshire, United Kingdom, using a German licence. Mercedes-Benz competed in the pre-war European Championship winning three titles and debuted in Formula One in 1954, running a team for two years. The team is also known by their nickname, the "Silver Arrows".

After winning their first race at the 1954 French Grand Prix, driver Juan Manuel Fangio won another three Grands Prix to win the 1954 Drivers' Championship and repeated this success in 1955. Despite winning two Drivers' Championships, Mercedes-Benz withdrew from motor racing in response to the 1955 Le Mans disaster and did not return to Formula One until rejoining as an engine supplier in association with Ilmor, a British independent high-performance autosport engineering company later acquired by Mercedes, in 1994.

In addition to its factory team, Mercedes currently supplies engines to Racing Point and Williams. The manufacturer has collected more than 180 wins as an engine supplier and is ranked second in Formula One history. Seven Constructors' and 11 Drivers' Championships have been won with Mercedes-Benz engines.

Mercedes has become one of the most successful teams in recent Formula One history, having achieved consecutive Drivers' and Constructors' Championships from 2014 to 2018. In 2014, Mercedes managed 11 one-two finishes beating McLaren's 1988 record of 10. The record was extended the following year with 12 one-two finishes. Mercedes also collected 16 victories in 2014 and 2015 apiece breaking McLaren (1988) and Ferrari's (2002, 2004) record of 15. In 2016, they extended this record with 19 wins.

Mercedes-Benz in motorsport

Throughout its long history, Mercedes-Benz has been involved in a range of motorsport activities, including sportscar racing and rallying, and is currently active in Formula Three, Formula E and Formula One.

Motorsport.com

Motorsport.com is a website specializing in motor racing news. It posts content in thirteen languages. It is part of the Motorsport Network company. Motorsport.com’s headquarters are in Miami, United States.

Motorsport Arena Oschersleben

The Motorsport Arena Oschersleben is 3.667 kilometres (2.28 mi) long race track with a width of 11–13 meters and elevation changes of 23 metres. The circuit is located in Oschersleben, Börde (approximately 30 km from Magdeburg), Germany. Its fairly flat contours create a smooth, fast circuit.Opened on 25 July 1997 as Motopark Oschersleben, it was Germany's fourth permanent racecourse, after Nürburgring, Hockenheimring and Sachsenring.

Motorsport Arena Oschersleben was a venue for FIA's European Touring Car Championship from 2001 to 2004 and the World Touring Car Championship from 2005 to 2011.

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