The Motion Picture & Television Fund (MPTF) is a charitable organization that offers assistance and care to those in the motion picture and television industries with limited or no resources. Its mission is to enrich the lives of people in the Southern California entertainment community by continuously evolving to meet their health and human services needs.
The need for a fund to benefit colleagues who fell on hard times was seen by many in the early days of motion pictures. It began with coin boxes at studios, where industry workers would drop their spare change for their colleagues. The MPTF was created by such industry luminaries as Charlie Chaplin, Mary Pickford, Conrad Nagel, Milton Sills, Douglas Fairbanks, Sr., and D. W. Griffith. In 1921, the Motion Picture Relief Fund (MPRF) was incorporated with Joseph M. Schenck as first president, Pickford was vice president and the Reverend Neal Dodd (who portrayed ministers in more than 300 films) as administrator, each with a benevolent spirit intent on providing assistance to those in the motion picture industry who were in need. The original Board of Trustees included prominent names in Hollywood such as Charles Christie, Cecil B. DeMille, Douglas Fairbanks, Sr., William S. Hart, Jesse L. Lasky, Harold Lloyd, Mae Murray, Hal Roach, Donald Crisp and Irving Thalberg.
The advent of talkies in the late twenties brought many changes to the film industry. While talkies launched many new careers, hundreds of actors, directors, and writers who had not foreseen the change to the industry or their livelihood, became unemployed. MPRF came to their aid. As more requests for assistance were made, celebrity-packed benefits were held. Celebrity balls, benefit movie premieres, polo matches, fashion shows, and card parties were all means of raising funds for MPRF with talent provided by the likes of Charlie Chaplin, Mary Pickford, Douglas Fairbanks, and Will Rogers. These events raised thousands of dollars in aid, but it was not enough to keep up with the demand for assistance. Other methods of fundraising were needed.
In 1932, Pickford began the Payroll Pledge Program, a deduction plan for those earning over $200 a week. Studio workers were asked to pledge one-half of one percent of their earnings to the Fund. In 1938, participation in the program was increased by including talent groups, unions and producer representatives. The Screen Actors Guild improved this effort by ruling for compulsory contributions by its Class A members.
The president Jean Hersholt was seeking an opportunity to supplement the income produced through Payroll Pledge. Dr. Jules C. Stein came up with the idea to have major movie stars appear on a new radio program The Screen Guild Show, whereby they would donate their normal salaries to MPRF. Members of the Directors and Writers Guilds also contributed their services to the show, which premiered on over 61 CBS stations in 1939.
The first program starred such greats as Jack Benny, Judy Garland, and Joan Crawford, and quickly became one of the most popular programs on network radio, raising $5.3 million for MPRF during its 13-year run. Every major star participated at least once: Humphrey Bogart, Barbara Stanwyck, Gary Cooper, Bing Crosby, Natalie Wood, Bob Hope, Betty Grable, Clark Gable, Carole Lombard, and Tyrone Power.
In 1940, Jean Hersholt found the property for the future Motion Picture & Television Country House and Hospital. It was 48 acres (190,000 m2) of walnut and orange groves, selling for 850 dollars per acre. The Board was able to purchase the land from the money raised from The Screen Guild Show. They immediately sold 7 acres (28,000 m2) to offset the costs for the first buildings of the Country House, designed by architect William Pereira. On September 27, 1942, three thousand members of the film community gathered in Woodland Hills for its dedication. In 1948, the Motion Picture & Television Hospital was dedicated. Eventually, the Fund offered services to those working in television, and in 1971 the Motion Picture Relief Fund became Motion Picture & Television Fund.
In 1993, the Motion Picture & Television Fund Foundation was established with Jeffrey Katzenberg as Founding Chairman. The Foundation continues to exist as the conduit to marshal the vision of its donors and their philanthropy to the growing human needs of the entertainment community it serves. The MPTF Foundation puts on annual events that help raise millions of dollars in funds to continue to assist those entertainment industry members in need. These events include Michael Douglas and Friends Golf Tournament, The Night Before and The Evening Before.
On September 13, 1996, the MPTF Corporation was created within the State of California and its corporate number is C1989085. Dr. David Tillman, MPTF President and CEO is listed as "Agent for Service of Process" with the California Secretary of State. Frank Mancuso, Sr. is Chairman of the MPTF Corporate Board. In 1998, the Woodland Hills campus was renamed The Wasserman Campus of the Motion Picture & Television Fund in honor of the long-time commitment and support of Mr. & Mrs. Lew Wasserman. In February 2000, William Haug resigned as MPTF CEO, and succeeded by Dr. David Tillman on May 16, 2000.
In 2006, the groundbreaking for the Saban Center for Health and Wellness featuring the Jodie Foster Aquatic Pavilion was held on The Wasserman Campus. The center was named after donors Haim Saban and his wife Dr. Cheryl Saban. It opened its doors on July 18, 2007 and features aquatic and land-based therapies as well as MPTF’s Center on Aging, a best practice model which provides a variety of programs that are geared toward improving the lives of the entertainment industry seniors throughout Southern California. A new and emerging need to address quality of life issues for older adults in their own homes was identified and led to the creation of such MPTF programs and initiatives as Palliative Care, Elder Connection, Rebuilding Together and the MPTF Age Well Program.
On November 20, 2006, the Motion Picture & Television Fund registered the MPTF Endowment Corporation with California's Secretary of State. Its California corporate number is C2934691. Dr. Tillman is listed as "Agent for Service of Process" with the California Secretary of State. Besides offering temporary financial assistance and operating the Motion Picture & Television Country House and Hospital, MPTF's comprehensive services operate six outpatient health centers throughout the greater Los Angeles area as well as the Samuel Goldwyn Foundation Children’s Center.
There was a turbulent period starting in early 2009 when the MPTF announced that rising costs amid the recession would force it to shutter its long-term care unit, which had 136 patients at the time, as well as its acute-care hospital. That decision created a barrage of criticism with some questioning the fund’s commitment to its stated goal of “taking care of our own. The MPTF restructured, brought in Bob Beitcher in 2010 and launched an aggressive $350 million fundraising campaign in 2012 headed by Jeffrey Katzenberg and George Clooney. Beitcher said the fundraising push was to provide a safety net for the 75,000 baby boomers who would be retiring from the industry over the next 20 years. At that point, $238 million had already been raised with key contributions from Clooney, Steve Bing, Tom Cruise, Barry Diller, Fox Entertainment Group, David Geffen, Michael Lewis, Jerry Perenchio, Joe Roth, Jeffrey and Marilyn Katzenberg, Todd Phillips, Patrick Soon-shiong, Thomas Tull and John Wells, among others. As of 2014, $325 million has been raised for this campaign. For its health care centers, MPTF partnered with UCLA Health which today operates five MPTF health care centers in Los Angeles. These health centers are still exclusive to entertainment industry members.
The brainchild of Jeffrey Katzenberg, the annual “Night Before the Oscars” launched in 2003, and remains one of the main MPTF fundraising events. The latest 14th annual "Night Before" party held February 27, 2016 raised a total of $5.2 million to benefit the MPTF More than $70 million has been raised since the event was launched 14 years ago.
Through June 1, 2014, the MPTF’s operations include a 250-bed multilevel care hospital, seven primary care health centers, a 186 unit retirement community providing independent and assisted living, and a free-standing child care facility.
To date, the Samuel Goldwyn Foundation is the single largest donor in the foundation’s 93-year history, with the family’s total contributions to the MPTF upwards of $55 million.
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The Academy Award for Best Actor is an award presented annually by the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences (AMPAS). It is given in honor of an actor who has delivered an outstanding performance in a leading role while working within the film industry. The award was traditionally presented by the previous year's Best Actress winner.
The 1st Academy Awards ceremony was held in 1929 with Emil Jannings receiving the award for his roles in The Last Command and The Way of All Flesh. Currently, nominees are determined by single transferable vote within the actors branch of AMPAS; winners are selected by a plurality vote from the entire eligible voting members of the Academy.In the first three years of the awards, actors were nominated as the best in their categories. At that time, all of their work during the qualifying period (as many as three films, in some cases) was listed after the award. However, during the 3rd ceremony held in 1930, only one of those films was cited in each winner's final award, even though each of the acting winners had two films following their names on the ballots. The following year, this system was replaced by the current system in which an actor is nominated for a specific performance in a single film. Starting with the 9th ceremony held in 1937, the category was officially limited to five nominations per year.Since its inception, the award has been given to 82 actors. Daniel Day-Lewis has received the most awards in this category with three Oscars. Spencer Tracy and Laurence Olivier were nominated on nine occasions, more than any other actor. Peter O' Toole is the most-nominated actor in this category without a single win. James Dean remains the only actor to have been posthumously nominated in this category on more than one occasion. At age 29, Adrien Brody became the youngest person to win this award for The Pianist. As of the 91st Academy Awards, Rami Malek is the most recent winner in this category for portraying Freddie Mercury in Bohemian Rhapsody.Academy Award for Best Actress
The Academy Award for Best Actress is an award presented annually by the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences (AMPAS). It is given in honor of an actress who has delivered an outstanding performance in a leading role while working within the film industry. The award was traditionally presented by the previous year's Best Actor winner.
The 1st Academy Awards ceremony was held in 1929 with Janet Gaynor receiving the award for her roles in 7th Heaven, Street Angel, and Sunrise. Currently, nominees are determined by single transferable vote within the actors branch of AMPAS; winners are selected by a plurality vote from the entire eligible voting members of the Academy. In the first three years of the awards, actresses were nominated as the best in their categories. At that time, all of their work during the qualifying period (as many as three films, in some cases) was listed after the award. However, during the 3rd ceremony held in 1930, only one of those films was cited in each winner's final award, even though each of the acting winners had two films following their names on the ballots.The following year, this unwieldy and confusing system was replaced by the current system in which an actress is nominated for a specific performance in a single film. Starting with the 9th ceremony held in 1937, the category was officially limited to five nominations per year. One actress has been nominated posthumously, Jeanne Eagels. Since its inception, the award has been given to 76 actresses. Katharine Hepburn has won the most awards in this category, with four Oscars. With 17 nominations, Meryl Streep is the most nominated in this category, resulting in two wins. As of the 2019 ceremony, Olivia Colman is the most recent winner in this category for her portrayal of Anne, Queen of Great Britain in The Favourite.Academy Award for Best Original Screenplay
The Academy Award for Best Original Screenplay is the Academy Award for the best screenplay not based upon previously published material. It was created in 1940 as a separate writing award from the Academy Award for Best Story. Beginning with the Oscars for 1957, the two categories were combined to honor only the screenplay.
See also the Academy Award for Best Adapted Screenplay, a similar award for screenplays that are adaptations.Academy Award for Best Original Song
The Academy Award for Best Original Song is one of the awards given annually to people working in the motion picture industry by the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences (AMPAS). It is presented to the songwriters who have composed the best original song written specifically for a film. The performers of a song are not credited with the Academy Award unless they contributed either to music, lyrics or both in their own right. The songs that are nominated for this award are performed during the ceremony and before this award is presented.
The award category was introduced at the 7th Academy Awards, the ceremony honoring the best in film for 1934. Nominations are made by Academy members who are songwriters and composers, and the winners are chosen by the Academy membership as a whole.Academy Award for Best Picture
The Academy Award for Best Picture is one of the Academy Awards (Oscars) presented annually by the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences (AMPAS) since the awards debuted in 1929. This award goes to the producers of the film and is the only category in which every member of the Academy is eligible to submit a nomination and vote on the final ballot. Best Picture is the final award of the night and is considered the most prestigious honor of the ceremony.The Grand Staircase columns at the Dolby Theatre in Hollywood, where the Academy Awards ceremonies have been held since 2002, showcase every film that has won the Best Picture title since the award's inception. There have been 554 films nominated for Best Picture and 91 winners.Academy Award for Best Supporting Actor
The Academy Award for Best Supporting Actor (often referred to as the Oscar for Best Supporting Actor) is an award presented annually by the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences (AMPAS). It is given in honor of an actor who has delivered an outstanding performance in a supporting role while working within the film industry. The award was traditionally presented by the previous year's Best Supporting Actress winner.
At the 9th Academy Awards ceremony held in 1937, Walter Brennan was the first winner of this award for his role in Come and Get It. Initially, winners in both supporting acting categories were awarded plaques instead of statuettes. Beginning with the 16th ceremony held in 1944, however, winners received full-sized statuettes. Currently, nominees are determined by single transferable vote within the actors branch of AMPAS; winners are selected by a plurality vote from the entire eligible voting members of the Academy.Since its inception, the award has been given to 74 actors. Brennan has received the most awards in this category with three awards. Brennan, Jeff Bridges, Robert Duvall, Arthur Kennedy, Jack Nicholson, and Claude Rains were nominated on four occasions, more than any other actor. As of the 2019 ceremony, Mahershala Ali is the most recent winner in this category for his role as Don Shirley in Green Book.Academy Award for Best Supporting Actress
The Academy Award for Best Supporting Actress is an award presented annually by the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences (AMPAS). It is given in honor of an actress who has delivered an outstanding performance in a supporting role while working within the film industry. The award was traditionally presented by the previous year's Best Supporting Actor winner.
At the 9th Academy Awards ceremony held in 1937, Gale Sondergaard was the first winner of this award for her role in Anthony Adverse. Initially, winners in both supporting acting categories were awarded plaques instead of statuettes. Beginning with the 16th ceremony held in 1944, winners received full-sized statuettes. Currently, nominees are determined by single transferable vote within the actors branch of AMPAS; winners are selected by a plurality vote from the entire eligible voting members of the Academy.Since its inception, the award has been given to 81 actresses. Dianne Wiest and Shelley Winters have received the most awards in this category with two awards each. Despite winning no awards, Thelma Ritter was nominated on six occasions, more than any other actress. As of the 2019 ceremony, Regina King is the most recent winner in this category for her role as Sharon Rivers in If Beale Street Could Talk.Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences
The Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences (AMPAS (often pronounced am-pas); also known as simply the Academy or the Motion Picture Academy) is a professional honorary organization with the stated goal of advancing the arts and sciences of motion pictures. The Academy's corporate management and general policies are overseen by a Board of Governors, which includes representatives from each of the craft branches.
The roster of the Academy's approximately 6,000 motion picture professionals is a "closely guarded secret". While the great majority of its members are based in the United States, membership is open to qualified filmmakers around the world.
The Academy is known around the world for its annual Academy Awards, now officially and popularly known as "The Oscars".In addition, the Academy holds the Governors Awards annually for lifetime achievement in film; presents Scientific and Technical Awards annually; gives Student Academy Awards annually to filmmakers at the undergraduate and graduate level; awards up to five Nicholl Fellowships in Screenwriting annually; and operates the Margaret Herrick Library (at the Fairbanks Center for Motion Picture Study) in Beverly Hills, California, and the Pickford Center for Motion Picture Study in Hollywood, Los Angeles. The Academy plans to open the Academy Museum of Motion Pictures in Los Angeles in 2019.Film
Film, also called movie or motion picture is a medium used to simulate experiences that communicate ideas, stories, perceptions, feelings, beauty or atmosphere by the means of recorded or programmed moving images along with other sensory stimulations. The word "cinema", short for cinematography, is often used to refer to filmmaking and the film industry, and to the art form that is the result of it.
The moving images of a film are created by photographing actual scenes with a motion-picture camera, by photographing drawings or miniature models using traditional animation techniques, by means of CGI and computer animation, or by a combination of some or all of these techniques, and other visual effects.
Traditionally, films were recorded onto celluloid film through a photochemical process and then shown through a movie projector onto a large screen. Contemporary films are often fully digital through the entire process of production, distribution, and exhibition, while films recorded in a photochemical form traditionally included an analogous optical soundtrack (a graphic recording of the spoken words, music and other sounds that accompany the images which runs along a portion of the film exclusively reserved for it, and is not projected).
Films are cultural artifacts created by specific cultures. They reflect those cultures, and, in turn, affect them. Film is considered to be an important art form, a source of popular entertainment, and a powerful medium for educating—or indoctrinating—citizens. The visual basis of film gives it a universal power of communication. Some films have become popular worldwide attractions through the use of dubbing or subtitles to translate the dialog into other languages.
The individual images that make up a film are called frames. In the projection of traditional celluloid films, a rotating shutter causes intervals of darkness as each frame, in turn, is moved into position to be projected, but the viewer does not notice the interruptions because of an effect known as persistence of vision, whereby the eye retains a visual image for a fraction of a second after its source disappears. The perception of motion is partly due to a psychological effect called the phi phenomenon.
The name "film" originates from the fact that photographic film (also called film stock) has historically been the medium for recording and displaying motion pictures. Many other terms exist for an individual motion-picture, including picture, picture show, moving picture, photoplay, and flick. The most common term in the United States is movie, while in Europe film is preferred. Common terms for the field in general include the big screen, the silver screen, the movies, and cinema; the last of these is commonly used, as an overarching term, in scholarly texts and critical essays. In early years, the word sheet was sometimes used instead of screen.Film studio
A film studio (also known as movie studio or simply studio) is a major entertainment company or motion picture company that has its own privately owned studio facility or facilities that are used to make films, which is handled by the production company. The majority of firms in the entertainment industry have never owned their own studios, but have rented space from other companies.
There are also independently owned studio facilities, who have never produced a motion picture of their own because they are not entertainment companies or motion picture companies; they are companies who sell only studio space.
The largest film studio in the world is Ramoji Film City, in Hyderabad, India.Golden Globe Award
The Golden Globe Awards are accolades bestowed by the 93 members of the Hollywood Foreign Press Association beginning in January 1944, recognizing excellence in film and television, both domestic and foreign.
The annual ceremony at which the awards are presented is a major part of the film industry's awards season, which culminates each year in the Academy Awards. The eligibility period for the Golden Globes corresponds to the calendar year (i.e. January 1 through December 31). The 76th Golden Globe Awards, honoring the best in film and television in 2018, were held on January 6, 2019. The 77th Golden Globe Awards will take place on January 5, 2020.Golden Globe Award for Best Actor – Motion Picture Drama
The Golden Globe Award for Best Actor in a Motion Picture – Drama was first awarded by the Hollywood Foreign Press Association as a separate category in 1951. Previously, there was a single award for "Best Actor in a Motion Picture" but the splitting allowed for recognition of it and the Best Actor – Musical or Comedy.
The formal title has varied since its inception. In 2005, it was officially called: "Best Performance by an Actor in a Motion Picture – Drama". As of 2013, the wording is "Best Actor in a Motion Picture – Drama".Golden Globe Award for Best Actress in a Motion Picture – Drama
The Golden Globe Award for Best Actress in a Motion Picture – Drama was first awarded by the Hollywood Foreign Press Association as a separate category in 1951. Previously, there was a single award for "Best Actress in a Motion Picture" but the splitting allowed for recognition of it and the Best Actress – Comedy or Musical.
The formal title has varied since its inception. In 2005, it was officially called "Best Performance by an Actress in a Motion Picture – Drama". As of 2013, the wording is "Best Actress in a Motion Picture – Drama".
It is notable for being the category in which the only three-way tie in Golden Globe history occurred, when Jodie Foster, Shirley MacLaine, and Sigourney Weaver all won the award at the 46th Golden Globe Awards in 1989.· † indicates the winner of the Academy Award for Best Actress
· ‡ indicates the winner of the Academy Award for Best Supporting ActressGolden Globe Award for Best Actress – Motion Picture Comedy or Musical
The Golden Globe Award for Best Actress in a Motion Picture – Musical or Comedy was first awarded by the Hollywood Foreign Press Association as a separate category in 1951. Previously, there was a single award for "Best Actress in a Motion Picture" but the splitting allowed for recognition of it and the Best Actress – Drama.
The formal title has varied since its inception. In 2005, it was officially called: "Best Performance by an Actress in a Motion Picture – Comedy or Musical". As of 2014, the wording is "Best Actress in a Motion Picture – Musical or Comedy".· † indicates the winner of the Academy Award for Best Actress
· ‡ indicates the winner of the Academy Award for Best Supporting ActressGolden Globe Award for Best Supporting Actor – Motion Picture
The Golden Globe Award for Best Supporting Actor – Motion Picture was first awarded by the Hollywood Foreign Press Association in 1944 for a performance in a motion picture released in the previous year.
The formal title has varied since its inception; since 2005, the award has officially been called "Best Performance by an Actor in a Supporting Role in a Motion Picture".
Five actors have won the award twice: Richard Attenborough, Edmund Gwenn, Martin Landau, Edmond O'Brien, and Christoph Waltz.Motion Picture Association of America
The Motion Picture Association of America (MPAA) is an American trade association representing the five major film studios of Hollywood, and, as of January 22, 2019, streaming service giant, Netflix. Founded in 1922 as the Motion Picture Producers and Distributors of America (MPPDA), its original goal was to ensure the viability of the American film industry. In addition, the MPAA established guidelines for film content which resulted in the creation of the Production Code in 1930. This code, also known as the Hays Code, was replaced by a voluntary film rating system in 1968, which is managed by the Classification and Rating Administration (CARA).
More recently, the MPAA has advocated for the motion picture and television industry, with the goals of promoting effective copyright protection, reducing piracy, and expanding market access. It has long worked to curb copyright infringement, including recent attempts to limit the sharing of copyrighted works via peer-to-peer file-sharing networks and by streaming from pirate sites. Former United States Ambassador to France Charles Rivkin is the current chairman and CEO of the MPAA.Motion Picture Association of America film rating system
The Motion Picture Association of America (MPAA) film rating system is used in the United States and its territories to rate a film's suitability for certain audiences based on its content. The MPAA rating system is a voluntary scheme that is not enforced by law; films can be exhibited without a rating, although certain theaters refuse to exhibit non-rated or NC-17 rated films. Non-members of MPAA may also submit films for rating. Other media, such as television programs, music and video games, are rated by other entities such as the TV Parental Guidelines, the RIAA and the ESRB, respectively.
The MPAA rating system is one of various motion picture rating systems that are used to help parents decide what films are appropriate for their children. It is administered by the Classification & Ratings Administration (CARA), an independent division of the MPAA.Satellite Awards
The Satellite Awards are annual awards given by the International Press Academy that are commonly noted in entertainment industry journals and blogs. The awards were originally known as the Golden Satellite Awards. The award ceremonies take place each year at the InterContinental Hotel in Century City, Los Angeles.In 2011, Satellite nominations in the motion picture categories were pared from 22 to 19 classifications; the change reflects the merger of Drama and Comedy/Musical under a general Best Picture heading, including the Best Actor, Best Actress, Supporting Actor and Supporting Actress headings.Sony Pictures Motion Picture Group
The Sony Pictures Entertainment Motion Picture Group (commonly known as the Sony Pictures Motion Picture Group and formerly known as the Columbia TriStar Motion Picture Group until 2013 and abbreviated as SPMPG) is a division of Sony Pictures Entertainment to manage its motion picture operations. It was launched in 1998 by integrating businesses of Columbia Pictures Industries, Inc. and TriStar Pictures, Inc.