Motion JPEG 2000

Motion JPEG 2000 (MJ2 or MJP2) is a file format for motion sequences of JPEG 2000 images and associated audio, based on the MP4/QuickTime format. Filename extensions for Motion JPEG 2000 video files are .mj2 and .mjp2, as defined in RFC 3745.

Motion JPEG 2000
Filename extension.mj2, .mjp2
Internet media typevideo/mj2
Magic number12 byte string: X'0000 000C 6A50 2020 0D0A 870A'
Developed byJoint Photographic Experts Group
Type of formatmoving image
Container forvideo, sound
Extended fromISO base media file format
Extended toMotion JPEG 2000 Simple Profile, Motion JPEG 2000 Motion Picture Archive Preservation Format Profile, Motion JPEG 2000 Motion Picture Archive Access Format Profile
StandardISO/IEC 15444-3:2007, ITU-T T.802

ISO Standards

MJ2, first defined by Part 3 of the ISO Standard for JPEG 2000 ISO/IEC 15444 in November 2001[1] (ISO/IEC 15444-3:2002) as a standalone document, has later been defined by ISO/IEC 15444-3:2007, ISO/IEC 15444-3:2007/Amd 1:2010, additional profiles for archiving applications, and by ISO/IEC 15444-12 which defines the JPEG 2000 base media format, which contains the timing, structure, and media information for timed sequences of media data.

The standard is available for download from ITU-T as their Recommendation T.802.[2]


Motion JPEG2000 was always intended to coexist with MPEG. Unlike MPEG, MJ2 does not implement inter-frame coding; each frame is coded independently using JPEG 2000. This makes MJ2 more resilient to propagation of errors over time, more scalable, and better suited to networked and point-to-point environments, with additional advantages over MPEG with respect to random frame access,[3] but at the expense of increased storage and bandwidth requirements.

See also


  1. ^ "Motion JPEG 2000 Part 3". Joint Photographic Experts Group, JPEG, and Joint Bi-level Image experts Group, JBIG. Archived from the original on 22 September 2012. Retrieved 21 June 2014.
  2. ^ "T.802 : Information technology - JPEG 2000 image coding system: Motion JPEG 2000". January 2005. Retrieved 21 June 2014.
  3. ^ Hunter, Jill. "Digital cinema reels from motion JPEG2000 advances". EETimes. EETimes. Retrieved 21 June 2014.

External links

Digital container format

A container or wrapper format is a metafile format whose specification describes how different elements of data and metadata coexist in a computer file.Among the earliest cross-platform container formats were Distinguished Encoding Rules and the 1985 Interchange File Format. Containers are frequently used in multimedia applications.


FFV1, which stands for "FF video codec 1", is a lossless intra-frame video codec. It can use either variable length coding or arithmetic coding for entropy coding. The encoder and decoder are part of the free, open-source library libavcodec in the project FFmpeg since June 2003. FFV1 is also included in ffdshow and LAV Filters, which makes the video codec available to Microsoft Windows applications that support system-wide codecs over Video for Windows (VfW) or DirectShow.

FFV1 is particularly popular for its performance regarding speed and size, compared to other lossless preservation codecs, such as M-JPEG2000.

The European Broadcasting Union (EBU) lists FFV1 under the codec-family index "31" in their combined list of video codec references.


G.723 is an ITU-T standard speech codec using extensions of G.721 providing voice quality covering 300 Hz to 3400 Hz using Adaptive Differential Pulse Code Modulation (ADPCM) to 24 and 40 kbit/s for digital circuit multiplication equipment (DCME) applications. The standard G.723 is obsolete and has been superseded by G.726.

Note that this is a completely different codec from G.723.1.


H.323 is a recommendation from the ITU Telecommunication Standardization Sector (ITU-T) that defines the protocols to provide audio-visual communication sessions on any packet network. The H.323 standard addresses call signaling and control, multimedia transport and control, and bandwidth control for point-to-point and multi-point conferences.It is widely implemented by voice and videoconferencing equipment manufacturers, is used within various Internet real-time applications such as GnuGK and NetMeeting and is widely deployed worldwide by service providers and enterprises for both voice and video services over IP networks.

It is a part of the ITU-T H.32x series of protocols, which also address multimedia communications over ISDN, the PSTN or SS7, and 3G mobile networks.

H.323 call signaling is based on the ITU-T Recommendation Q.931 protocol and is suited for transmitting calls across networks using a mixture of IP, PSTN, ISDN, and QSIG over ISDN. A call model, similar to the ISDN call model, eases the introduction of IP telephony into existing networks of ISDN-based PBX systems, including transitions to IP-based PBXs.

Within the context of H.323, an IP-based PBX might be a gatekeeper or other call control element which provides service to telephones or videophones. Such a device may provide or facilitate both basic services and supplementary services, such as call transfer, park, pick-up, and hold.

ISO base media file format

ISO base media file format (ISO/IEC 14496-12 – MPEG-4 Part 12) defines a general structure for time-based multimedia files such as video and audio.

The identical text is published as ISO/IEC 15444-12 (JPEG 2000, Part 12).It is designed as a flexible, extensible format that facilitates interchange, management, editing and presentation of the media. The presentation may be local, or via a network or other stream delivery mechanism. The file format is designed to be independent of any particular network protocol while enabling support for them in general. It is used as the basis for other media file formats (e.g. container formats MP4 and 3GP).

JPEG 2000

JPEG 2000 (JP2) is an image compression standard and coding system. It was created by the Joint Photographic Experts Group committee in 2000 with the intention of superseding their original discrete cosine transform-based JPEG standard (created in 1992) with a newly designed, wavelet-based method. The standardized filename extension is .jp2 for ISO/IEC 15444-1 conforming files and .jpx for the extended part-2 specifications, published as ISO/IEC 15444-2. The registered MIME types are defined in RFC 3745. For ISO/IEC 15444-1 it is image/jp2.

JPEG 2000 code streams are regions of interest that offer several mechanisms to support spatial random access or region of interest access at varying degrees of granularity. It is possible to store different parts of the same picture using different quality.

Joint Photographic Experts Group

The Joint Photographic Experts Group is the joint committee between ISO/IEC JTC 1 and ITU-T (formerly CCITT) that created and maintains the JPEG, JPEG 2000, and JPEG XR standards. It is one of two sub-groups of ISO/IEC Joint Technical Committee 1, Subcommittee 29, Working Group 1 (ISO/IEC JTC 1/SC 29/WG 1) – titled as Coding of still pictures. In the ITU-T, its work falls in the domain of the ITU-T Visual Coding Experts Group (VCEG). ISO/IEC JTC1 SC29 Working Group 1 (working together with ITU-T Study Group 16 – SG16 and previously also with Study Group 8 – SG8) is responsible for the JPEG and JBIG standards. The scope of the organization includes the work of both the Joint Photographic Experts Group and Joint Bi-level Image Experts Group.In April 1983, ISO started to work to add photo quality graphics to text terminals. In the mid-1980s, both CCITT (now ITU-T) and ISO had standardization groups for image coding: CCITT Study Group VIII (SG8) – Telematic Services and ISO TC97 SC2 WG8 – Coding of Audio and Picture Information. They were historically targeted on image communication. In 1986, it was decided to create the Joint (CCITT/ISO) Photographic Expert Group. The JPEG committee was created in 1986. In 1988, it was decided to create the Joint (CCITT/ISO) Bi-level Image Group (JBIG). The group typically meets three times annually in North America, Asia and Europe. The group often meets jointly with the JBIG committee.

List of International Organization for Standardization standards, 15000-15999

This is a list of published International Organization for Standardization (ISO) standards and other deliverables. For a complete and up-to-date list of all the ISO standards, see the ISO catalogue.The standards are protected by copyright and most of them must be purchased. However, about 300 of the standards produced by ISO and IEC's Joint Technical Committee 1 (JTC1) have been made freely and publicly available.

List of codecs

The following is a list of compression formats and related codecs.


MPEG-4 is a method of defining compression of audio and visual (AV) digital data. It was introduced in late 1998 and designated a standard for a group of audio and video coding formats and related technology agreed upon by the ISO/IEC Moving Picture Experts Group (MPEG) (ISO/IEC JTC1/SC29/WG11) under the formal standard ISO/IEC 14496 – Coding of audio-visual objects. Uses of MPEG-4 include compression of AV data for web (streaming media) and CD distribution, voice (telephone, videophone) and broadcast television applications.

MPEG-4 Part 14

MPEG-4 Part 14 or MP4 is a digital multimedia container format most commonly used to store video and audio, but it can also be used to store other data such as subtitles and still images. Like most modern container formats, it allows streaming over the Internet. The only official filename extension for MPEG-4 Part 14 files is .mp4. MPEG-4 Part 14 (formally ISO/IEC 14496-14:2003) is a standard specified as a part of MPEG-4.

Portable media players are sometimes advertised as "MP4 Players", although some are simply MP3 Players that also play AMV video or some other video format, and do not necessarily play the MPEG-4 Part 14 format.

Motion JPEG

In multimedia, Motion JPEG (M-JPEG or MJPEG) is a video compression format in which each video frame or interlaced field of a digital video sequence is compressed separately as a JPEG image. Originally developed for multimedia PC applications, M-JPEG is now used by video-capture devices such as digital cameras, IP cameras, and webcams, as well as by non-linear video editing systems. It is natively supported by the QuickTime Player, the PlayStation console, and web browsers such as Safari, Google Chrome, Mozilla Firefox and Microsoft Edge.

Unlike e.g. Motion JPEG 2000 (and common video formats) that permits the carriage of audio, the older (and incompatible with) Motion JPEG doesn't code any audio, as it's simply a concatenation of still JPEG frames. In a suitable container format, e.g. AVI, audio can however be provided.


mp3PRO is an unmaintained proprietary audio compression codec that combines the MP3 audio format with the spectral band replication (SBR) compression method. At the time it was developed it could reduce the size of a stereo MP3 by as much as 50% while maintaining the same relative quality. This works, fundamentally, by discarding the higher half of the frequency range and algorithmically replicating that information while decoding.

The technology behind SBR was developed by the former Swedish company Coding Technologies AB (acquired by Dolby Laboratories in 2007) in the late 1990s. It was included in their MPEG-2 AAC derived codec aacPlus, which would later be standardized as MPEG-4 HE-AAC. Thomson Multimedia (now Technicolor SA) licensed the technology and used it to extend the MP3 format, for which they held patents, hoping to also extend its profitable lifetime. This was released as mp3PRO in 2001.It was originally claimed that mp3PRO files were compatible with existing MP3 decoders, and that the SBR data could simply be ignored. The reality was that MP3 players lacking specific mp3PRO decoding capability experienced a significant reduction in audio quality when playing mp3PRO files as only the lower half of the original frequency range is available.mp3PRO development has been abandoned. The format was never standardized and there is no publicly available reference source code or documentation in existence. A very old software encoder/player exists, but is not maintained. Nero's Soundtrax application, bundled in the Nero Multimedia Suite, is capable of encoding and decoding this format into several others. Some versions of the outdated MusicMatch Jukebox player were able to decode and encode this format, too. In the early 2000s, mp3PRO was usable in several portable music players and in popular music software, but its market share has deteriorated rapidly. The codec itself is largely surpassed in quality and efficiency, as well as device and application support, by modern codecs like AAC and its HE-AAC variants which employ the same SBR method.


QuickTime is an extensible multimedia framework developed by Apple Inc., capable of handling various formats of digital video, picture, sound, panoramic images, and interactivity. First made in 1991, the latest Mac version, QuickTime X, is currently available on Mac OS X Snow Leopard and newer. Apple ceased support for the Windows version of QuickTime in 2016.As of Mac OS X Lion, the underlying media framework for QuickTime, QTKit, is deprecated in favor of a newer graphics framework, AV Foundation. In iOS, the video player on the Internet was QuickTime-based, used to play videos on the internet.

QuickTime File Format

QuickTime File Format (QTFF) is a computer file format used natively by the QuickTime framework.

ISO standards by standard number

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