Mother Courage and Her Children

Mother Courage and Her Children (German: Mutter Courage und ihre Kinder) is a play written in 1939 by the German dramatist and poet Bertolt Brecht (1898–1956), with significant contributions from Margarete Steffin.[1] Four theatrical productions were produced in Switzerland and Germany from 1941 to 1952, the last three supervised and/or directed by Brecht, who had returned to East Germany from the United States. Several years after Brecht's death in 1959/1960, the play was adapted as a German film starring Helene Weigel, Brecht's widow and a leading actress.[2]

Mother Courage is considered by some to be the greatest play of the 20th century, and perhaps also the greatest anti-war play of all time.[3]

Bundesarchiv Bild 183-T0927-019, Berliner Ensemble, Probe Mutter Courage
Manfred Wekwerth and Gisela May during rehearsals of Mother Courage and Her Children (1978)


Mother Courage is one of nine plays that Brecht wrote in resistance to the rise of Fascism and Nazism. In response to the invasion of Poland by the German armies of Adolf Hitler in 1939, Brecht wrote Mother Courage in what writers call a "white heat"—in a little over a month.[4] As the preface to the Ralph Manheim/John Willett Collected Plays puts it:

Mother Courage, with its theme of the devastating effects of a European war and the blindness of anyone hoping to profit by it, is said to have been written in a month; judging by the almost complete absence of drafts or any other evidence of preliminary studies, it must have been an exceptionally direct piece of inspiration.[5]

Following Brecht's own principles for political drama, the play is not set in modern times but during the Thirty Years' War of 1618–1648, which involved all the European states. It follows the fortunes of Anna Fierling, nicknamed "Mother Courage", a wily canteen woman with the Swedish Army, who is determined to make her living from the war. Over the course of the play, she loses all three of her children, Schweizerkas, Eilif, and Kattrin, to the very war from which she tried to profit.


Stamps of Germany (DDR) 1973, MiNr 1852
1973 DDR Stamp commemorating the Berliner Ensemble production

The name of the central character, Mother Courage, is drawn from the picaresque writings of the 17th-century German writer Grimmelshausen. His central character in the early short novel, The Runagate Courage,[6] also struggles and connives her way through the Thirty Years' War in Germany and Poland. Otherwise the story is mostly Brecht's, in collaboration with Steffin.

The action of the play takes place over the course of 12 years (1624 to 1636), represented in 12 scenes. Some give a sense of Courage's career, but do not provide time for viewers to develop sentimental feelings and empathize with any of the characters. Meanwhile, Mother Courage is not depicted as a noble character. The Brechtian epic theatre distinguished itself from the ancient Greek tragedies, in which the heroes are far above the average. Neither does Brecht's ending of his play inspire any desire to imitate the main character, Mother Courage.

Mother Courage is among Brecht's most famous plays. Some directors consider it to be the greatest play of the 20th century.[7] Brecht expresses the dreadfulness of war and the idea that virtues are not rewarded in corrupt times. He used an epic structure to force the audience to focus on the issues rather than getting involved with the characters and their emotions. Epic plays are a distinct genre typical of Brecht. Some critics believe that he created the form.[8]

As epic theatre

Mother Courage is an example of Brecht's concepts of epic theatre and Verfremdungseffekt, or "V" effect; preferably "alienation" or "estrangement effect" Verfremdungseffekt is achieved through the use of placards which reveal the events of each scene, juxtaposition, actors changing characters and costume on stage, the use of narration, simple props and scenery. For instance, a single tree would be used to convey a whole forest, and the stage is usually flooded with bright white light, whether it's a winter's night or a summer's day. Several songs, interspersed throughout the play, are used to underscore the themes of the play. They also require the audience to think about what the playwright is saying.


  • Mother Courage (also known as "Canteen Anna")
  • Kattrin (Catherine), her mute daughter
  • Eilif, her older son
  • Schweizerkas ("Swiss Cheese", also mentioned as Feyos), her younger son
  • Recruiting Officer
  • Sergeant
  • Cook
  • Swedish Commander
  • Chaplain
  • Ordinance Officer
  • Yvette Pottier
  • Man with the Bandage
  • Another Sergeant
  • Old Colonel
  • Clerk
  • Young Soldier
  • Older Soldier
  • Peasant
  • Peasant Woman
  • Young Man
  • Old Woman
  • Another Peasant
  • Another Peasant Woman
  • Young Peasant
  • Lieutenant
  • Voice


The play is set in the 17th century in Europe during the Thirty Years' War. The Recruiting Officer and Sergeant are introduced, both complaining about the difficulty of recruiting soldiers to the war. Anna Fierling (Mother Courage) enters pulling a cart containing provisions for sale to soldiers, and introduces her children Eilif, Kattrin, and Schweizerkas ("Swiss Cheese"). The sergeant negotiates a deal with Mother Courage while Eilif is conscripted by the Recruiting Officer.

Two years thereafter, Mother Courage argues with a Protestant General's cook over a capon, and Eilif is congratulated by the General for killing peasants and slaughtering their cattle. Eilif and his mother sing "The Fishwife and the Soldier". Mother Courage scolds her son for endangering himself.

Three years later, Swiss Cheese works as an army paymaster. The camp prostitute, Yvette Pottier, sings "The Fraternization Song". Mother Courage uses this song to warn Kattrin against involving herself with soldiers. Before the Catholic troops arrive, the Cook and Chaplain bring a message from Eilif. Swiss Cheese hides the regiment's paybox from invading soldiers, and Mother Courage and companions change their insignia from Protestant to Catholic. Swiss Cheese is captured and tortured by the Catholics having hidden the paybox by the river. Mother Courage attempts bribery to free him, planning to pawn the wagon first and redeem it with the regiment money. When Swiss Cheese claims that he has thrown the box in the river, Mother Courage backtracks on the price, and Swiss Cheese is killed. Fearing to be shot as an accomplice, Mother Courage does not acknowledge his body, and it is discarded.

Later, Mother Courage waits outside the General's tent to register a complaint and sings the "Song of Great Capitulation" to a young soldier anxious to complain of inadequate pay. The song persuades both to withdraw their complaints.

When Catholic General Tilly's funeral approaches, the Chaplain tells Mother Courage that the war will still continue, and she is persuaded to pile up stocks. The Chaplain then suggests to Mother Courage that she marry him, but she rejects his proposal. Mother Courage curses the war because she finds Kattrin disfigured after being raped by a drunken soldier. Thereafter Mother Courage is again following the Protestant army.

Two peasants try to sell merchandise to her when they hear news of peace with the death of the Swedish king. The Cook appears and causes an argument between Mother Courage and the Chaplain. Mother Courage is off to the market while Eilif enters, dragged in by soldiers. Eilif is executed for killing a peasant while stealing livestock, trying to repeat the same act for which he was praised as hero in wartime, but Mother Courage never hears thereof. When she finds out the war continues, the Cook and Mother Courage move on with the wagon.

In the seventeenth year of the war, there is no food and no supplies. The Cook inherits an inn in Utrecht and suggests to Mother Courage that she operate it with him, but refuses to harbour Kattrin. Thereafter Mother Courage and Kattrin pull the wagon by themselves.

When Mother Courage is trading in the Protestant city of Halle, Kattrin is left with a peasant family in the countryside overnight. As Catholic soldiers force the peasants to guide the army to the city for a sneak attack, Kattrin fetches a drum from the cart and beats it, waking the townspeople, but is herself shot. Early in the morning, Mother Courage sings a lullaby to her daughter's corpse, has the peasants bury it, and hitches herself to the cart.


Rittner Therese Giehse 1966
Therese Giehse as Mother Courage by Günter Rittner

The play was originally produced at the Schauspielhaus Zürich, produced by Leopold Lindtberg in 1941. Most of the score consisted of original compositions by the Swiss composer Paul Burkhard; the rest had been arranged by him. The musicians were placed in view of the audience so that they could be seen, one of Brecht's many techniques in Epic Theatre. Therese Giehse, a well-known actress at the time, took the title role.

The second production of Mother Courage took place in then East Berlin in 1949, with Brecht's (second) wife Helene Weigel, his main actress and later also director, as Mother Courage. Paul Dessau supplied a new score, composed in close collaboration with Brecht himself. This production would highly influence the formation of Brecht's company, the Berliner Ensemble, which would provide him a venue to direct many of his plays. Brecht died directing Galileo for the Ensemble. Brecht revised the play for this production in reaction to the reviews of the Zürich production, which empathized with the "heart-rending vitality of all maternal creatures". Even so, he wrote that the Berlin audience failed to see Mother Courage's crimes and participation in the war and focused on her suffering instead.[9]

The next production (and second production in Germany) was directed by Brecht at the Munich Kammerspiele in 1950, with the original Mother Courage, Therese Giehse, with a set designed by Theo Otto (see photo, above.)

In Spanish, it was premiered in 1954 in Buenos Aires with Alejandra Boero and in 1958 in Montevideo with China Zorrilla from the Uruguayan National Comedy Company. In other languages, it was played by famous actresses as Simone Signoret, Lotte Lenya, Dorothea Neff (Vienna, 1963), Germaine Montero, Angela Winkler, Hanna Schygulla, Katina Paxinou (Athens, 1971), Maria Bill (Viena), María Casares (París, 1969), Pupella Maggio, Liv Ullmann (Oslo), Maddalena Crippa (Milán), etc

Libby Cutts as Courage 1961
Elizabeth Cutts played Courage in the English Midlands premiere, directed by Keith Fowler in Stratford-upon-Avon, 1961

In 1955, Joan Littlewood's Theatre Workshop gave the play its London première, with Littlewood performing the title role.

In June 1959 the BBC broadcast a television version adapted by Eric Crozier from Eric Bentley's English translation of the play. Produced by Rudolph Cartier; it starred Flora Robson in the title role.

The play remained unperformed in Britain after the 1955 Littlewood production until 1961 when the Stratford-upon-Avon Amateur Players undertook to introduce the play to the English Midlands. Directed by American Keith Fowler and presented on the floor of the Stratford Hippodrome, the play drew high acclaim.[10] The title role was played by Elizabeth ("Libby") Cutts, with Pat Elliott as Katrin, Digby Day as Swiss Cheese, and James Orr as Eiliff.[10]

The play received its American premiere at Cleveland Play House in 1958, starring Harriet Brazier as Mother Courage. The play was directed by Benno Frank and the set was designed by Paul Rodgers.[11]

The first Broadway production of Mother Courage opened at the Martin Beck Theatre on 28 March 1963. It was directed by Jerome Robbins, starred Anne Bancroft, and featured Barbara Harris and Gene Wilder. It ran for 52 performances and was nominated for 5 Tonys.[12] During this production Wilder first met Bancroft's then-boyfriend, Mel Brooks.[13]

In 1971 Joachim Tenschert directed a staging of Brecht's original Berliner Ensemble production for the Melbourne Theatre Company at the Princess Theatre.[14] Gloria Dawn played Mother Courage; Wendy Hughes, John Wood and Tony Llewellyn-Jones her children; Frank Thring the Chaplain; Frederick Parslow the cook; Jennifer Hagan played Yvette; and Peter Curtin.

In 1980 Wilford Leach directed a new adaptation by Ntozake Shange at The Public Theater. This version was set in the American South during Reconstruction.[15] Gloria Foster played Mother Courage in a cast that also included Morgan Freeman, Samuel L. Jackson, Hattie Winston, Raynor Scheine, and Anna Deavere Smith.

Angelique as Yvette (Mother Courage and her children) 1982
Angelique Rockas as Yvette and Renu Setna as the Chaplain in 1982 Internationalist Theatre

In May 1982 Internationalist Theatre gave the first UK multi-racial and multi-national performance of Mother Courage at London's Theatre Space, a basement theatre in the old Charing Cross hospital.[16] Peter Hepple of The Stage wrote that "director Peter Stevenson has achieved a significant piece of epic theatre with his multi-national cast".[17] Richard Ingham (Where To Go) observed that the cast "is made from experienced actors from all over the world, and perhaps their very cosmopolitanism helps to bring out new textures from a familiar dish"[18]with Margaret Robertosn as Mother Courage, Renu Setna the Chaplain, Milos Kirek the Cook, Josephine Welcome Kattrin and Angelique Rockas Yvette.[19] .

In 1995–96, Diana Rigg was awarded an Evening Standard Theatre Award for her performance in the title role, directed by Jonathan Kent, at the National Theatre. David Hare provided the translation.[20][21]

From August to September 2006, Mother Courage and Her Children was produced by The Public Theater in New York City with a new translation by playwright Tony Kushner. This production included new music by composer Jeanine Tesori and was directed by George C. Wolfe. Meryl Streep played Mother Courage with a supporting cast that included Kevin Kline and Austin Pendleton. This production was free to the public and played to full houses at the Public Theater's Delacorte Theater in Central Park. It ran for four weeks.

This same Tony Kushner translation was performed in a new production at London's Royal National Theatre between September and December 2009, with Fiona Shaw in the title role, directed by Deborah Warner and with new songs performed live by Duke Special.

In 2013, Wesley Enoch directed a new translation by Paula Nazarski for an all-indigenous Australian cast at the Queensland Performing Arts Centre's Playhouse Theatre.[22]

In Sri Lanka, Mother Courage has been translated into Sinhalese and produced several times. In 1972, Henry Jayasena directed it as Diriya Mawa Ha Ege Daruwo and under the same name Anoja Weerasinghe directed it in 2006. In 2014, Ranjith Wijenayake translated into Sinhalese the translation of John Willet as Dhairya Maatha and produced it as a stage drama.[23][24]

Brecht's reaction

After the 1941 performances in Switzerland, Brecht believed critics had misunderstood the play. While many sympathized with Courage, Brecht's goal was to show that Mother Courage was wrong for not understanding the circumstances she and her children were in. According to Hans Mayer, Brecht changed the play for the 1949 performances in East Berlin to make Courage less sympathetic to the audience.[25] However, according to Mayer, these alterations did not significantly change the audience's sympathy for Courage.[25] Katie Baker, in a retrospective article about Mother Courage on its 75th anniversary, notes that "[Brecht's audiences] were missing the point of his Verfremdungseffekt, that breaking of the fourth wall which was supposed to make the masses think, not feel, in order to nudge them in a revolutionary direction." She also quotes Brecht as lamenting: "The (East Berliner) audiences of 1949 did not see Mother Courage's crimes, her participation, her desire to share in the profits of the war business; they saw only her failure, her sufferings."[26]

Popular culture

The German feminist newspaper Courage, published from 1976 to 1984, was named after Mother Courage, whom the editors saw as a "self-directed woman ... not a starry-eyed idealist but neither is she satisfied with the status quo".[27]

The character of Penelope Pennywise in the Tony Award-winning musical Urinetown has been called "a cartoonish descendant of Brecht's Mother Courage".[28]

The rock band My Chemical Romance created the character Mother War for their third album The Black Parade. Mother War's song, "Mama", is influenced by themes from Mother Courage and Her Children, including the effect of war on personal morals.

Mother Courage has been compared to the popular musical, Fiddler on the Roof. As Matthew Gurewitsch wrote in The New York Sun, "Deep down, Mother Courage has a lot in common with Tevye the Milkman in Fiddler on the Roof. Like him, she's a mother hen helpless to protect the brood."[29]

Mother Courage was the inspiration for Lynn Nottage's Pulitzer winning play Ruined,[30] written after Nottage spent time with Congolese women in Ugandan refugee camps.[31]

English versions

See also


  1. ^ Brecht Chronik, Werner Hecht, editor. (Suhrkamp Verlag, 1998), p. 566.
  2. ^ Mutter Courage und ihre Kinder. (DEFA-Film 1959/60), after the production by Bertolt Brecht and Erich Engel at the Berliner Ensemble, with Helene Weigel, Angelika Hurwicz, Ekkehard Schall, Heinz Schubert, Ernst Busch; directed by Peter Palitzsch and Manfred Wekwerth; with music by Paul Dessau.
  3. ^ Oskar Eustis, "Program Note" for the New York Shakespeare Festival production of Mother Courage and Her Children, starring Meryl Streep, August 2006. See also Brett D. Johnson, "Review of Mother Courage and Her Children," Theatre Journal, Volume 59, Number 2, May 2007, pp. 281–282. Quote: "Although numerous theatrical artists and scholars may share artistic director Oskar Eustis's opinion that Brecht's masterpiece is the greatest play of the twentieth century, productions of Mother Courage remain a rarity in contemporary American theatre."
  4. ^ Klaus Volker. Brecht Chronicle. (Seabury Press, 1975). P. 92.
  5. ^ "Introduction", Bertolt Brecht: Collected Plays, vol. 5. (Vintage Books, 1972), p. xi
  6. ^ Hans Jakob Christoffel von Grimmelshausen. "Die Lebensbeschreibung der Erzbetrügerin und Landstörzerin Courasche".
  7. ^ Oscar Eustis (Artistic Director of the New York Shakespeare Festival), Program Note for N.Y.S.F. production of Mother Courage and Her Children with Meryl Streep, August 2006.
  8. ^ Bertolt Brecht. Brecht on Theatre, Edited by John Willett. p. 121.
  9. ^ For information in English on the revisions to the play, see John Willet and Ralph Manheim, eds. Brecht, Collected Plays: Five (Life of Galileo, Mother Courage and Her Children), Metheuen, 1980: 271, 324–5.
  10. ^ a b "Shout it from the Rooftops", Stratford-upon-Avon Herald, April 1961.
  11. ^ [1], The Cleveland Memory Project at Cleveland State University "Shown here the Cleveland Play House production of Bertolt Brecht's 'Mother Courage' are (from the left) Barbara Busby as Catherine the Mute, Harriet Brazier in the title role and Kirk Willis as the preacher. Benno Frank was guest director for this American premiere and Paul Rodgers designed the set."
  12. ^ [2]
  13. ^ "Larry King Live – Interview With Gene Wilder." – Transcripts. Retrieved on March 18, 2008
  14. ^ Robinson, Ian (2 July 1973). "An 'authentic' version of Mother Courage?". The National Times. Sydney: Fairfax Media.
  15. ^ Hischak, Thomas S. (2001). American Theatre: A Chronicle of Comedy and Drama, 1969-2000. Oxford University Press p.170. ISBN 978-0-1953-5255-9.
  16. ^ Christopher Hudson (6 May 1982). "Letting Mother take he load". The Standard – via Internet Archive.
  17. ^ Peter Hepple (13 May 1982). "Art of Keeping Alive". The Stage – via Internet Archive.
  18. ^ Richard Ingham (13 May 1982). "Review of Mother Courage". Where to Go – via Internet Archive.
  19. ^ "Mother Courage byBertolt Brecht". CityLimits retrieved from Rocksbackpages Library. 6 May 1982 – via
  20. ^ Wolf, Matt (27 November 1995). "Review: 'Mother Courage and Her Children'". Variety. Retrieved 23 November 2016.
  21. ^ "Evening Standard theatre awards 1955-2002". Evening Standard. 12 November 2002.
  22. ^ "Aboriginal viewpoint gives two classic plays an intense colour" by Bridget Cormack, The Australian, 18 May 2013
    Mother Courage & Her Children, production details, Playhouse, QPAC, May/June 2013
  23. ^ Diriya Mawa Ha Ege Daruwo of Henry Jayasena, 23 April 1972, The Sunday Times, 12 March 2006
  24. ^ "Mother Courage and Her Children", Daily Mirror Sri Lanka, 30 October 2015
  25. ^ a b Coe, Tony; Bessel, Richard; Willett, Amanda (1989). Brecht on stage (Television documentary). BBC Two and Open University.
  26. ^ Baker, Katie (10 September 2014). "Brecht's Mercenary Mother Courage Turns 75" – via
  27. ^ Downing, John D. H. (2011). "Feminist Media, 1960–1990 (Germany)". Encyclopedia of Social Movement Media. Sage Publications. pp. 188–190. ISBN 9780761926887.
  28. ^ Hayford, Justin. "Pee Show".
  29. ^ Gurewitsch, Matthew (August 22, 2006). "The Original 'Mother'". The New York Sun. Retrieved 25 June 2018.
  30. ^ Iqbal, Nosheen (20 April 2010). "Lynn Nottage: a bar, a brothel and Brecht". The Guardian. Retrieved 26 April 2010.
  31. ^ McGee, Celia (17 May 2018). "Lynn Nottage's 'Ruined' Adapts Brecht's 'Mother Courage and Her Children'" – via
  32. ^ Merry, Stephanie (30 January 2014). "The many moving parts of Mother Courage". The Washington Post. Retrieved 3 February 2014.

Sources consulted (English versions list)

External links

Media related to Mother Courage and Her Children at Wikimedia Commons

17th Tony Awards

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1996 Laurence Olivier Awards

The 1996 Laurence Olivier Awards were held in 1996 in London celebrating excellence in West End theatre by the Society of London Theatre.

Berliner Ensemble

The Berliner Ensemble (German pronunciation: [bɛʁˈliːnɐ ãˈsãːbəl]) is a German theatre company established by playwright Bertolt Brecht and his wife, Helene Weigel in January 1949 in East Berlin. In the time after Brecht's exile, the company first worked at Wolfgang Langhoff's Deutsches Theater and in 1954 moved to the Theater am Schiffbauerdamm, built in 1892, that was open for the 1928 premiere of The Threepenny Opera (Die Dreigroschenoper).

Duke Special

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His albums include Adventures in Gramophone (2005), Songs from the Deep Forest (2006), both of which were nominated for the Choice Music Prize, I Never Thought This Day Would Come (2008), Little Revolutions (2009), The Silent World of Hector Mann (2010), Mother Courage and Her Children (2010), Under the Dark Cloth (2011), Oh Pioneer (2012), and Look Out Machines! (2015).

Franziska Troegner

Franziska Troegner (born 18 July 1954) is a German actress; she was born in Berlin-Mitte.

Starting in 1976, Troegner was part of the theatre company Berliner Ensemble where she played in Brecht plays, e.g. Mother Courage and Her Children, The Threepenny Opera, The Caucasian Chalk Circle. She dubbed minor roles in several Miss Marple TV series, e.g. A Murder Is Announced, A Pocket Full of Rye.

Troegner played Mrs. Gloop in the 2005 film Charlie and the Chocolate Factory. Most of her other roles were in German TV movies and serials.

In 2009, Troegner published her autobiography Fürs Schubfach zu dick (Too fat to be typecast).

Geneviève Serreau

Geneviève Serreau (15 August 1915 in Oléron – 2 October 1981) was a 20th-century French stage actress and playwright.

Geneviève Serreau made her debut as a comedian before she devoted herself with Benno Besson to the translation into French of several works by German playwright Bertolt Brecht, including Mother Courage and Her Children. She also authored Histoire du nouveau théâtre. She realized numerous mises en scène and stage adaptations, including that of The Sea Wall by Marguerite Duras.

Geneviève Serreau was married to theatre director Jean-Marie Serreau with whom she had three children: Dominique Serreau, Coline Serreau and Nicolas Serreau.

Gerard Monaco

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Monaco’s first film was Mike Leigh’s Vera Drake. He has since had roles in movies including Starter for Ten, Jane Campion’s Bright Star and Jerry Bruckheimer’s Pirates of the Caribbean: On Stranger Tides, directed by Rob Marshall.

Monaco's theatre career includes Lindsay Posner’s 2009 revival of Arthur Miller’s A View From the Bridge, in which Monaco made his West End debut playing Marco, opposite Mary Elizabeth Mastrantonio, Ken Stott and Hayley Atwell.

He has also appeared in a number of plays at London's National Theatre, including Steven Pimlott’s final production, Tennessee Williams's The Rose Tattoo starring Zoë Wanamaker (Pimlott died in the second week of rehearsals and artistic director Nicholas Hytner took over as director). He has also played opposite Lesley Manville in the premier of Rebecca Lenkiewicz’s play, Her Naked Skin (directed by Howard Davis) and Fiona Shaw in Deborah Warner’s production of Mother Courage and Her Children.

Monaco has also performed at various other theatres around the country, notable at the Finborough Theatre where he played opposite Victor Spinetti in a two-hander production of Albert’s Boy by James Graham.Monaco television work includes roles in As If, Eastenders, The Bill, Holby City, Rome, The Passion, Ashes to Ashes, Any Human Heart and Episodes.

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Internationalist Theatre

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Leland Crooke

Leland Crooke is an American actor from stage and film. He is known from several stage plays and films by David Beaird.

List of plays with anti-war themes

An anti-war play is a play that is perceived as having an anti-war theme.

Some plays that are thought of as anti-war plays are:

Peace (421 BCE) - by Aristophanes

The Trojan Women (415 BCE) - Euripides

Lysistrata (411 BCE) - Aristophanes

Journey's End (1928) - R. C. Sherriff

The Silver Tassie (1929) - Seán O'Casey

Post Mortem (1930) - Noël Coward

For Services Rendered (1932) - Somerset Maugham

The Trojan War Will Not Take Place (1935) - Jean Giraudoux

Bury the Dead (1936) - Irwin Shaw

Idiot's Delight (1936) - Robert E. Sherwood

Hooray for What! (1937)

The White Disease (1937) - Karel Čapek

The Mother (1938) - Karel Čapek

Mother Courage and Her Children (1939) - Bertolt Brecht

Schweik in the Second World War (1943) - Bertolt Brecht

Nemesis (1944) - Nurul Momen

Andha Yug (1954) - Dharamvir Bharati

Oh, What a Lovely War! (1961) - Charles Chilton

US (1966) - collaboration

Viet Rock (1966) - rock musical by Megan Terry

Hair: The American Tribal Love-Rock Musical (1967) - Book and Lyrics by Gerome Ragni and James Rado, music by Galt MacDermot

Botticelli (1968) - Terrence McNally

Bringing It All Back Home (1969) - Terrence McNally

The Watering Place (1969) - Lyle Kessler

G. R. Point (1977) - David Berry

Wilhelm Reich in Hell (1987) - Robert Anton Wilson

No-No Boy (2010) - Ken Narasaki

Marc Blitzstein

Marcus Samuel Blitzstein (March 2, 1905 – January 22, 1964), was an American composer, lyricist, and librettist. He won national attention in 1937 when his pro-union musical The Cradle Will Rock, directed by Orson Welles, was shut down by the Works Progress Administration. He is known for The Cradle Will Rock and for his Off-Broadway translation/adaptation of The Threepenny Opera by Bertolt Brecht and Kurt Weill. His works also include the opera Regina, an adaptation of Lillian Hellman's play The Little Foxes; the Broadway musical Juno, based on Seán O'Casey's play Juno and the Paycock; and No for an Answer. He completed translation/adaptations of Brecht's and Weill's musical play Rise and Fall of the City of Mahagonny and of Brecht's play Mother Courage and Her Children with music by Paul Dessau. Blitzstein also composed music for films, such as Surf and Seaweed (1931) and The Spanish Earth (1937), and he contributed two songs to the original 1960 production of Hellman's play Toys in the Attic.

Mother Courage

Mother Courage (German Mutter Courage) is a character from a Grimmelshausen novel Lebensbeschreibung der Ertzbetrügerin und Landstörtzerin Courasche (The Runagate Courage) dating from around 1670. The character had played a cameo role in Der abentheuerliche Simplicissimus in 1669.

The Bertolt Brecht play Mutter Courage und ihre Kinder (Mother Courage and Her Children) gave her currency in the 20th century. Mother Courage is cast as a walking contradiction by Brecht. She is torn between protecting her children from the war and making a profit out of the war.

Cúruisce (Courasche) appears in Ireland as a fictional character in Darach Ó Scolaí's Irish language novel An Cléireach. After travelling from Flanders in the company of a junior officer in the Tyrone regiment she serves in 1650 as a camp follower of the regiment of colonel Edmund O'Flaherty in the Royalist army.

Mother Courage and Her Children (album)

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Renu Setna is an Indian-born Parsi actor working in the United Kingdom. He is perhaps best known for his appearance as the shopkeeper Mr. Kittel in In Sickness and in Health.On 19 May 2003, BBC News published an article stating, "Two high-profile British Asian actors, Albert Moses and Renu Setna, complained in trade newspaper The Stage that home-grown talent was being overlooked."

Robert Schuster

Robert Schuster (born February 3, 1970 in Meißen) is a German stage director and drama school teacher.

Schuster studied cultural sciences at Humboldt University of Berlin and stage direction at the Ernst Busch Academy of Dramatic Arts in Berlin in the early 1990s. Together with his study mate Tom Kühnel, he later realized numerous theatre plays. In 1994, they directed “The Decision” (Die Maßnahme) by Bertolt Brecht at the ’’bat Theater’’, Berlin. For this, they were awarded the Austrian “Max Reinhardt Prize”. Shortly later, they directed “Christmas at Ivanov’s” (Weihnachten bei Iwanows) by Alexander Vvedensky at the Maxim Gorki Theatre, Berlin, for which they received the Friedrich Luft Prize of the city of Berlin.

In 2000, Robert Schuster started directing alone, both for the drama theatre and opera. His stage directions include:

Titus Andronicus by William Shakespeare at the Schauspiel Frankfurt

Emilia Galotti by Gotthold Ephraim Lessing at the Düsseldorfer Schauspielhaus

The Bacchae by Euripides at the Theatre of Bremen

Woyzeck by Georg Büchner at the Theatre of Bremen

Mother Courage and Her Children by Bertolt Brecht at the Schauspiel Frankfurt

An Enemy of the People by Henrik Ibsen at the Theatre of Bremen

The Rats by Gerhart Hauptmann at the Theater Freiburg

King Arthur (opera) by Henry Purcell am Theater Freiburg

Measure for Measure (in French) by Shakespeare at the National Theatre of Strasbourg (France)

Danton's Death by Georg Büchner at the Theater Freiburg

Servant of Two Masters by Carlo Goldoni at the Theater Freiburg

Hamlet by William Shakespeare at the Deutsches Nationaltheater WeimarRobert Schuster is a full professor in Stage Direction at the Ernst Busch Academy of Dramatic Arts in Berlin.

His elder brother is the biophysicist Stefan Schuster.

Stephen Kennedy

Stephen Kennedy (born 17 June 1970) is a Northern Irish actor from Co. Tyrone. He had a keen interest in hip hop culture and was a breakdancer with Kevin 'Fangs' McCosker and Mark Tinney. He was educated at St. Colman's High School, Strabane, where he was encouraged to pursue drama by his teacher, Leo McBride. He is perhaps best known for his role in the BBC Radio 4 series The Archers, as Ian Craig. He has appeared on stage in Tamburlaine (2005), The Birthday Party, (2006), The Agent (2007), Mother Courage and her Children at The National Theatre (2009). On television, he has appeared in Ballykissangel, Father Ted, A Touch of Frost, The Hanging Gale, Making Waves and, The Lion King. His film work includes a brief appearance in Notes on a Scandal (2006) and a lead role in the feature film adaptation of The Agent (2008).

In 2013 Stephen has been focussing on improving his movement skills with particular interest in Flamenco.

The Silent World of Hector Mann

The Silent World of Hector Mann is a 2010 album by Duke Special, featuring songs inspired by the fictional silent film star Hector Mann from Paul Auster's 2002 novel The Book of Illusions, who starred in twelve films before disappearing. Special wrote "Mister Nobody", inspired by the title of one of Mann's films, and sent the novel to eleven songwriters of his acquaintance, asking them each to write a song based on one of the twelve films in a pre-rock and roll style.The album was produced by Steve Albini and recorded at his Electrical Audio studios in Chicago. It was released both on its own and as part of a box set entitled The Stage, A Book And The Silver Screen, which also includes Mother Courage and Her Children and the Huckleberry Finn EP, funded via the online crowdsourcing platform PledgeMusic.

Ursula Yovich

Ursula Yovich is an Australian actress and singer.

Born on November 15, 1977 in Darwin to an Aboriginal mother and Serbian immigrant father.

Theories and

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