More than 2000 books have been published by Mossad Harav Kook. Among their significant publications are the Daat Mikra TaNaKh series, authoritative editions of Hidushei Ritva and Rashba, Rambam LeAm (Mishna Torah and other works of Maimonides with nikud and a simple commentary), and the complete writings of Rabbi A. I. Kook.
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Ain, Ayn, or Ein Shams (Arabic: عين شمس, [ʕeːn ʃæms], Coptic: ⲱⲛ ⲡⲉⲧ ⲫⲣⲏ) is a suburb of Cairo, Egypt. The name means "Eye of the Sun" in Arabic, referring to the fact that Ain Shams is built on top of the ancient city of Heliopolis, once the spiritual centre of ancient Egyptian sun-worship. Ain Shams is one of the oldest districts in Cairo and contains many historical sites.
10th-century Jewish biblical commentator, Saadia Gaon, believed that Ain Shams was the location of the biblical Egyptian city of Rameses.Ain Shams is one of the first areas to have natural gas supplied to all its residents,The Nature Gas was there since 1985.Carrion
Carrion (from Latin caro, meaning "meat") is the decaying flesh of a dead animal or a dead human.Charles Ber Chavel
Rabbi Charles Ber Chavel (Chaim Dov) (Hebrew: חיים דוב שעוועל) (1982 - 1906) was a rabbi and scholar who, most notably, published critical editions of medieval Jewish commentators.Corpse uncleanness
Corpse uncleanness (Hebrew: tum'at met) is a state of ritual uncleanness described in Jewish halachic law. It is the highest grade of uncleanness known to man of any of the several grades of uncleanness, or defilement, and is contracted by having either touched, carried or shifted a dead human body, whether directly or indirectly, or after having entered a roofed house or chamber where the corpse of an Israelite is lying (conveyed by overshadowing).
The impurity that is caused by the dead is considered the ultimate impurity, one which cannot be purified through the waters of an ablution alone (mikvah). Human corpse uncleanness requires an interlude of seven days, accompanied by purification through sprinkling of the ashes of the Parah Adumah, the red heifer. However, the law is inactive, since neither the Temple in Jerusalem nor the red heifer are currently in existence, though without the latter, a Jew is forbidden to ascend to the site of the former. All are currently assumed to possess the impurity of caused by touching a corpse. The legal term used in Hebrew to describe this ultimate grade of uncleanness is Avi Ha-Tum'ah, meaning, "the Father of uncleanness." A Jew who is descended from a line of the priestly class known as Kohen is not allowed to intentionally come into contact with a dead body, nor approach too closely to graves within a Jewish cemetery. An ordinary priest of Aaron's lineage is, however, permitted to contract corpse uncleanness for any of his seven closest relatives that have died (father, mother, brother, unwedded sister, son, daughter, or wife), including a married sister by a rabbinic injunction.
Purification was required in the nation of Israel during Biblical times for the ceremonially unclean so that they would not defile God's tabernacle and put themselves in a position where they would become liable to extirpation (the act of being cut-off from Israel). An Israelite could become unclean by handling a dead body. In this situation, the uncleanness would last for at least seven days, until he could be purified again. Part of the cleansing process would be washing the body and clothes, and the unclean person would need to be sprinkled with the water of purification, without which he remains in a state of uncleanness and passes on defilement by touch to other persons.Cubit
The cubit is an ancient unit of length that had several definitions according to each of the various different cultures that used the unit. These definitions typically ranged between 444 and 529.2 mm (17.48 and 20.83 in), with an ancient Roman cubit being as long as 120 cm (47 in). The shorter unit was based on the forearm length from the tip of the middle finger to the bottom of the elbow.
Cubits of various lengths were employed in many parts of the world in antiquity, during the Middle Ages and as recently as Early Modern Times. The term is still used in hedgelaying, the length of the forearm being frequently used to determine the interval between stakes placed within the hedge.Da'at Miqra
The Da’at Miqra (Hebrew: דעת מקרא) is a series of volumes of Hebrew-language biblical commentary published by the Jerusalem-based Mossad Harav Kook and constitutes a cornerstone of contemporary Israeli Orthodox bible scholarship. The project was headed by Yehuda Kiel, who received the Israel Prize for his part in the enterprise.Demai
Demai (Mishnaic Hebrew: דמאי) is a Halakhic term meaning "dubious," referring to agricultural produce, the owner of which was not trusted with regard to the correct separation of tithes, although the terumah (the part designated to priests) was believed to have been separated from such fruits. In such "dubious" cases, all that was necessary was to separate the one-tenth portion due to the priests from the First Tithe given to the Levites, being the 1/100th part of the whole. The Second Tithe is also removed (redeemed) from the fruit in such cases of doubt.The tribe of Levi, having been excluded from participating in the division of the land, obtained as compensation a share in its produce (Numbers 18:24). As the tribe included two elements, priests and Levites, the compensation was given in two forms: "terumah" (heave-offering) and "ma'aser" (tithes) for the Levites; and the latter gave the tenth part of the tithe to the priests as "terumat ma'aser" (heave-offering of the tithe: Numbers 18:26). In addition, a second tithe had to be separated from the produce in the first, second, fourth, and fifth years of the year-week. This tithe had to be taken to Jerusalem and consumed there, in accordance with certain regulations; while in the third and sixth years it was given to the poor. In the former case it was called "ma'aser sheni" (second tithe); in the latter "ma'asar 'ani" (the tithe for the poor). The produce of the seventh year was free from all these dues.Dirham
Dirham, dirhem or dirhm (درهم) was and, in some cases, still is a unit of currency in several Arab states. It was formerly the related unit of mass (the Ottoman dram) in the Ottoman Empire and old Persian states. The name derives from the name of the ancient Greek currency, drachma.Esther Farbstein
Esther Farbstein (Hebrew: אסתר פרבשטיין, born 1946) is an Israeli historian, researcher, author, and lecturer. Considered the leading Haredi scholar of the Holocaust, she focuses on the spiritual responses of Jews to Nazi persecution. She has introduced new sources for academic research on the Holocaust and has also shepherded the incorporation of Holocaust education in Haredi girls schools. In 1994, she founded and became head of the Center for Holocaust Studies at Michlalah–Jerusalem College in Bayit Vegan, Jerusalem. She is the author of numerous books, articles, and monographs in Hebrew and English.John Hyrcanus
John Hyrcanus (, יוחנן הורקנוס Yōḥānān Hurqanōs; Ancient Greek: Ἰωάννης Ὑρκανός Iōánnēs Hurkanós) was a Hasmonean (Maccabean) leader and Jewish high priest of the 2nd century BCE (born 164 BCE, reigned from 134 BCE until his death in 104 BCE). In rabbinic literature he is often referred to as Yoḥanan Cohen Gadol (יוחנן כהן גדול), "John the High Priest".Menachem Mendel Monsohn
Rabbi Menachem Mendel Monsohn (Hebrew: מנחם מענדל מאנזאהן, October 13, 1895 – September 3, 1953) was a member of the Monsohn family of Jerusalem, born in the Old City of Jerusalem. He was a great-grandson of Abraham-Leib Monsohn, one of the founders of the Ashkenazi Old Yishuv of Jerusalem in the early nineteenth century, and a son of Abraham-Leib Monsohn II, a founder of the A.L. Monsohn Lithography in Jerusalem.
After marrying, Monsohn lived with his family in the Batei Broide section of Nachlaot, Jerusalem, which provided housing for rabbis and their families. In 1924 Monsohn immigrated to the United States with a group of rabbis from Eretz Israel, settling in Brooklyn, New York, where he served as rabbi of Congregation Ezrath Israel on Gates Avenue, in the Bedford-Stuyvesant section, until his death in 1953. His book, Mi-Peninei Ha-Rambam: Bi’ur ‘al ha-Torah, a compendium of Maimonides’ commentaries on the Pentateuch, arranged by the compiler in order of the Torah chapters, first appeared in Brooklyn c.1925 and was reprinted there several times in the early 1930s. In 2006 it was re-released by Mossad Harav Kook of Jerusalem, which also published an English translation, Pearls of the Rambam (tr. Avraham Berkovits) c. 2008. Some of the early editions included a Yiddish introduction to the life of Maimonides.Midrash HaGadol
Midrash HaGadol or The Great Midrash (Hebrew: מדרש הגדול), written by Rabbi David Adani of Yemen (14th century), is a compilation of aggadic midrashim on the Pentateuch taken from the two Talmuds and earlier midrashim of Yemenite provenance. In addition, it borrows quotations from the Targums, Maimonides, and Kabbalistic writings, and in this aspect is unique among the various midrashic collections. This important work—the largest of the midrashic collections—came to popular attention only in the late 19th century through the efforts of Jacob Saphir, Solomon Schecter, and David Zvi Hoffmann. In addition to containing midrashic material that is not found elsewhere, such as part of the Mekhilta of Rabbi Shimon, Midrash HaGadol contains what are considered to be more correct versions of previously known Talmudic and Midrashic passages.Natan Friedland
Nat(h)an Friedland was a rabbi and member of the H'bat Tsion (Coming of Zion) movement, one of the fathers of the movement for settling the Land of Israel. He grew up in Taurig, (also spelled Towrig and Tauragė) Lithuania in the early decades of the 19th century and died in Jerusalem in 1883. He became one of the most prolific Zionist writers of the H'bat Tsion movement in the mid 1800s. He was one of several writers and thinkers of the 19th century who were to create the intellectual basis for a new Jewish state. Friedland's collected writings, including his most popular work, "Der Cos" were translated from the Yiddish to modern Hebrew. All these publications are in Hebrew except the Jewish Encyclopedia article which is in English.
Friedland was among the forerunners of Zionism in the early 19th century, including Judah ben Solomon Alkalai, and Zvi Hirsch Kalischer who saw a messianic message in the return to Zion.Relative hour
Relative hour (Hebrew singular: shaʿah zǝmanit / שעה זמנית; plural: shaʿot - zǝmaniyot / שעות זמניות), sometimes called halachic hour, seasonal hour and variable hour, is a term used in rabbinic Jewish law that assigns 12 hours to each day and 12 hours to each night, all throughout the year. A relative hour has no fixed radical, but changes with the length of each day - depending on summer (when the days are long and the nights are short), and on winter (when the days are short and the nights are long). Even so, in all seasons a day is always divided into 12 hours, and a night is always divided into 12 hours, which inevitably makes for a longer hour or a shorter hour. All of the hours mentioned by the Sages in either the Mishnah or Talmud, or in other rabbinic writings, refer strictly to relative hours.Another feature of this ancient practice is that, unlike the standard modern 12-hour clock that assigns 12 o'clock pm for noon time, in the ancient Jewish tradition noon time was always the sixth hour of the day, whereas the first hour began with the break of dawn, by most exponents of Jewish law, and with sunrise by the Vilna Gaon and Rabbi Hai Gaon. 12:o'clock am (midnight) was also the sixth hour of the night, whereas the first hour of the night began when the first three stars appeared in the night sky.Slonim (Hasidic dynasty)
Slonim is a Hasidic dynasty originating in the town of Slonim, which is now in Belarus.
Today, there are two Slonimer Rebbes, both in Israel: one resides in Jerusalem and the other in Bnei Brak. Colloquially, the Jerusalem side is called the "White" (Veissa) side and the Bnei Brak side is called the "Black" (Shvartza). When Slonim Hasidim split into separate factions, the leader of one, Rabbi Sholom Noach Berezovsky, had a white beard and the leader of the other, Rabbi Avraham Weinberg, had a black beard. The factions are distinguished by different Hebrew spellings, the Jerusalem group being known as סלונים and the Bnei Brak group being known as סלאנים. They are two distinct groups today and have many differences between them.
The first Rebbe of Slonim, Rabbi Avraham Weinberg (1804–1883), was the author of Yesod HaAvodah. In 1873 he sent a group of his grandchildren and other Hasidim to settle in Ottoman Palestine; they set up their community in Tiberias. Almost all of the Slonimer Hasidim in Europe perished at the hands of the Nazis in the Holocaust. The present-day Slonimer community was rebuilt from the Slonimer Hasidim who had settled in Israel.Tevet
Tevet (Hebrew: טֵבֵת, Standard Tevet; Sephardim/Yemenite/Mizrachim Tebeth; Ashkenazi Teves; Tiberian Ṭēḇēṯ; from Akkadian ṭebētu) is the fourth month of the civil year and the tenth month of the ecclesiastical year on the Hebrew calendar. It follows Kislev and precedes Shevat. It is a winter month of 29 days. Tevet usually occurs in December–January on the Gregorian calendar.Yehuda Leib Maimon
Yehuda Leib Maimon (Hebrew: יהודה לייב מימון, 11 December 1875 – 10 July 1962, also known as Yehuda Leib HaCohen Maimon) was an Israeli rabbi, politician and leader of the Religious Zionist movement. He was Israel's first Minister of Religions.