Moscow Victory Parade of 1945

The Moscow Victory Parade of 1945 (Russian: Парад Победы, tr. Parad Pobedy) was a victory parade held by the Soviet Armed Forces (with the Color Guard Company representing the First Polish Army) after the defeat of Nazi Germany. This, the longest and largest military parade ever held on Red Square in the Soviet capital Moscow, involved 40,000 Red Army soldiers and 1,850 military vehicles and other military hardware. The parade lasted just over two hours on a rainy June 24, 1945, over a month after May 9, the day of Germany's surrender to Soviet commanders.

Moscow Victory Parade of 1945, June 24.

Stalin's order for the observance of the parade

The parade itself was ordered by Joseph Stalin on June 22, 1945, by virtue of Order 370 of the Office of the Supreme Commander in Chief, Armed Forces of the USSR. This order is as follows:

Order of the Supreme Commander in Chief, Armed Forces of the USSR and concurrent People's Commissar of State for National Defense

To mark the victory over Germany in the Great Patriotic War, I order a parade of troops of the Army, Navy and the Moscow Garrison, the Victory Parade, on June 24, 1945, at Moscow's Red Square.

Marching on parade shall be the combined regiments of all the fronts, a People's Commissariat of National Defense combined regiment, the Soviet Navy, military academies and schools, and troops of the Moscow Garrison and Military District.

My deputy, Marshal of the Soviet Union Georgy Zhukov will be the parade inspector. Marshal Konstantin Rokossovsky will command the Victory Parade itself. I entrust to Col. Gen. Pavel Artemyev, the preparations and the supervision of the parade organization, due to his concurrent capacities as the Commanding General of the Moscow Military District and Commanding Officer in charge of the Moscow City Garrison.

June 22, 1945. Order #370
(signed) MARSHAL OF THE SOVIET UNION JOSEPH V. STALIN
Supreme Commander-in-Chief, Armed Forces of the USSR
And concurrent People's Commissar of National Defense of the USSR

This was preceded by another letter by General of the Army Aleksei Antonov, Chief of the General Staff of the Soviet Armed Forces to all the participant fronts in attendance on the 24th of the previous month which is as follows:

Order to the Fronts who will participate in the Victory Parade

The Supreme Commander-in-Chief of the Armed Forces has ordered that:

1. In order for the front to participate in the Moscow City parade in honor of the victory over Germany, each front will be represented by a combined regiment which is to be raised among them.
2. The following pattern will form the combined front regiment as follows:

  • 5 two-company battalions with 100 men in the company (10 squads of 10 men each) will be the basis, accompanied by:
    • 19 command staff officers from the front
    • One regimental commander
    • Two deputy regimental commanders for drill and ceremony and political training respectively
    • One regimental chief of staff
    • 5 Battalion commanders
    • 10 company commanders
    • 36 color bearers and 4 escorting officers.

All in all the regiment will be composed of 1,059 male active personnel and 10 additional reserve personnel.
3. A combined regiment for the parade will have the following companies:

  • 6 infantry companies
  • 1 artillery company
  • 1 tank company
  • 1 air company
  • and 1 combined company (composed of cavalrymen, sappers and signalmen respectively).

4. The companies in attendance will be manned so as to have the middle-ranked officers commanding the squads, which are then composed of privates and sergeants.
5. The combined regiment will be armed in the following pattern on the parade:

  • 3 infantry companies with rifles,
  • 3 infantry companies with sub-machine guns,
  • the artillery company with slung carbines,
  • the tank company and the air company both armed with pistols,
  • and the combined cavalry, signals and sapper company also with slung carbines and with sabres for the cavalrymen in attendance.

6. The Front Commanders and all commanders including air and tank army commanders will arrive in Moscow for the Parade.
7. On June 10 of this year, the combined regiment of the front will arrive in Moscow having 36 combat colors from selected Front units that are the most distinguished in action, and all the captured enemy standards, whatever the number, selected to be carried in the parade proper.
8. The full dress uniform will be issued in Moscow for use on the parade by the regimental staff.

May 24, 1945
(signed) GENERAL OF THE ARMY ALEKSEI ANTONOV
Chief of the General Staff of the Soviet Armed Forces

Marshals Georgy Zhukov, who had formally accepted the German surrender to the Soviet Union, and Konstantin Rokossovsky, rode through the parade ground on white and black stallions, respectively.[1] The fact is commemorated by the equestrian statue of Zhukov in front of the State Historical Museum, on Manege Square. Zhukov's stallion was called Кумир ("Idol"). The General Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union, Joseph Stalin, stood atop Lenin's Mausoleum and watched the parade alongside other dignitaries present.

According to certain editions of Zhukov's memoirs, Stalin had intended to ride through the parade himself, but he fell from the horse during the rehearsal and had to yield the honor to Zhukov, who used to be a cavalry officer. However, this story is disputed by former Soviet spy Viktor Suvorov. He claims that the story was inserted into Zhukov's memoirs as a counterargument to his theory, (although it apparently was in circulation earlier)[2] that Stalin didn't lead the parade because he considered the war's results not worthy of the effort invested.[3] Suvorov notes several inconsistencies in the story, along with numerous evidence that Zhukov was intended all along for the role of leading the parade; for example, the memoirs of Sergei Shtemenko, the man responsible at the time for the preparation of the parade, state that the roles were decided from the start,[4] and Igor Bobylev (who took part in the preparations) claims that the story never happened and that Stalin never visited the Manege at that time.

Displays of the Red Army vehicles were some of the focal points of the ceremony. One of the most famous moments at the end of the troops parade took place when various NKVD soldiers carried the banners of Nazi Germany and threw them down next to the mausoleum. One of the standards that was tossed down belonged to the 1st SS Division Leibstandarte SS Adolf Hitler, Hitler's personal bodyguard.

Due to the bad weather that day the flypast segment and the planned civil parade were cancelled; if the weather had improved, the flypast would have been led by Chief Marshals of Aviation Alexander Novikov and Alexander Golovanov. Nonetheless, this historic two-hour parade remains the longest and largest military parade in Red Square's history, and involved 40,000 soldiers and 1,850 military vehicles and other military hardware.

Parade participants

First ukrainian front
First Ukrainian Front in Victory Parade.

Ground Column

Mounted Column

Mobile Column

See also

References

  1. ^ Movie about Victory Parade, 1945 on YouTube
  2. ^ Святое Дело (in Russian). Viktor Surorov. Retrieved 2011-07-17.
  3. ^ Последняя Республика (in Russian). Militera.lib.ru. Retrieved 2011-07-17.
  4. ^ Генеральный штаб в годы войны

External links

169th Training Centre (Ukraine)

The 169th Training Centre is a division-sized training formation of the Ukrainian Ground Forces. The Training Centre's main task is to prepare young professionals and personnel under contract to the Army Forces of Ukraine.

1975 October Revolution Parade

The 1975 October Revolution Parade was a parade on Red Square dedicated to the 58th anniversary of the October Revolution on November 7th 1975. Marshal of the Soviet Union Andrei Grechko gave his last speech on the grandstand of Lenin's Mausoleum, before he died the following April. Commanding the parade was the head of the Moscow Military District Colonel General Vladimir Govorov. Providing the music for his final parade, was conducted by Major General Nikolai Nazarov of the combined massed bands of the Moscow Garrison. A scaled down display of military technologies was also present. General Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union Leonid Brezhnev and Soviet Prime Minister Alexei Kosygin were present at the parade.

A color guard unit marched past there for the 1st time since 1967, but with the Victory Banner at the lead.

1996 Moscow Victory Day Parade

The 1996 Moscow Victory Day Parade was a parade held in Red Square on 9 May 1996 to commemorate the 51st anniversary of the capitulation of Nazi Germany in 1945. The annual parade marks the Allied victory in the Great Patriotic War on the same day as the signing of the German act of capitulation to the Allies in Berlin, at midnight 9 May 1945 (Russian time).The Supreme Commander of Russian Armed Forces, President of Russia Boris Yeltsin, Prime Minister Viktor Chernomyrdin, Moscow Mayor Yuri Luzhkov, as well as government officials stood on the grandstand of Lenin's Mausoleum. It would be the last time the Mausoleum would be used in a Moscow parade. The parade commander was the commander of the Moscow Military District, Colonel-General Leonid Kuznetsov. The parade was inspected by the Defense Minister of Russia, General of the Army Pavel Grachev. 7,370 military personnel took part in the parade. Military equipment did not participate in the parade. The parade is also the first time the Victory Banner was trooped on Red Square before the parade.

1997 Moscow Victory Day Parade

The 1997 Moscow Victory Day Parade was a parade held in Red Square on 9 May 1997 to commemorate the 52nd anniversary of the capitulation of Nazi Germany in 1945. The annual parade marks the Allied victory in the Great Patriotic War on the same day as the signing of the German act of capitulation to the Allies in Berlin, at midnight 9 May 1945 (Russian time).

Together with the Supreme Commander of Russian Armed Forces, President of Russia Boris Yeltsin, Prime Minister Viktor Chernomyrdin, Moscow Mayor Yuri Luzhkov, the Russian army generals and other officials stood on a temporary grandstand, erected in front of Lenin's Mausoleum. The parade was attended by 5,000 officers and men, the parade went off without a demonstration of military equipment. The parade commander was deputy commander of the Moscow Military District, Lieutenant-General Igor Puzanov. Passage of the troops took 20 minutes.

2012 Moscow Victory Day Parade

The Moscow Victory Day Parade in Moscow's Red Square was held on 9 May 2012 to commemorate the 67th anniversary of the capitulation of Nazi Germany in 1945. The parade marked the Soviet Union's victory in the Great Patriotic War on the very day on the signing of the German act of capitulation, on the very midnight of May 9, 1945 (Russian time). Newly inaugurated President of Russia Vladimir Putin made his first holiday address in this parade.

Berlin Victory Parade of 1945

The Berlin Victory Parade of 1945 was held by the Allies of World War II on 7 September 1945 in Berlin, the capital of the defeated Nazi Germany, shortly after the end of World War II. The four participating countries were the Soviet Union, the United States, the United Kingdom and France.

The parade was proposed by the Soviet Union, following the June Moscow Victory Parade of 1945. July in Berlin also saw a British parade (the 1945 British Berlin Victory Parade). The September parade took place near the Reichstag building and the Brandenburg Gate.Senior officers present at the parade were Marshal of the Soviet Union Georgy Zhukov from the USSR, General George S. Patton from the United States, General Brian Robertson, from the United Kingdom, and General Marie-Pierre Kœnig from France. General Dwight D. Eisenhower and Field Marshal Bernard Montgomery declined the invitations shortly before the parade, and sent Patton and Robertson as their representatives. About 5,000 troops from the USSR, USA, UK and France took part in the parade (with 2,000 of the troops being Soviet). The parade was opened by marching troops, followed by the armour. Units present included the Soviet 248th Infantry Division, the French 2nd Infantry Division, the British 131st Infantry Brigade, and the U.S. 82nd Airborne Division; the forces present came primarily from the local garrisons. The armoured contingent came from the British 7th Armoured Division, French 1st Armored Division, and U.S. 16th Mechanized Cavalry Group. The Red Army used this occasion for the first public display of the IS-3 heavy tank, with 52 tanks from the 2nd Guards Tank Army participating.Russian sources refer to this parade as a "forgotten parade", as it was mentioned in only a few Western sources. The downplaying of the parade in the West can be seen as one of the early signs of the Cold War. The forces of four Allies also participated in another Berlin parade a year later, on the Charlottenburger Chaussee, in front of the Brandenburg Gate, on the first anniversary of the German surrender on 8 May 1946, in the Berlin Victory Parade of 1946. This parade was connected to the inauguration of the Soviet War Memorial at Tiergarten. Soviet troops would not be present at the much more widely known in the West London Victory Celebrations of 1946.

Georgy Zhukov

Georgy Konstantinovich Zhukov (1 December [O.S. 19 November] 1896 – 18 June 1974) was a Soviet Red Army General who became Chief of General Staff, Deputy Commander-in-Chief, Minister of Defence and a member of the Politburo. During World War II he participated in multiple battles, ultimately commanding the 1st Belorussian Front in the Battle of Berlin, which resulted in the defeat of Nazi Germany, and the end of the War in Europe.

In recognition of Zhukov's role in World War II, he was chosen to personally accept the German Instrument of Surrender and to inspect the Moscow Victory Parade of 1945.

Independence Day (South Ossetia)

The Independence Day of South Ossetia (Russian:День независимости Южной Осетии) is the main state holiday in the partially recognized Republic of South Ossetia. This date is celebrated on September 20. It commemorates South Ossetia's declaration of independence from the Georgian SSR in 1990, and the country's recognition as a sovereign state by Russia in 2008.

Independent Honor Guard Battalion of the Ministry of Defence of Turkmenistan

The Independent Honor Guard Battalion of the Ministry of Defence of Turkmenistan (Turkmen: Türkmenistanyň Goranmak Ministrligi Hormat Garawuly Batalyony; Russian: Отдельный батальон Почетного караула Министерства обороны Туркменистан) is the official ceremonial unit of the Armed Forces of Turkmenistan that serves as a Guard of honour unit. The battalion guards the Independence Monument, the National Museum of Turkmenistan and the Presidential Palace in Ashgabat. The battalion was formed in 1992 as one of the first purely ceremonial units of the Turkmen Armed Forces. The battalion is composed of two infantry companies and also maintains Cavalry company. The Turkmen Internal Troops, Turkmen Border Troops, and Turkmen National Guard are excluded from the battalion.

Kremlin Regiment

The Kremlin Regiment (Russian: Кремлëвский полк [Kremlyovskiy polk]), also called the Presidential Regiment, (Президентский полк [Prezidentskiy polk]) is a unique military regiment and part of the Russian Federal Protective Service with the status of a special unit. The regiment ensures the security of the Kremlin, its treasures, and state officials. In accordance with the federal law of December 8, 1997 "On Immortalizing the Soviet People’s Victory in the Great Patriotic War of 1941–1945", the regiment also maintains a guard of honor (Russian: Почётный караул) at the eternal flame of the Tomb of the Unknown Soldier. The regiment is housed in the historic Kremlin Arsenal.

Medal "For the Victory over Germany in the Great Patriotic War 1941–1945"

The Medal "For the Victory Over Germany in the Great Patriotic War 1941–1945" (Russian: медаль «За победу над Германией в Великой Отечественной войне 1941—1945 гг.») was a military decoration of the Soviet Union established on May 9, 1945, by decree of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR to denote military participation in the victory of the Soviet armed forces over Nazi Germany in the Great Patriotic War.

Moscow Border Institute of the FSB of the Russian Federation

The Moscow Border Institute of the FSB of the Russian Federation carries out training for officers of the Border Guard Service of the FSB Russia.

Moscow Military Music College

The Valery Khalilov Moscow Suvorov Military Music College is one of the leading military music institutions in Russia. It is a separate branch of the Suvorov Military Schools in Russia, and the oldest of them all (opened 1937).

Moscow Victory Day Parade

Moscow Victory Day Parade may refer to:

Moscow Victory Parade of 1945

1965 Moscow Victory Day Parade

1985 Moscow Victory Day Parade

1990 Moscow Victory Day Parade

1995 Moscow Victory Day Parade

1996 Moscow Victory Day Parade

1997 Moscow Victory Day Parade

1998 Moscow Victory Day Parade

1999 Moscow Victory Day Parade

2000 Moscow Victory Day Parade

2001 Moscow Victory Day Parade

2002 Moscow Victory Day Parade

2003 Moscow Victory Day Parade

2004 Moscow Victory Day Parade

2005 Moscow Victory Day Parade

2006 Moscow Victory Day Parade

2007 Moscow Victory Day Parade

2008 Moscow Victory Day Parade

2009 Moscow Victory Day Parade

2010 Moscow Victory Day Parade

2011 Moscow Victory Day Parade

2012 Moscow Victory Day Parade

2013 Moscow Victory Day Parade

2014 Moscow Victory Day Parade

2015 Moscow Victory Day Parade

2016 Moscow Victory Day Parade

2017 Moscow Victory Day Parade

2018 Moscow Victory Day Parade

New York City Victory Parade of 1946

The New York City Victory Parade of 1946 was held in New York City, United States, on January 12, 1946, to celebrate the victorious conclusion of World War II.

Nikolay Mikhaylov (conductor)

Nikolay Mikhaylovich Mikhaylov (Russian: Николай Михайлович Михайлов) is a Soviet military conductor. He was the Senior Director of the Military Band Service of the Armed Forces of the Soviet Union from 1976 to 1993.

Parade

A parade (also called march or marchpast) is a procession of people, usually organized along a street, often in costume, and often accompanied by marching bands, floats, or sometimes large balloons. Parades are held for a wide range of reasons, but are usually celebrations of some kind. In Britain, the term parade is usually reserved for either military parades or other occasions where participants march in formation; for celebratory occasions, the word procession is more usual. In the Canadian Forces, the term also has several less formal connotations.Protest demonstrations can also take the form of a parade, but such cases are usually referred to as a march instead.

Semyon Tchernetsky

Major General Semyon Alexanderovich Tchernetsky (Russian:Семё́н Алекса́ндрович Черне́цкий) was a Soviet military conductor and the founder of modern Russian military bands. He served as the Senior Director of the Central Military Band of the People's Commissariat of National Defense of the USSR from 1924 to 1950.

Taimbet Komekbaev

Taimbet Komekbaev (Kazakh: Тәйімбет Көмекбаев; 1896 – 13 February 1987) was a Kazakh Red Army sergeant major or Starshina and a Hero of the Soviet Union. He was awarded the title Hero of the Soviet Union and the Order of Lenin for his actions in the Sandomierz–Silesian Offensive.

This page is based on a Wikipedia article written by authors (here).
Text is available under the CC BY-SA 3.0 license; additional terms may apply.
Images, videos and audio are available under their respective licenses.